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Jussi Backman [27]Jussi M. Backman [4]
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Jussi M. Backman
University of Jyväskylä
  1. Being Itself and the Being of Being Reading Aristotle's Critique of Parmenides (Physics 1.3) After Metaphysics.Jussi Backman - 2018 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (2):271-291.
    The essay studies Aristotle’s critique of Parmenides in the light of the Heideggerian account of Platonic-Aristotelian metaphysics as an approach to being in terms of beings. Aristotle’s critique focuses on the presuppositions of the Parmenidean thesis of the unity of being. It is argued that a close study of the presuppositions of Aristotle’s own critique reveals an important difference between the Aristotelian metaphysical framework and the Parmenidean “protometaphysical” approach. The Parmenides fragments indicate being as such in the sense of the (...)
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  2.  52
    Spekülatif materyalizmde hümanizm ve post-hümanizm.Jussi M. Backman - 2018 - Sabah Ülkesi: Üç Aylık Kültür-Sanat Ve Felsefe Dergisi (57):20-25.
    Translated into Turkish by Mustafa Yalçınkaya.
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  3.  26
    Encountering Finitude: On the Hermeneutic Radicalization of Experience.Jussi M. Backman - 2018 - In Antonio Cimino & Cees Leijenhorst (eds.), Phenomenology and Experience: New Perspectives. Leiden: Brill. pp. 46-62.
    The chapter approaches the hermeneutic concept of experience introduced by Hans-Georg Gadamer in Truth and Method (1960) from the perspective of the conceptual history of experience in the Western philosophical tradition. Through an overview of the concept and the epistemological function of experience (empeiria, experientia, Erfahrung) in Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Hegel, it is shown that the tradition has considered experience first and foremost in methodological terms, that is, as a pathway towards a form of scientific knowledge that is itself (...)
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  4. The End of Action: An Arendtian Critique of Aristotle’s Concept of Praxis.Jussi Backman - 2010 - Hannah Arendt: Practice, Thought and Judgement.
    The article re-examines the Aristotelian backdrop of Arendt’s notion of action. On the one hand, Backman takes up Arendt’s critique of the hierarchy of human activities in Aristotle, according to which Aristotle subordinates action (praxis) to production (poiesis) and contemplation (theoria). Backman argues that this is not the case since Aristotle conceives theoria as the most perfect form of praxis. On the other hand, Backman stresses that Arendt’s notion of action is in fact very different from Aristotle’s praxis, to the (...)
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  5. Bir, bir şey değildir: post-metafizik düşüncede birlik ve çokluğun akıbeti.Jussi Backman - 2017 - Sabah Ülkesi: Üç Aylık Kültürsanat Ve Felsefe Dergisi (51):16-19.
    Translated into Turkish by Mustafa Yalçınkaya.
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  6.  78
    Editors' Introduction.Jussi Backman, Harri Mäcklin & Raine Vasquez - 2017 - Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology 4 (2):93-99.
    A brief overview of the current status of the scholarship on Heidegger and contemporary art and of the contributions included in the special issue.
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  7. The End of the World After the End of Finitude: On a Recently Prominent Speculative Tone in Philosophy.Jussi Backman - 2017 - In Marcia Cavalcante Schuback & Susanna Lindberg (eds.), The End of the World: Contemporary Philosophy and Art. London: Rowman and Littlefield International. pp. 105-123.
    The chapter studies the speculative realist critique of the notion of finitude and its implications for the theme of the "end of the world" as a teleological and eschatological idea. It is first explained how Quentin Meillassoux proposes to overcome both Kantian and Heideggerian "correlationist" approaches with his speculative thesis of absolute contingency. It is then shown that Meillassoux's speculative materialism also dismantles the close link forged by Kant between the teleological ends of human existence and a teleological notion of (...)
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  8.  16
    Äärellisyyden kohtaaminen: kokemuksen filosofista käsitehistoriaa.Jussi M. Backman - 2018 - In Jarkko Toikkanen & Ira Virtanen (eds.), Kokemuksen tutkimus VI: Kokemuksen käsite ja käyttö. Rovaniemi: Lapland University Press. pp. 25-40.
    Väitetään, että nykypäivän populismi vetoaa tosiasioiden sijasta ”kokemukseen”. Mutta mitä on kokemus? Se ei ole vain ennakkoluuloihin nojautuvaa mutua eikä myöskään pelkkää empiirisen datan rekisteröintiä mutta liittyy molempiin. Artikkelin luoma tiivis katsaus kokemuksen käsitehistorian pääpiirteisiin osoittaa, että länsimaisen filosofian perinteessä kokemus on ymmärretty ohittamattomana vaiheena tiedon hankkimisessa ja koettelemisessa. Toisaalta kokemukseen on liitetty tiettyjä tiedollisia heikkouksia – kontingenssi, tilannesidonnaisuus ja ennakoimattomuus – jotka tieteellinen metodi on eri tavoin pyrkinyt voittamaan. Artikkeli esittää, että 1900-luvun filosofinen hermeneutiikka irrottautuu tästä perinteisestä kokemuksen välineellistämisestä (...)
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  9.  8
    Pienten kertomusten etiikkaa: ideologia ja narratiivinen hermeneutiikka.Jussi M. Backman - 2018 - Ajatus 75:361-381.
    Kirjasymposioartikkeli esittelee Hanna Meretojan teoksen The Ethics of Storytelling: Narrative Hermeneutics, History, and the Possible (Oxford University Press, 2018) keskeisimmät ajatukset ja kytkee ne laajempaan hermeneuttiseen ja jälkistrukturalistiseen ajatteluperinteeseen, etenkin Jean-François Lyotardin luonnehdintaan jälkimodernista aikakaudesta suurten modernien historiallisten metakertomusten horjumisen ja pienten paikallisten kertomusten moneuden aikakautena. Tässä valossa Meretojan hermeneuttista kertomusetiikkaa voidaan lukea ennen muuta pienten, ei-totalisoivien kertomusten etiikkana. Artikkeli esittää, että tällaiselle etiikalle löytyy hedelmällinen vertailukohta Hannah Arendtin totalitarismiteoriasta, joka sijoittaa ideologiset metakertomukset totalitaarisen hallinnan ja sen tuottaman ”banaalin pahuuden” (...)
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  10. Unity in Crisis: Protometaphysical and Postmetaphysical Decisions.Jussi Backman - 2013 - In Artemy Magun (ed.), Politics of the One: Concepts of the One and Many in Contemporary Thought. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 87-112.
    The paper studies, within the framework of Martin Heidegger's narrative of the history of metaphysics, two perspectives on the unity of being: the "protometaphysical" perspective of Parmenides, the thinker of the "first beginning" of Western philosophy, and the postmetaphysical perspective of Heidegger, situated in the ongoing transition from the Hegelian and Nietzschean end of metaphysics to a forthcoming "other beginning" of Western thought. Both perspectives involve a certain "crisis", in the literal sense of the Greek krisis, "distinction," "decision." Parmenides' goddess (...)
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  11. Towards a Genealogy of the Metaphysics of Sight: Seeing, Hearing, and Thinking in Heraclitus and Parmenides.Jussi Backman - 2015 - In Antonio Cimino & Pavlos Kontos (eds.), Phenomenology and the Metaphysics of Sight. Brill. pp. 11-34.
    The paper outlines a tentative genealogy of the Platonic metaphysics of sight by thematizing pre-Platonic thought, particularly Heraclitus and Parmenides. By “metaphysics of sight” it understands the features of Platonic-Aristotelian metaphysics expressed with the help of visual metaphors. It is argued that the Platonic metaphysics of sight can be regarded as the result of a synthesis of the Heraclitean and Parmenidean approaches. In pre-Platonic thought, the visual paradigm is still marginal. For Heraclitus, the basic structure of being is its discursive (...)
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  12. Hermeneutics and the Ancient Philosophical Legacy: Hermeneia and Phronesis.Jussi Backman - 2016 - In Niall Keane & Chris Lawn (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Hermeneutics. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 22-33.
    Hermeneutics as we understand it today is an essentially modern phenomenon. The chapter presents observations that illustrate some of the central ways in which the modern and late modern phenomena of philosophical hermeneutics relate to the ancient philosophical legacy. First, the roots of hermeneutics are traced to ancient views on linguistic, textual, and sacral interpretation. The chapter then looks at certain fundamentally unhermeneutic elements of the Platonic, Aristotelian, and Augustinian “logocentric” theory of meaning that philosophical hermeneutics and its heirs sought (...)
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  13.  75
    Aristotle.Jussi Backman - 2017 - In Adam Kotsko & Carlo Salzani (eds.), Agamben's Philosophical Lineage. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 15-26.
    This chapter is an overview of Giorgio Agamben's engagement, in the Homo Sacer series (1995–2014), with Aristotelian philosophy. It specifically studies Agamben's attempt to deconstruct two Aristotelian conceptual oppositions fundamental for the Western tradition of political thought: (1) that between the bare fact of being alive and "qualified" living (associated by Agamben with an alleged distinction between zōē and bios) and (2) that between potentiality (dynamis) and actuality (energeia). Agamben's concept of form-of-life (forma-di-vita), a life that is never "bare" but (...)
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  14. Transcendental Idealism and Strong Correlationism: Meillassoux and the End of Heideggerian Finitude.Jussi Backman - 2014 - In Sara Heinämaa, Mirja Hartimo & Timo Miettinen (eds.), Phenomenology and the Transcendental. Routledge. pp. 276-294.
    The chapter discusses Quentin Meillassoux's recent interpretation and critique of Heidegger's philosophical position, which he describes as "strong correlationism." It emphasizes the fact that Meillassoux situates Heidegger in the post-Kantian tradition of transcendental idealism that he defines in terms of a focus on the correlation between being and thinking. It is argued that Meillassoux's "speculative" attempt to overcome the Kantian philosophical framework in the name of absolute contingency should be understood as a further development and dialectical overcoming of its ultimate (...)
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  15. Logocentrism and the Gathering Λόγος: Heidegger, Derrida, and the Contextual Centers of Meaning.Jussi Backman - 2012 - Research in Phenomenology 42 (1):67-91.
    Abstract Derrida's deconstructive strategy of reading texts can be understood as a way of highlighting the irreducible plurality of discursive meaning that undermines the traditional Western “logocentric“ desire for an absolute point of reference. While his notion of logocentrism was modeled on Heidegger's articulation of the traditional ontotheological framework of Aristotelian metaphysics, Derrida detects a logocentric remnant in Heidegger's own interpretation of gathering ( Versammlung ) as the basic movement of λόγος, discursiveness. However, I suggest that Derrida here touches upon (...)
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  16. Olemisen kontekstuaalisuus Heideggerin jälkimetafysiikassa.Jussi Backman - 2011 - Ajatus 68:201-242.
  17. The Absent Foundation: Heidegger on the Rationality of Being.Jussi Backman - 2005 - Philosophy Today 49 (Supplement):175-184.
    For Heidegger, the fundamental “rationality” of Western metaphysics lies in the fact that its “leading question” concerning beings as beings constantly refers back to the question concerning the ground (arche, ratio, Grund) of beings. Whereas metaphysics has sought to ground beings in ideal beingness, Heidegger attempts to think beingness as itself based on the withdrawing “background” dimension of no-thing-ness that grounds finite presence by differing from it. In Heidegger’s earlier work, the structure of this “grounding” is considered in terms of (...)
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  18. All of a Sudden: Heidegger and Plato's Parmenides.Jussi Backman - 2007 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 11 (2):393-408.
    The paper will study an unpublished 1930–31 seminar where Heidegger reads Plato’s Parmenides, showing that in spite of his much-criticized habit of dismissing Plato as the progenitor of “idealist” metaphysics, Heidegger was quite aware of the radical potential of his later dialogues. Through a temporal account of the notion of oneness (to hen), the Parmenides attempts to reconcile the plurality of beings with the unity of Being. In Heidegger’s reading, the dialogue culminates in the notion of the “instant” (to exaiphnēs, (...)
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  19.  85
    From the Ultimate God to the Virtual God: Post-Ontotheological Perspectives on the Divine in Heidegger, Badiou, and Meillassoux.Jussi Backman - 2014 - Meta:113-142.
    The Heideggerian account of the ontotheological constitution of Western metaphysics has been extremely influential for contemporary philosophy of religion and for philosophical perspectives on theology and the divine. This paper introduces and contrasts two central strategies for approaching the question of the divine in a non- or post-ontotheological manner. The first and more established approach is that of post-Heideggerian hermeneutics and deconstruction, inspired by Heidegger’s suggestion of a “theology without the word ‘being’” and by his later notions of an “ultimate (...)
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  20. Divine and Mortal Motivation: On the Movement of Life in Aristotle and Heidegger.Jussi Backman - 2005 - Continental Philosophy Review 38 (3-4):241-261.
    The paper discusses Heidegger's early notion of the “movedness of life” (Lebensbewegtheit) and its intimate connection with Aristotle's concept of movement (kinēsis). Heidegger's aim in the period of Being and Time was to “overcome” the Greek ideal of being as ousia – constant and complete presence and availability – by showing that the background for all meaningful presence is Dasein, the ecstatically temporal context of human being. Life as the event of finitude is characterized by an essential lack and incompleteness, (...)
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  21.  52
    Motivationen i livet: Kinesis og Lebensbewegtheit.Jussi Backman & Henrik Jøker Bjerre - 2003 - In Dan Zahavi, Søren Overgaard & Thomas Schwarz Wentzer (eds.), Den unge Heidegger. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag. pp. 30-62.
    Translated into Danish by Henrik Jøker Bjerre.
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  22.  42
    The One Is Not : On the Fate of Unity in Post-Metaphysical Philosophy.Jussi Backman - 2017 - Religious Theory 2017.
  23.  84
    Aiheesta toiseen: Heidegger, Parmenides ja ajattelun lähtökohdat.Jussi Backman - 2004 - Ajatus 61:209-251.
  24.  68
    The Transitional Breakdown of the Word: Heidegger and Stefan George's Encounter with Language.Jussi Backman - 2011 - Gatherings: The Heidegger Circle Annual 1:54-64.
    The paper studies Heidegger's reading of the poet Stefan George (1868-1933), particularly of his poem "Das Wort" (1928), in the context of Heidegger's narrative of the history of metaphysics. Heidegger reads George's poem as expressing certain experiences with language: first, the constitutive role of language, of naming and discursive determination, in granting things stable identities; second, the unnameable and indeterminable character of language itself as a constitutive process and the concomitant insight into the human being's dependency on language and her (...)
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  25.  65
    Läsnäolon yksinkertaisuus ja monitahoisuus.Jussi Backman - 2010 - Ajatus 67:261-271.
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  26.  29
    A Religious End of Metaphysics? Heidegger, Meillassoux and the Question of Fideism.Jussi Backman - 2016 - In Antonio Cimino & Gert-Jan van der Heiden (eds.), Rethinking Faith: Heidegger between Nietzsche and Wittgenstein. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 39-62.
    The paper analyzes Quentin Meillassoux’s conception of the fideistic approach to religious faith intrinsic to the “strong correlationism” that he considers pervasive in contemporary thought. Backman presents the basic elements of Meillassoux’s speculative materialism and especially the thesis according to which strong correlationism involves a “fideistic” approach to religiosity. In doing so, Backman critically examines Meillassoux’s notions of post-metaphysical faith, religious absolutes, and contemporary fanaticism, especially against the background of Heidegger’s philosophy. According to Backman, Meillassoux’s logical and conceptual critique of (...)
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  27.  32
    Für das Wohnen denken: Heidegger, Arendt und die praktische Besinnung.Jussi Backman - 2007 - Heidegger-Jahrbuch 3:199-220.
    Dieser Aufsatz, der sich den Interpretationen u. a. von Robert Bernasconi, Jacques Taminiaux und Franco Volpi anschließt, betrachtet Heideggers „Wiederholung“ der praktischen Philosophie des Aristoteles als eine Radikalisierung des aristotelischen Begriffs des Handelns (praxis). Die moderne „Not des Wohnens“ erweist sich als ein Ergebnis der Unterordnung der Endlichkeit und Zeitlichkeit des menschlichen Handelns in der abendländischen philosophischen Tradition unter die metaphysischen und theologischen Ideale, die aus dem anfänglichen Verständnis der Seiendheit als beständiger Anwesenheit (ousia) hervorgehen. Die Grundform dieser Unterordnung ist (...)
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  28.  36
    Language After Heidegger by Krzysztof Ziarek. [REVIEW]Jussi Backman - 2015 - Review of Metaphysics 68 (3):684-686.
  29.  20
    Bildung und Bildmetaphysik: Eine Heideggersche Kritik des Bildungsbegriffes.Jussi Backman - 2012 - In Hanna-Barbara Gerl-Falkovitz, René Kaufmann & Hans Rainer Sepp (eds.), Die Bildung Europas: Eine Topographie des Möglichen im Horizont der Freiheit. Thelem. pp. 175-191.
    Dieser Aufsatz erörtert Heideggers Auffassung vom ‚metaphysischen‘ Charakter des abendländischen Humanismus mittels einer Hervorhebung einiger Grundzüge der Geschichte des philosophischen Bildungsbegriffes. Nach Heidegger sind die Bildungsideale der europäischen Humanismen von den metaphysischen Grundauffassungen vom idealen Sein des Seienden bestimmt. Außerdem ist für Heidegger der Bildungsbegriff mit der Tradition der Bildmetaphysik – sowohl mit der platonisch-christlichen Vorstellung des Menschen als Abbild eines göttlichen Vorbilds als auch mit der neuzeitlich-subjektivistischen ‚Eroberung der Welt als Bild‘ – verbunden. Schließlich wird die Möglichkeit eines Heideggerschen (...)
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  30.  22
    Complicated Presence: Heidegger and the Postmetaphysical Unity of Being.Jussi Backman - 2015 - State University of New York Press.
    From its Presocratic beginnings, Western philosophy concerned itself with a quest for unity both in terms of the systematization of knowledge and as a metaphysical search for a unity of being—two trends that can be regarded as converging and culminating in Hegel’s system of absolute idealism. Since Hegel, however, the philosophical quest for unity has become increasingly problematic. Jussi Backman returns to that question in this book, examining the place of the unity of being in the work of Heidegger. Backman (...)
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  31.  88
    Omaisuus ja elämä: Heidegger ja Aristoteles kreikkalaisen ontologian rajalla.Jussi Backman - 2005 - Eurooppalaisen filosofian seura.
    Mitä oleva on? Omaisuus ja elämä pureutuu tähän filosofian peruskysymykseen seuraten kahta länsimaisen filosofian jättiläistä, Aristotelestä ja Heideggeria. Siinä missä Aristoteles kysyy olevaa substantiivina ja tilana, etsii Heidegger olemisen mieltä verbinä ja tapahtumana. Nämä kaksi merkitystä löytyvät myös suomen olla-verbistä: "omistaa jotakin" ja "olla olemassa, elossa". Omaisuus ja elämä antavat peruslähtökohdat olevan tulkitsemiselle. Kirja vie lukijansa filosofian kreikkalaisille juurille ja sen uusimpiin, Heideggerin avaamiin mahdollisuuksiin.
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