In his paper “Scientific research is a moral duty”, John Harris argues that individuals have a moral duty to participate in biomedical research by volunteering as research subjects. He supports his claim with reference to what he calls the principle of beneficence as embodied in the “rule of rescue” , and the principle of fairness embodied in the prohibition on “free riding” . His view that biomedical research is an important social good is agreed upon, but it is argued that (...) Harris succeeds only in showing that such participation and support is a moral good, among many other moral goods, while failing to show that there is a moral duty to participate in biomedical research in particular. The flaws in Harris’s arguments are detailed here, and it is shown that the principles of beneficence and fairness yield only a weaker discretionary or imperfect obligation to help others in need and to reciprocate for sacrifices that others have made for the public good. This obligation is discretionary in the sense that the individuals are free to choose when, where, and how to help others in need and reciprocate for earlier sacrifices. That Harris has not succeeded in claiming a special status for biomedical research among all other social goods is shown here. (shrink)
Editors’ Note:As a matter of policy, the editors believe that publishing several reviews of selected texts is a valuable exercise which will enable a cross-section of views to be aired. The recently published second edition of the National Academy of Sciences’ report “On Being a Scientist” was considered an appropriate text for such treatment. The reviewer, Kenneth D. Pimple, Ph.D., is a Research Associate at the Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions and a Visiting Lecturer (...) in the American Studies Program, both at Indiana University. He has been involved with training faculty members to teach ethics since 1989 and is the project director of “Teaching Research Ethics: A Workshop at Indiana University,” with funding from the Department of Education’s Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. Her interests include nerve development and regeneration. Her research is in the area of analytical chemistry and emphasizes spectroscopic techniques. (shrink)
This paper examines some of the background social and institutional practices involved in the production of official statistics about crime and criminal justice. It documents how a host of micropolitical considerations impinge on what studies are conducted, which agencies control official data, and how measures are standardized. The communication of statistical facts is also shown to be influenced by a concern to prospectively manage the political symbolism of popular accounts about crime and criminal justice statistics.
_ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 349 - 369 A theory of causation suitable for historiography must accommodate the many types of causal claims historians make. In this paper, I examine the advantages of applying D. K. Lewis’s counterfactual theory of causation to the philosophy of historiography. I contend that Lewis’s possible world semantics offers a superior framework for making sense of historical causation, and that it lays the foundation for historians to look at history as causal series of (...) events, remaining agnostic as to whether there may be historical regularities or laws. Lewis’s theory can also accommodate important notions often used by historians, such as absences as causes, historical necessity and contingency, and the role they play in the formulation of historical counterfactuals. (shrink)
Les textes de Platon ont fait l’objet d’innombrables interprétations et récupérations depuis l’Antiquité grecque. Dans le contexte de l’Allemagne prénazie, l’écrivain Hans F.K. Günther a écrit un ouvrage apologétique des théories eugéniques en s’appuyant sur l’oeuvre du philosophe athénien, Platon als Hüter des Lebens. Dans cet article, nous présenterons les enjeux de ce texte de propagande, son contexte historique, ainsi que les implications inquiétantes de cette «appropriation», de cet «arraisonnement» de la philosophie classique à des fins purement politiques.
Q. Sept. Florent. Tertulliani Opera ex recensione Aug. Reifferscheid et Georg Wissowa. Pars I. Vienna, Tempsky, 1890. Mk. 15.60. Patristische Studien I. II. III. IV. By Dr. Wilhelm von Hartel. Vienna, Tempsky, 1890. Mk. 5.80. Studia Ecclesiastica. Tertullianus. I. Critica et Interpretatoria scripsit DR. J. Van Der Vliet. Leyden, Brill, 1891. 2s. 6d. Gai Vetti Aquiliai Juvenci Evangeliorum Libri Quattuor. Ed. J. Huemer, Vienna, 1891. Mk. 7. 20. Ueber das Evangelienbuch des Juvencus in seinem Verhältniss zum Bibeltext. By K. Marold. (...) [Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliclie Theologie, 1890, pp. 329–341.] Geschichte der Christlich-lateinisehen Poesie. By M. Manitius. Stuttgart, 1891. 12 Mk. (shrink)
Zucker Littérature et érotisme dans les Passions d'amour de Parthénios de Nicée. Actes du colloque de Nice 31 mai 2006. Pp. 218. Grenoble: Éditions Jérôme Millon, 2008. Paper, €25. ISBN: 978-2-84137-218-8. Biraud, Voisin, Zucker with Delbey, Vanhaegendoren, Wendling, Charlet Parthénios de Nicée: Passions d'Amour. Pp. 314. Grenoble: Éditions Jérôme Millon, 2008. Paper, €26. ISBN: 978-2-84137-217-1.
The number of large research projects in the fields of identity, privacy and related topics has burgeoned in recent years. This is a development of great importance to academic scholarship but also to a wider range of audiences and ‘users’, including policy-makers and regulators, the information and communication technology industries, and the general public. New issues have been spotlighted as we move into what some call ‘surveillance societies’, along with a clearer sense of the problems created, and the advantages afforded, (...) by the ability of governments and businesses to identify people and groups, monitor and track their behaviour ad movements, provide them with services at home, in the workplace, online, and in the streets, and enable them to engage in important transactions involving flows of information as well as money. New ways of mitigating adverse effects and enhancing the benefits have been explored, although we are only near the beginning of thinking through and acting on .. (shrink)