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Julie Zahle
University of Bergen
  1.  36
    Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate.Julie Zahle & Finn Collin (eds.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This collection of papers investigates the most recent debates about individualism and holism in the philosophy of social science. The debates revolve mainly around two issues: firstly, whether social phenomena exist sui generis and how they relate to individuals. This is the focus of discussions between ontological individualists and ontological holists. Secondly, to what extent social scientific explanations may and should, focus on individuals and social phenomena respectively. This issue is debated amongst methodological holists and methodological individualists. -/- In social (...)
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  2.  90
    The Individualism-Holism Debate on Intertheoretic Reduction and the Argument From Multiple Realization.Julie Zahle - 2003 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 33 (1):77-99.
    The argument from multiple realization is currently considered the argument against intertheoretic reduction. Both Little and Kincaid have applied the argument to the individualism-holism debate in support of the antireductionist holist position. The author shows that the tenability of the argument, as applied to the individualism-holism debate, hinges on the descriptive constraints imposed on the individualist position. On a plausible formulation of the individualist position, the argument does not establish that the intertheoretic reduction of social theories is highly unlikely. Nonetheless, (...)
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  3.  27
    Values and Data Collection in Social Research.Julie Zahle - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (1):144-163.
    In this article, I offer a partial analysis of the role of values in qualitative data collection in social research. The partial analysis shows that nonepistemic values have both required and permissible roles to play during this phase of research. By appeal to the analysis, I reject the ideal of value-free science as applied to qualitative data collection, and I demonstrate why two alternative ideals should likewise be dismissed as standards for values in qualitative data collection. Also, I briefly discuss (...)
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  4. Introduction.Julie Zahle - 2014 - In Julie Zahle & Finn Collin (eds.), Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate. Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science. Springer. pp. 1-14.
    The introduction provides an overview of the ontological and the methodological individualism-holism debates. Moreover, these debates are briefly discussed in relation to two kindred disputes: The micro-macro and the agency-structure debates. Finally, the contributions to this book are briefly presented.
     
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  5.  69
    Why Be a Methodological Individualist?Julie Zahle & Harold Kincaid - 2019 - Synthese 196 (2):655-675.
    In the recent methodological individualism-holism debate on explanation, there has been considerable focus on what reasons methodological holists may advance in support of their position. We believe it is useful to approach the other direction and ask what considerations methodological individualists may in fact offer in favor of their view about explanation. This is the background for the question we pursue in this paper: Why be a methodological individualist? We start out by introducing the methodological individualism-holism debate while distinguishing two (...)
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  6. Holism, Emergence and the Crucial Distinction.Julie Zahle - 2014 - In Julie Zahle & Finn Collin (eds.), Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate. Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science. Springer. pp. 177-196.
    One issue of dispute between methodological individualists and methodological holists is whether holist explanations are dispensable in the sense that individualist explanations are able to do their explanatory job. Methodological individualists say they are, whereas methodological holists deny this. In the first part of the paper, I discuss Elder-Vass’ version of an influential argument in support of methodological holism, the argument from emergence. I argue that methodological individualists should reject it: The argument relies on a distinction between individualist and holist (...)
     
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  7.  16
    Restructuring Searle’s Making the Social World.Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):373-389.
    Institutions are normative social structures that are collectively accepted. In his book Making the Social World, John R. Searle maintains that these social structures are created and maintained by Status Function Declarations. The article’s author criticizes this claim and argues, first, that Searle overestimates the role that language plays in relation to institutions and, second, that Searle’s notion of a Status Function Declaration confuses more than it enlightens. The distinction is exposed between regulative and constitutive rules as being primarily a (...)
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  8.  51
    Methodological Holism in the Social Sciences.Julie Zahle - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  9.  5
    Nature’s Experiments and Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences.Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):341-357.
    This article explores the characteristics of research sites that scientists have called “natural experiments” to understand and develop usable distinctions for the social sciences between “Nature’s or Society’s experiments” and “natural experiments.” In this analysis, natural experiments emerge as the retro-fitting by social scientists of events that have happened in the social world into the traditional forms of field or randomized trial experiments. By contrast, “Society’s experiments” figure as events in the world that happen in circumstances that are already sufficiently (...)
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  10.  10
    Generative Explanation and Individualism in Agent-Based Simulation.Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):323-340.
    Social scientists associate agent-based simulation models with three ideas about explanation: they provide generative explanations, they are models of mechanisms, and they implement methodological individualism. In light of a philosophical account of explanation, we show that these ideas are not necessarily related and offer an account of the explanatory import of ABS models. We also argue that their bottom-up research strategy should be distinguished from methodological individualism.
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  11.  10
    Overcoming the Biases of Microfoundationalism.Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):301-322.
    The article makes four interrelated claims: The mechanism approach to social explanation does not presuppose a commitment to the individual-level microfoundationalism. The microfoundationalist requirement that explanatory social mechanisms should always consists of interacting individuals has given rise to problematic methodological biases in social research. It is possible to specify a number of plausible candidates for social macro-mechanisms where interacting collective agents form the core actors. The distributed cognition perspective combined with organization studies could provide us with explanatory understanding of the (...)
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  12.  13
    Blinding and the Non-Interference Assumption in Medical and Social Trials.Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):358-372.
    This paper discusses the so-called non-interference assumption grounding causal inference in trials in both medicine and the social sciences. It states that for each participant in the experiment, the value of the potential outcome depends only upon whether she or he gets the treatment. Drawing on methodological discussion in clinical trials and laboratory experiments in economics, I defend the necessity of partial forms of blinding as a warrant of the NIA, to control the participants’ expectations and their strategic interactions with (...)
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  13.  2
    Objective data sets in qualitative research.Julie Zahle - forthcoming - Synthese:1-17.
    Qualitative researchers sometimes talk about objectivity in relation to qualitative data sets. In this paper, I defend a reconstructed notion of objective qualitative data sets that may serve as a useful and reachable guiding ideal in qualitative data generation. In the first part of the paper, I develop the ideal. According to it, a qualitative data set is objective to the extent that it, in conjunction with true assumptions, possesses a combination of good-making features in virtue of which the data (...)
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  14.  7
    The Collective Fallacy.Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):283-300.
    The common assumption is that if a group comprising moral agents can act intentionally, as a group, then the group itself can also be properly regarded as a moral agent with respect to that action. I argue, however, that this common assumption is the result of a problematic line of reasoning I refer to as “the collective fallacy.” Recognizing the collective fallacy as a fallacy allows us to see that if there are, in fact, irreducibly joint actors, then some of (...)
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  15.  37
    Practices and the Direct Perception of Normative States: Part I.Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (4):493-518.
    The overall aim of this two-part article is to provide a supplement to ability theories of practice in terms of a defense of the following thesis: In situations of social interaction, individuals’ ability to act appropriately sometimes depends on their exercise of the ability directly to perceive normative states. In this Part I, I introduce ability theories of practice and motivate my thesis. Furthermore, I offer an analysis of normative states as response-dependent properties. Last, I work out and defend an (...)
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  16.  48
    Practical Knowledge and Participant Observation.Julie Zahle - 2012 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 55 (1):50 - 65.
    Abstract An important strand of theories of practice stress that individuals' practical knowledge, i.e., their ability to act in appropriate and/or effective ways, is mainly tacit. This means that the social scientist cannot find out about this knowledge by simply asking the individuals she studies to articulate how it is appropriate and/or effective to act in various circumstances. In this paper, I pursue the proposal that the method of participant observation may be used to find out about individuals' practical knowledge. (...)
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  17.  20
    Conference “The Special Role of Science in Liberal Democracy”.Klemes Kappel & Julie Zahle - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (2):407-409.
    The conference “The Special Role of Science in Liberal Democracy” was held November 21–22 2013 at the University of Copenhagen. The conference was organized by Julie Zahle and Klemens Kappel as part of a research project on this topic, funded by the Carlsberg Foundation.There were six plenary speakers: James Bohman, Heather Douglas, Harold Kincaid, Martin Kusch, Eleonora Montuschi and Erik Weber. The other speakers at the conference were: Manuela Fernandez-Pinto, Anton Froeyman, Heidi Grasswick, Rico Hauswald, Oier Imaz, Kristen Intemann, Saana (...)
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  18.  4
    Case Study Research in the Social Sciences.Petri Ylikoski & Julie Zahle - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78:1-4.
    In this paper, we offer an introduction to case study research in the social sciences. We begin with a discussion of the definition of case study research. Next, we point to various purposes that case study research may serve in the social sciences and then turn to outline the main philosophical issues raised by case study research. Finally, we briefly present the papers in this special issue.
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  19.  13
    Ability Theories of Practice and Turner’s Criticism of Bourdieu.Julie Zahle - 2017 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 48 (4):553-567.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a characterization of ability theories of practice and, in this process, to defend Pierre Bourdieu’s ability theory against Stephen Turner’s objections. In part I, I outline ability theorists’ conception of practices together with their objections to claims about rule following and rule explanations. In part II, I turn to the question of what ability theorists take to be the alternative to rule following and rule explanations. Ability theorists have offered, and been ascribed, (...)
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  20.  2
    Better a Bang Than a Whimper.Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):390-396.
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  21.  8
    Book Review: Popper, Objectivity, and the Growth of Knowledge. [REVIEW]Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):397-400.
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  22.  4
    Book Review: Wittgenstein on Rules and Nature. [REVIEW]Julie Zahle - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):400-405.
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  23.  22
    Conference on the Philosophy of the Social Sciences 2011.Julie Zahle & Finn Collin - 2012 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):133-136.
  24.  14
    Data, Epistemic Values, and Multiple Methods in Case Study Research.Julie Zahle - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78:32-39.
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  25.  25
    ENPOSS 2012: The First Conference of the European Network for the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (Copenhagen, September 21–23, 2012). [REVIEW]Julie Zahle & Finn Collin - 2013 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 44 (1):225-226.
  26. Holism and Supervenience.Julie Zahle - 2006 - In Stephen Turner & Mark Risjord (eds.), Handbook of Philosophy of Anthropology and Sociology. Elsevier. pp. 311-341.
  27. Holism, in the Social Sciences.Julie Zahle - 2013 - In Byron Kaldis (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Sage Publications. pp. 425-430.
  28.  26
    How to Circumscribe Individualist Explanations: A Reply to Elder-Vass.Julie Zahle - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences (6):0048393114530857.
    In “Redescription, Reduction, and Emergence: A Response to Tobias Hansson Wahlberg,” Elder-Vass takes the opportunity to reply to my criticism of his theory in “Holism, Emergence, and the Crucial Distinction.” In this response, I show how methodological individualists may respond to his argument against their position and I argue that Elder-Vass fails to provide reasons as to why his particular distinction between individualist and holist explanations should be adopted.
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  29.  18
    Limits to Levels in the Methodological Individualism–Holism Debate.Julie Zahle - 2020 - Synthese:1-20.
    It is currently common to conceive of the classic methodological individualism–holism debate in level terms. Accordingly, the dispute is taken to concern the proper level of explanations in the social sciences. In this paper, I argue that the debate is not apt to be characterized in level terms. The reason is that widely adopted notions of individualist explanations do not qualify as individual-level explanations because they span multiple levels. I defend this claim relative to supervenience, emergence, and other accounts of (...)
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  30. Methodological Anti-Naturalism, Norms and Participant Observation.Julie Zahle - 2016 - In Mark Risjord (ed.), Normativity and Naturalism in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Routledge. pp. 78-95.
    This paper examines the methodological anti-naturalist claim that social scientists make indispensably use of a method that is distinct to the social sciences, when studying norms by way of participant observation. Based on a detailed examination of how social scientists use participant observation to study norms, I argue that, on diverse specifications of “method”, the methodological anti-naturalist contention should be rejected.
     
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  31.  63
    Practices and the Direct Perception of Normative States: Part II.Julie Zahle - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (1):74-85.
    The overall aim of this two-part paper is to provide a supplement to ability theories of practice in terms of a defense of the following thesis: Individuals’ ability to act appropriately sometimes depends on their exercise of the ability directly to perceive normative states. In part I, I presented the account of direct perception. In this part II, I argue that, by the lights of this account, normative states are sometimes directly perceptible. Also, I show that the ability directly to (...)
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  32.  17
    Privacy, Informed Consent, and Participant Observation.Julie Zahle - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):465-487.
    In the literature on social research, adherence to the principle of informed consent is sometimes recommended on the ground that the privacy of those being studied is hereby protected. The principle has it that before becoming part of a study, a competent individual must receive information about its purpose, use, etc., and on this basis freely agree to participate. Joan Sieber motivates the employment of informed consent as a way to safeguard research participants' privacy as follows: "A research experience regarded (...)
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  33.  14
    Participant Observation and Objectivity in Anthropology.Julie Zahle - 2013 - In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 365--376.
    In this paper, I examine the early history of discussions of participant observation and objectivity in anthropology. The discussions resolve around the question of whether participant observation is a reliable method for obtaining data that may serve as the basis for true accounts of native ways of life. I show how Malinowski in 1922 introduced participant observation as a straightforwardly reliable method and then discuss how—and why—most of the discussants in the 1940s and 1950s maintained that the method is reliable (...)
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  34. Special Issue: Papers From the Inaugural Meeting of ENPOSS (European Network for the Philosophy of the Social Sciences), University of Copenhagen, September 21-23, 2012. [REVIEW]Julie Zahle, Alban Bouvier, Byron Kaldis, Thomas Uebel & Jesús Zamora-Bonilla - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3).
  35. Special Issue: Selected Papers From the ENPOSS Meeting, Venice 3-4 September 2013.Julie Zahle, Byron Kaldis, Alban Bouvier, Paul Roth, Eleonora Montuschi, James Bohman, Stephen Turner, Alison Wylie & Jesus Zamora-Bonilla - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (1).
     
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