Is there any ethical justification for limiting the reproductive autonomy and not make assisted reproductive technologies available to certain prospective parents? We present and discuss the results of an interdisciplinary clinical ethics study concerning access to assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in situations which are considered as ethically problematic in France (overage or sick parents, surrogate motherhood). The study focused on the arguments that people in these situations put forward when requesting access to ART. It shows that requester’s arguments are based (...) on sound ethical values, and that their legitimacy is at least as strong as that of those used by doctors to question access to ART. Results reveal that the three implicit normative arguments that founded the law in 1994, which are still in force after the bioethics law revision in July 2011—the welfare of the child, the illegitimacy of a “right to a child,” and the defense of the so called “social order”—are challenged on several grounds by requesters as reasons for limiting their reproductive autonomy. Although these results are limited to exceptional situations, they are of special interest insofar as they give voice to the requesters’ own ethical concerns in the ongoing political debate over access to ART. (shrink)
This book explores Goethe's ethics of happiness and the role of resignation within them. Prandi has carefully separated autobiographical material from literary expository of these themes in order to clarify the misunderstanding that has resulted from relying on Goethe's fictional works to document his personal ethical convictions. The book aims in part at working out in detail the usefulness of Spinoza's Ethics in evaluating ethical views expressed in poetry and fiction; and in part at correcting erroneous and confused ideas about (...) Goethean resignation. Prandi studies the 'natural morality' Goethe developed and practiced, using Lucretius and Spinoza as models of influence. All three define the good as what makes people rationally happy; each has his own resignation model to offer. From a deep analysis of views on happiness and resignation, the author's discussion leads to some surprising new conclusions. (shrink)
'You're 82 years old. You've shrunk six centimetres, you only weigh 45 kilos yet you're still beautiful, graceful and desirable' – so begins André Gorz's 'open love letter' to the woman he has lived with for 58 years and who lies dying next to him. As one of France's leading post-war philosophers, André Gorz wrote many influential books, but nothing he wrote will be read as widely or remembered as long as this simple, passionate, beautiful letter to his dying wife. (...) In a bittersweet postscript a year after Letter to D was published, a note pinned to the door for the cleaning lady marked the final chapter in an extraordinary love story. André Gorz and his terminally ill wife, Dorine, were found lying peacefully side by side, having taken their lives together. They simply could not live without one another. An international bestseller, _Letter to D_ is the ultimate love story – and all the more poignant because it's true. (shrink)
A 2011 National Academies of Sciences report called for an “Information Commons” and a “Knowledge Network” to revolutionize biomedical research and clinical care. We interviewed 41 expert stakeholders to examine governance, access, data collection, and privacy in the context of a medical information commons. Stakeholders' attitudes about MICs align with the NAS vision of an Information Commons; however, differences of opinion regarding clinical use and access warrant further research to explore policy and technological solutions.
Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons. We identify participant-centricity and trustworthiness as the most important features of an MIC and discuss the implications for those seeking to create a sustainable, useful, and widely available collection of linked resources for research and other purposes.
The increasing use of public–private partnerships as a means of delivering public services or constructing public infrastructures draws growing interest in the legal community. The ambiguity and lack of consensus surrounding the content of PPP as a concept, leads the researcher to refer to various disciplinary sources. Widely encouraged in law, transdisciplinarity often suffers methodological insufficiencies when comes the time to define transdisciplinary concepts. The authors revisit the interpretation methods developed by the courts, and propose a complementary conceptual analysis framework. (...) The developed framework is then applied to the emerging concept of public–private partnership, as it is used and defined in various disciplines. The paper demonstrates the feasibility and desirability to provide a transdisciplinary perspective to legal concepts. (shrink)
The Cranfield field in southwest Mississippi has been under continuous [Formula: see text] injection by Denbury Onshore LLC since 2008. Two 3D seismic surveys were collected in 2007 and 2010. An initial 4D seismic response was characterized after three years of injection, where more than three million tons of [Formula: see text] remain in the subsurface. This interpretation showed coherent seismic amplitude anomalies in some areas that received large amounts of [Formula: see text] but not in others. To understand these (...) effects better, we performed Gassmann substitution modeling at two wells: the 31F-2 observation well and the 28-1 injection well. We aimed to predict a postinjection saturation curve and acoustic impedance change through the reservoir. Seismic volumes were cross-equalized, well ties to seismic were performed, and AI inversions were subsequently carried out. Inversion results showed that the change in AI is higher than Gassmann substitution predicted for the 28-1 injection well. The time-lapse AI difference predicted by the inversion is similar in magnitude to the difference inferred from a time delay along a marker horizon below the reservoir. (shrink)
Ce texte présente les principales questions et réflexions qui ont traversé la journée d’étude « La recherche transdisciplinaire au sein des universités » organisée le 14 septembre 2018 à l’Université libre de Bruxelles. La transdisciplinarité contribue aux transformations sociétales par la production d’un savoir hybride, à la fois scientifique et socialement pertinent. Si cela correspond aux missions de recherche et de service à la société prônées par les institutions académiques, force est de constater que la recherche transdisciplinaire ne s’y installe (...) pas sans tension et ne bénéficie pas encore d’une légitimité reconnue. Partant de ce constat, cette journée fut l’occasion de mettre en dialogue différents acteurs concernés par la transdisciplinarité afin de réfléchir aux enjeux propres à la mise en œuvre de ce mode de recherche dans les institutions académiques : financement, légitimité des connaissances produites ou encore modes de validation des carrières scientifiques. Ces réflexions ont généré des débats, pointé des obstacles mais également actionné des leviers pour permettre la transition nécessaire au déploiement de la transdisciplinarité. This paper highlights the main questions that were at the core of the seminar “Transdisciplinary Research in the Universities” held on September 14, 2018 at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. By producing hybrid scientific and socially relevant knowledge, transdisciplinary research contributes actively to social change and thus fulfills the major academic missions of research and contribution to society. However, transdisciplinary research suffers from a lack of recognition of its methodological rigor and scientific validity by the academic establishment. Taking this observation as an urgency, the seminar provided debate and reflection on the challenges specific to the implementation of transdisciplinary research in academic institutions: the legitimacy of the knowledge produced, the evaluation of the scientists’ practice, and funding. This paper highlights the current obstacles and presents a concise overview of the reflective solutions generated during our debates. It also proposes some ideas that can support the full development of transdisciplinarity. (shrink)
Dès le début du xixe siècle, Jeanne d’Arc connaît la célébrité dans toute l’Europe. Élevée au pinacle, installée au panthéon des Français, elle devient un sujet en or pour les compositeurs et leurs librettistes, parce qu’elle permet d’aborder les thèmes les plus divers, de l’héroïque au religieux en passant par le pastoral et le tragique. Elle fait l’objet de nombreuses mises en scène dans des genres musicaux aussi variés que l’opéra, l’opéra-comique, le ballet, la mélodie, la pantomime ou le théâtre (...) en musique. La question centrale qui se pose pour chaque compositeur est la suivante : comment représenter Jeanne d’Arc, cette « figure sublime » ? Comment donner voix à une héroïne que l’on a vue sous tous les jours, tour à tour grandiloquente, simple et pieuse, puis égérie nationale avant de devenir sainte en 1920 ? Au travers d’une étude sur la voix donnée à Jeanne, dans deux œuvres majeures du répertoire qui lui a été consacré, Giovanna d’Arco de Verdi, créée à la Scala de Milan en 1845, et Jeanne d’Arc au Bûcher de Paul Claudel et Arthur Honegger, créée à Bâle en 1938, nous essaierons de déceler l’esprit d’une époque, et par là de mieux distinguer quelques-unes des facettes données à la Pucelle d’Orléans. (shrink)
In recent years, there has been much synergy between the exciting areas of quantum information science and ultracold atoms. This volume, as part of the proceedings for the XCI session of Les Houches School of Physics (held for the first time outside Europe in Singapore) brings together experts in both fields. The theme of the school focused on two principal topics: quantum information science and ultracold atomic physics. The topics range from Bose Einstein Condensates to Degenerate Fermi Gases to fundamental (...) concepts in Quantum Information Sciences, including some special topics on Quantum Hall Effects, Quantum Phase Transition, Interactions in Quantum Fluids, Disorder and Interference Phenomenoma, Trapped Ions and Atoms, and Quantum Optical Devices. (shrink)
En reconstituant la trajectoire et les effets d'un dispositif de l'Union internationale pour la conservation de la nature au Sénégal conduit au début des années 2000, cet article questionne l'aptitude supposée des ONG vertes internationales à maîtriser la diffusion de normes de conservation d'un niveau de gouvernance à l'autre, jusqu'à des territoires socioécologiques singuliers. Il met en lumière l'aspiration du bureau national de l'UICN au Sénégal à promouvoir une utilisation durable des mangroves dans la réserve de biosphère du delta du (...) Saloum, dont la mise en œuvre est contrariée par les dynamiques sociales et politiques auxquelles le dispositif se cogne. Celui-ci a cependant produit des effets inattendus et pérennes, en figeant notamment un récit du déclin des mangroves devenu inaltérable, et en générant un appel d'air pour d'autres ONG.At the end of the 1990s, the Senegal office of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature launched an ambitious management programme for the conservation of the Saloum delta to consolidate its biosphere reserve label. The initial design involved a public-private co-management of the protected area, with a series of conservation and development activities being planned for 47 localities. Our paper focuses on the divergence between the intentions and objectives of the green NGO and the actual implementation of the plan, due to the social and political dynamics it was faced with. Our paper finally highlights the present and unexpected impacts of this conservation plan, which depart considerably from the technical and scientific rationality originally promoted. (shrink)