As denominadas filosofias do _hen kai pan_tiveram um papel determinante no pensamento alemão do século XVIII e XIX, em boa parte devido ao tratamento que lhes foi dado por F. H. Jacobi em _Sobre a doutrina de Espinosa em cartas ao senhor Moses Mendelssohn _. Espinosa e Giordano Bruno são os grandes representantes desse modo de pensar, e suas filosofias inauguram uma nova articulação entre causa e razão, mundo e Deus. Jacobi identifica em ambos o modelo da máxima coerência intelectual (...) que uma filosofia pode alcançar, um monismo imanente cuja consistência lógica não pode ser combatida no interior do sistema com as armas da metafísica pura. Por outro lado, é no princípio indeterminado, comum a essas doutrinas, que Jacobi verá a confirmação de uma danosa tendência da história da filosofia que culmina no idealismo de Fichte e na filosofia do jovem Schelling, isto é, na união entre natureza naturada e naturante no eu. (shrink)
We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge (...) 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. (shrink)
This volume brings together the advanced research results obtained by the European COST Action 2102: “Cross Modal Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication”. The research published in this book was discussed at the 3rd joint EUCOGII-COST 2102 International Training School entitled “Toward Autonomous, Adaptive, and Context-Aware Multimodal Interfaces: Theoretical and Practical Issues ” and held in Caserta, Italy, on March 15-19, 2010.
Neste artigo, primeiramente, apresento tese de Kripke sobre a possibilidade de se adquirir conhecimento de verdades contingentes a priori e a crítica de Keith Donnellan a essa tese. Depois, exploro a distinção que Donnellan faz entre (a) saber que uma sentença é verdadeira e (b) conhecer a verdade que essa sentença expressa. Argumento que essa distinção não é relevante apenas no contexto de sua crítica ao contingente a priori, mas sim para nossa prática com nomes próprios de modo geral. Tento (...) mostrar que conhecer o significado de nomes próprios não se resume à nossa competência linguística com eles, mas depende de termos acquaintance com seus portadores. Se isso é verdadeiro, então a tese do contingente a priori, tal como formulada por Kripke, não pode estar correta. (shrink)
ABSTRACT In this review, I try to present and discuss the main elements of each chapter of the book as briefly and instructively as possible. The first group of chapters deals with various issues about language, and the second group focuses on thought.
PERSONS WHO ARE IN A MINIMALLY CONSCIOUS STATE DIFFER FROM those who are vegetative in that they have some awareness of themselves and others. Because of this awareness, their care should differ from the custodial care that is given to people in a persistent vegetative state. It should also include rehabilitative services that would help to increase their ability to function at their optimal level. This care also needs to include assistance in restructuring identity. Because persons in a minimally conscious (...) state have a story, a narrative, that both precedes and follows their time in health care institutions, their families are best equipped to help them work on their identity issues. Many families are willing to accept this challenge if proper support systems have been put in place. The principle of subsidiarity suggests that this should be done. In addition, this approach would build on the relational components of these individuals and would eliminate the feelings of abandonment that most patients in a minimally conscious state and their families currently experience. (shrink)
A partir de las reflexiones arendtianas acerca del pensar sócratico y la caída de las nociones tradicionales de la moralidad tras los trágicos acontecimiento de la Alemania nazi, se pretende responder a la pregunta por cómo la actividad del pensar en sí misma puede ser, en efecto, de tal naturaleza que permita distinguir entre el bien y el mal. Para ello, se hace uso de las anotaciones de la autora en torno a la capacidad del juicio y de su relación (...) con el pensar. (shrink)
The U.S. patent office has granted patents on segments of human DNA to several biotechnology companies, enabling them to control the development of DNA-related "products." While it is recognized that expanded knowledge of DNA codes is extremely important in helping to overcome genetic diseases, such knowledge can easily also be used to redefine genetically the human person. Much wisdom is needed for such an endeavor. This paper suggests that the market should not have control of this important knowledge because it (...) is incapable of exercising such wisdom, specifically because of the salient traits that govern the market. Those traits are: expediency, efficiency, the need for quantifiable results, and impersonality. The very structures of the market necessarily lead to a deterministic and reductionist view of the human person and overlook important issues of distributive justice. (shrink)
JULIAN DODD’S MUSICAL PLATONISM The purpose of the paper is to analyse Julian Dodd’s musical Platonism in the ontology of works of music. Dodd defends two views; first, that musical works are norm-types the tokens of which are dateable, locatable patterns of sounds. Second, that musical works are entities individuated purely in terms of how they sound. The main results of the analysis is the rejection of the following Dodd’s theses: 1. that types exist eternally; 2. that they are unstructured; (...) 3.that their identity is determined by the condition that something must meet to be one of its tokens. Keywords: ONTOLOGY OF WORKS OF MUSIC, MUSICAL PLATONISM, JULIAN DODD. (shrink)
The essay takes up that old Gordian knot of the Lockean exegetical tradition, that of the relationship between the right to life and the right to property, which was already analyzed in important articles by the author, developing the conclusions and completing the critical apparatus.
Este libro, resultado de un esfuerzo compartido por diversas instituciones, investigadores y editores, encabezados por el Grupo de Investigación E Pluribus Unum? Ethnic Identities in Transnational Integration Processes in the Americas de la Universidad de Bielefeld, trata un tema central para el futuro de nuestras mestizas sociedades latinoamericanas: la necesaria construcción -en el presente que vivimos- de la interculturalidad en nuestra América Latina. Esto en el nuevo contexto donde los ..