53 found
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  1.  47
    Revisiting Discovery and Justification: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on the Context Distinction.Jutta Schickore & Friedrich Steinle (eds.) - 2006 - Springer.
    This volume thus clears the ground for the productive and fruitful integration of these new developments into philosophy of science.
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  2. More Thoughts on HPS: Another 20 Years Later.Jutta Schickore - 2011 - Perspectives on Science 19 (4):453-481.
    This essay offers some reflections on the recent history of the disputes about the relation between history and philosophy of science (HPS) and the merits and prospects of HPS as an intellectual endeavor. As everyone knows, the issue was hotly debated in the 1960s and 1970s. That was the hey-day of the slogan "history without philosophy of science is blind, philosophy without history of science is empty" as well as of the many variations on the theme of HPS as a (...)
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  3. Scientific Discovery.Jutta Schickore - 2014 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
     
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  4.  41
    “Exploratory experimentation” as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science.Jutta Schickore - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 55:20-26.
  5.  37
    Scientists’ Conceptions of Good Research Practice.Nora Hangel & Jutta Schickore - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (6):766-791.
    In a recent editorial published in Nature, the journal's editors comment on a new automated software that has been used to check findings in psychology publications. The editors express concern with the way in which the anonymous fact-checkers have proceeded, but at the same time, they underscore the crucial role of peer criticism for scientific progress and insist: "self-correction is at the heart of science." Brief as it is, the editorial showcases that peer criticism and the application of norms of (...)
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  6.  67
    Ways of Integrating History and Philosophy of Science.Theodore Arabatzis & Jutta Schickore - 2012 - Perspectives on Science 20 (4):395-408.
  7.  35
    The Structure and Function of Experimental Control in the Life Sciences.Jutta Schickore - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (2):203-218.
    This article presents a new framework for the analysis of experimental control. The framework highlights different functions for experimental controls in the realization of an experiment: experimental controls that serve as tests and experimental controls that serve as probes. The approach to experimental control proposed here can illuminate the constitutive role of controls in knowledge production, and it sheds new light on the notion of exploratory experimentation. It also clarifies what can and what cannot be expected from reviewers of scientific (...)
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  8.  94
    Doing science, writing science.Jutta Schickore - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (3):323-343.
    This article identifies a fundamental distinction in scientific practice: the mismatch between what scientists do and what they state they did when they communicate their findings in their publications. The insight that such a mismatch exists is not new. It was already implied in Hans Reichenbach's distinction between the contexts of discovery and justification, and it is taken for granted across the board in philosophy of science and science studies. But while there is general agreement that the mismatch exists, the (...)
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  9.  46
    Explication Work for Science and Philosophy.Jutta Schickore - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 12 (2):191-211.
  10.  34
    “It might be this, it should be that…” uncertainty and doubt in day-to-day research practice.Jutta Schickore & Nora Hangel - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (2):1-21.
    This paper examines how scientists conceptualize their research methodologies. Do scientists raise concerns about vague criteria and genuine uncertainties in experimental practice? If so, what sorts of issues do they identify as problematic? Do scientists acknowledge the presence of value judgments in scientific research, and do they reflect on the relation between epistemic and non-epistemic criteria for decisionmaking? We present findings from an analysis of qualitative interviews with 63 scientific researchers who talk about their views on good research practice. We (...)
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  11.  72
    Using Multiple Means of Determination.Jutta Schickore & Klodian Coko - 2013 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):295-313.
    This article examines a metaphilosophical issue, namely existing disagreements in philosophy of science about the significance of using multiple means of determination in scientific practice. We argue that this disagreement can, in part, be resolved by separating different questions that can be asked about the use of multiple means of determination, including the following: what can be concluded from the convergence of data or the convergence of claims about phenomena? Are the conclusions drawn from the convergence of data and of (...)
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  12.  26
    “It might be this, it should be that…” uncertainty and doubt in day-to-day research practice.Jutta Schickore & Nora Hangel - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (2):1-21.
    This paper examines how scientists conceptualize their research methodologies. Do scientists raise concerns about vague criteria and genuine uncertainties in experimental practice? If so, what sorts of issues do they identify as problematic? Do scientists acknowledge the presence of value judgments in scientific research, and do they reflect on the relation between epistemic and non-epistemic criteria for decisionmaking? We present findings from an analysis of qualitative interviews with 63 scientific researchers who talk about their views on good research practice. We (...)
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  13.  23
    Mess in Science and Wicked Problems.Jutta Schickore - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (4):482-504.
    . This paper discusses the claim that science is “messy.” Part I argues first, that a good portion of today’s discussions about messy science is just a portrayal of familiar features of science in new terms. In the paper, I refer to this as “messy science talk.” Second, Part I draws out rhetorical functions of messy science talk, namely the denigration of science in the popular media and the celebration of the maverick. Part II identifies one way in which it (...)
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  14.  76
    ‘Through thousands of errors we reach the truth’—but how? On the epistemic roles of error in scientific practice.Jutta Schickore - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (3):539-556.
    This essay is concerned with the epistemic roles of error in scientific practice. Usually, error is regarded as something negative, as an impediment or obstacle for the advancement of science. However, we also frequently say that we are learning from error. This common expression suggests that the role of error is not—at least not always—negative but that errors can make a fruitful contribution to the scientific enterprise. My paper explores the latter possibility. Can errors play an epistemically productive role in (...)
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  15.  9
    Methodological ideas in past experimental inquiry: rigor checks around 1800.Jutta Schickore - 2023 - Intellectual History Review 33 (2):267-286.
    This paper discusses two methodological notions, the concepts Gegenprobe (countercheck) and Gegenversuch (counter-trial), which were widely applied, discussed, relied upon, and defended in German-language writings about empirical inquiry. In the decades around 1800, they were common in physiology; medicine; agriculture; chemistry; various technologies, such as printing, metallurgy, and mining; accounting; and legal and political argumentation. The ubiquity of those concepts signals a broad concern with securing empirical findings and empirical knowledge. Gegenproben and Gegenversuche – the terms as well as the (...)
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  16.  2
    About method: experimenters, snake venom, and the history of writing scientifically.Jutta Schickore - 2017 - London: University of Chicago Press.
    Introduction: "a matter so obscure, so difficult, and likewise so new . . ." -- Argument, narrative, and methods discourse -- Many, many experiments -- Trying again -- Newtonian poison: a mechanical account of viper venom -- Experiment as the only guide -- Thousands of experiments -- Practical criticisms -- Controlling experiment -- Unobservables -- Fragmentation and modularity: notes on crotoxin -- Conclusion: about methods.
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  17.  56
    Trying Again and Again: Multiple Repetitions in Early Modern Reports of Experiments on Snake Bites.Jutta Schickore - 2010 - Early Science and Medicine 15 (6):567-617.
    This essay deals with a conspicuous feature of early modern experimental reports: references to multiple repetitions. I examine an episode from the history of research on venomous snakes, the dispute between Francesco Redi and Moyse Charas about the cause of death from viper bites. I identify different kinds of repetitions that are described and specify the various different roles that are attributed to repetitions in experimental reports. I argue that repetition (the successive reproduction of one's own experimental trials) should be (...)
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  18.  19
    Introduction: Revisiting the Context Distinction.Jutta Schickore & Friedrich Steinle - 2006 - In Jutta Schickore & Friedrich Steinle (eds.), Revisiting Discovery and Justification. Springer. pp. 7--19.
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  19.  5
    The place and significance of comparative trials in German agricultural writings around 1800.Jutta Schickore - 2021 - Annals of Science 78 (4):484-503.
    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the place and significance of comparative trials in German agricultural writings around 1800. In the second half of the eighteenth century, practitioners of agriculture began to discuss the role and design of agricultural trials. The notion of comparative experimentation played a significant role in these discussions, but it could mean quite different things: comparative assessment of treatments in terms of yield, cost-effectiveness, and adequacy for an intended purpose; comparative input variations to explore the multitude of effects (...)
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  20.  12
    A forerunner?—Perhaps, but not to the context distinction. William Whewell's Germano-cantabrigian history of the fundamental ideas.Jutta Schickore - 2006 - In Jutta Schickore & Friedrich Steinle (eds.), Revisiting Discovery and Justification. Springer. pp. 57--77.
  21.  46
    The Significance of Re-Doing Experiments: A Contribution to Historically Informed Methodology.Jutta Schickore - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (3):325-347.
    This essay is a contribution to the history of methodological thought. I focus on key methodological criteria for successful experimentation, replication and multiple determinations of empirical evidence. Drawing on reports of experiments with viper venom from the late seventeenth and late eighteenth centuries, as well as on present-day methodological thought I examine whether past experimenters regarded repetition, replication, and multiple determinations as criteria for validity; what exactly they meant by this; what they hoped to gain by repeating, varying, triangulating, and (...)
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  22.  60
    Larry Laudan’s Typology for Historical Methodology and the Historical and Experimental Turns in Philosophy of Science.Jutta Schickore - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (1):87-107.
    Today, Larry Laudan is known predominantly for his work on the pessimistic metainduction and for his discussion of science and values. This essay examines a less familiar part of Laudan’s work, his typology of historical methodologies from the late 1970s. My aim is to elucidate Laudan’s typology and to examine one of the types in more depth, namely, the “pragmatic, symbiotic” model of historical methodology. Laudan expounded the model in the essays that eventually became his 1981 book Science and Hypothesis. (...)
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  23.  22
    Misperception, illusion and epistemological optimism: vision studies in early nineteenth-century Britain and Germany.Jutta Schickore - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (3):383-405.
    This article compares investigations of the process of vision that were made in early nineteenth-century Britain and the German lands. It is argued that vision studies differed significantly east and west of the North Sea. Most of the German investigators had a medical background and many of them had a firm grasp of contemporary philosophy. In contrast, the British studies on vision emerged from the context of optics. This difference manifested itself in the conceptual tools for the analysis of vision, (...)
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  24.  98
    What Does History Matter to Philosophy of Science? The Concept of Replication and the Methodology of Experiments.Jutta Schickore - 2011 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):513-532.
    Scientists and philosophers generally agree that the replication of experiments is a key ingredient of good and successful scientific practice. “One-offs“ are not significant; experiments must be replicable to be considered valid and important. But the term “replication“ has been used in a number of ways, and it is therefore quite difficult to appraise the meaning and significance of replications. I consider how history may help - and has helped - with this task. I propose that: 1) Studies of past (...)
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  25.  45
    Ever-present impediments: Exploring instruments and methods of microscopy.Jutta Schickore - 2001 - Perspectives on Science 9 (2):126-146.
    : This article analyzes the transformation of epistemological and methodological discourses in German microscopy. It is argued that the expansion of microscopy in the early decades of the nineteenth century was pivotal for the emergence of intricate methodologies that characterized the instruments and methods of microscopy in new ways. Close examination of these means of investigation showed them to be intrinsically imperfect. The flaws of the instrument, the faults of the observer's eyes and the obstructive power of the objects of (...)
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  26.  33
    (Ab)using the past for present purposes: Exposing contextual and trans-contextual features of error.Jutta Schickore - 2002 - Perspectives on Science 10 (4):433-456.
    : This paper is concerned with the claim that epistemic terms and categories are historical entities. The starting point is the observation that recent attempts at historical studies of epistemic terms fail to bridge the gap between history and philosophy proper. I examine whether, and how, it is possible to forge a closer link between historical and philosophical aspects of conceptual analysis. The paper explores possible links by analyzing aspects of the concept of error. A "pragmatic" and a "mentalist" notion (...)
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  27.  22
    Locating Rods and Cones: Microscopic Investigations of the Retina in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Berlin and Würzburg.Jutta Schickore - 2000 - Science in Context 13 (1):137-152.
    The ArgumentThis paper is concerned with the diversity of microscopic research in nineteenth-century life sciences. It examines how two researchers, Ernst Wilhelm Brücke and Heinrich Müller, investigated the structure and function of the retina. They did so in significantly different ways, thereby developing quite different accounts of this organ and its role in the process of vision. Both investigators were carrying out microscopic investigations, both were particularly concerned with interpreting their findings in terms of physiological function, and both employed the (...)
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  28. How to understand scientific justification? Practicing &HPS.Jutta Schickore - unknown
    The published HPS paper gives us only an insufficient idea of the project of integrating history and philosophy of science. To understand how the integration may work and to make it even more rewarding, we need to reflect on the very process of constructing theories of the epistemic features of science. My paper develops this claim and considers its implications.
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  29.  41
    Secondary matters: On disturbances, contamination, and waste as objects of research.Christoph Hoffmann & Jutta Schickore - 2001 - Perspectives on Science 9 (2):123-125.
    : The contributions to this volume originate from the workshop "Hauptsachen und Nebendinge—Pure Science and its Impurities," organized by Christoph Hoffmann, which took place at the Max-Planck-Institute for the History of Science (Berlin) in July 2000. We wish to thank all participants for rich and stimulating talks and discussions.
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  30. Mapping Going Amiss.Giora Hon, Jutta Schickore & Friedrich Steinle - 2009 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 267:1-7.
  31.  21
    Edgar Zilsel’s Research Programme: Unity of Science as an Empirical Problem.Diederich Raven & Jutta Schickore - 2003 - In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), The Vienna Circle and Logical Empiricism: Re-Evaluation and Future Perspectives. Dordrecht: pp. 225-234.
    The unity of science movement was itself far from unified. There may have been unity on the rallying call for a unity of science but that is as far as it went. Not only was there disagreement among the main protagonists on what was meant by the unity of science, but also on how to achieve it. In this paper I shall deal with Edgar Zilsel’s (1891-1944) conception. It represents an interesting break with the more programmatic approaches of Carnap, Neurath; (...)
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  32.  7
    Commentary 05 on Lilley 1953 and Truesdell 1973.Jutta Schickore - 2008 - Centaurus 50 (1-2):43-45.
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  33.  40
    Mechanism and modernity: Gregor Schiemann: Hermann von Helmholtz’s mechanism: The loss of certainty. Dordrecht: Springer, 2009, x+282 pp, €106.95 HB.Jutta Schickore - 2010 - Metascience 20 (2):369-372.
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  34.  8
    Membranes: Metaphors of Invasion in Nineteenth-Century Literature, Science, and Politics. Laura Otis.Jutta Schickore - 2000 - Isis 91 (3):603-604.
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  35. Peculiar blue spots : evidence and causes around 1800.Jutta Schickore - 2023 - In Robert Mason Hauser & Adrianna Link (eds.), Evidence: the use and misuse of data. American Philosophical Society Press.
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  36.  80
    Studying Justificatory Practice: An Attempt to Integrate the History and Philosophy of Science.Jutta Schickore - 2009 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 23 (1):85-107.
    In recent years there has been a revival of the debate about the relation between history and philosophy of science. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion by approaching the issue from a new angle. To rethink the relation between the two domains of study, I apply an important insight about scientific practice to the practice of integrating the history and philosophy of science: the insight that the scientific paper does not give a faithful account of the actual research (...)
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  37.  49
    Sehen, sichtbarkeit und empirische forschung.Jutta Schickore - 1999 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (2):273-287.
    Vision, Visibility, and Empirical Research. In general, natural scientists use the concept of observation in a liberal way: they talk of observing electrons, DNA, or distant quasars. Several philosophers of science have recently argued for a similar use of the concept of observation: they have claimed that the important aspects of scientific research can only be properly reconstructed in accordance with how this term is actually used in science. With reference to an example from astronomy, I point out that the (...)
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  38. Theoriebeladenheit der Beobachtung: Neubesichtigung eines alten Problems.Jutta Schickore - 1997 - Philosophia Naturalis 34 (2):249-264.
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  39.  17
    Test Objects for Microscopes.Jutta Schickore - 2009 - History of Science 47 (2):117-146.
  40.  14
    The ‘philosophical grasp of the appearances’ and experimental microscopy: Johannes Müller’s microscopical research, 1824–1832.Jutta Schickore - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (4):569-592.
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  41.  17
    The Task of Explaining Sight – Helmholtz’s Writings on Vision as a Test Case for Models of Science Popularization.Jutta Schickore - 2001 - Science in Context 14 (3):397-417.
    ArgumentStudies of Helmholtz’s popular lectures on science have concentrated on reconstructing his vision of the scientific enterprise, of its nature, its benefits, and its “civilizing power.” This paper offers a different perspective by focusing on Helmholtz’s attempts to expose his own scientific work to a wider public. Drawing on recent discussions about how to study science popularization, it analyzes how he made his work on sensory physiology accessible to various audiences. It is argued that the exposition of the theory of (...)
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  42.  20
    Vom Nutzen der Historie für die Wissenschaftsphilosophie.Jutta Schickore - 2013 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 36 (1):83-95.
    Of the Merits of History for Philosophy of Science. This essay is inspired by some of the contributions to the two special issues “History of Science and Philosophy of Science” of the journal Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte. I consider possible roles of historical study for philosophy of science. The first part of the essay discusses contributions to the Anglo‐American debate about history and philosophy of science in the 1960s and 1970s. I present two approaches. According to Larry Laudan and others, philosophy (...)
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  43.  7
    “Dare Explanations” (Wagerklärungen): Hypothetical Thinking in Late Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century German Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW]Jutta Schickore - 2023 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 13 (2):387-412.
    This article unearths little-studied accounts of the status and role of hypotheses in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Germany. German thinkers regarded hypotheses, including those about unobservable causes for visible effects, as legitimate and necessary ingredients of scientific inquiry. They debated the nature of probable hypotheses resulting from inductions, proposed heuristics for making causal hypotheses, and advanced criteria for assessing and testing them. My survey of these rich and multifaceted discussions shows that many themes and topics that we commonly associate (...)
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  44.  88
    Robustness, solidity, and multiple determinations: Léna Soler, Emiliano Trizio, Thomas Nickles and William Wimsatt (eds): Characterizing the robustness of science: After the practice turn in philosophy of science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, vol. 292. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012, 372pp, €149.75 HB. [REVIEW]Klodian Coko & Jutta Schickore - 2013 - Metascience 22 (3):681-683.
    Review of Soler et al. (eds.) Characterizing the robustness of science: After the practice turn in philosophy of science.
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  45.  8
    Ildikó Gágyor. Johannes Müller und die Pathologische Anatomie: Eine kommentierte Edition der Vorlesungsmitschrift von Jakob Henle . . 224 pp., illus., app., bibl., index. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 2008. €58. [REVIEW]Jutta Schickore - 2009 - Isis 100 (4):922-922.
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  46.  12
    Johannes Müller und die Pathologische Anatomie: Eine kommentierte Edition der Vorlesungsmitschrift von Jakob Henle. [REVIEW]Jutta Schickore - 2009 - Isis 100:922-922.
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  47.  16
    Laura Otis. Müller's Lab: The Story of Jakob Henle, Theodor Schwann, Emil du Bois‐Reymond, Hermann von Helmholtz, Rudolf Virchow, Robert Remak, Ernst Haeckel, and Their Brilliant, Tormented Advisor. xix + 316 pp., figs., bibl., index. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. $55. [REVIEW]Jutta Schickore - 2008 - Isis 99 (1):205-206.
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  48.  12
    Matthew D. Lund. N. R. Hanson: Observation, Discovery, and Scientific Change. Foreword by, Hasok Chang. 253 pp., bibl., index. Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 2010. $26. [REVIEW]Jutta Schickore - 2011 - Isis 102 (3):593-594.
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  49.  19
    Müller's Lab: The Story of Jakob Henle, Theodor Schwann, Emil du Bois‐Reymond, Hermann von Helmholtz, Rudolf Virchow, Robert Remak, Ernst Haeckel, and Their Brilliant, Tormented Advisor. [REVIEW]Jutta Schickore - 2008 - Isis 99:205-206.
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  50.  8
    Membranes: Metaphors of Invasion in Nineteenth-Century Literature, Science, and Politics by Laura Otis. [REVIEW]Jutta Schickore - 2000 - Isis 91:603-604.
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