Rough set theory has been successfully applied to many fields, such as data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. Kernel rough sets and neighborhood rough sets are two important models that differ in terms of granulation. The kernel rough sets model, which has fuzziness, is susceptible to noise in the decision system. The neighborhood rough sets model can handle noisy data well but cannot describe the fuzziness of the samples. In this study, we define a novel model called kernel neighborhood (...) rough sets, which integrates the advantages of the neighborhood and kernel models. Moreover, the model is used in the problem of feature selection. The proposed method is tested on the UCI datasets. The results show that our model outperforms classic models. (shrink)
I thought the paper by Kai-yee Wong and Chris Fraser was fascinating and insightful. Two things I especially appreciated are the clarity with which they summarize my views. I think they are quite fair and accurate. Second, I appreciate their suggestion that the way to deal with the practical problem of weakness of will has much to do with the role of the Background in shaping our actions. I think they are especially on the right track when they say that (...) the improvement of Background skills may actually narrow the range of real options for action, (p. 21) nonetheless, they do not decrease freedom. As they say, “It is a process of strengthening the self, and the agent is likely to experience the concomitant restriction of ‘live’ options not as a limitation but as strength of character.” (p. 21). That seems to me very much on the right track. What they are suggesting, and it is a powerful addition to my own writings, is that we should not just think of the Background as facilitating languages, games and social practices generally, but for morality as well (p. 23). (shrink)
In my Contemporary Critiques of Religion and in my Scepticism , I argue that non-anthropomorphic conceptions of God do not make sense. By this I mean that we do not have sound grounds for believing that the central truth-claims of Christianity are genuine truth-claims and that we do not have a religiously viable concept of God. I argue that this is so principally because of three interrelated features about God-talk. While purporting to be factual assertions, central bits of God-talk, e.g. (...) ‘God exists’ and ‘God loves man-kind’, are not even in principle verifiable in such a way that we can say what experienceable states of affairs would count for these putative assertions and against their denials, such that we could say what it would be like to have evidence which would make either their assertion or their denial more or less probably true. Personal predicates, e.g. ‘loves’, ‘creates’, are at least seemingly essential in the use of God-talk, yet they suffer from such an attenuation of meaning in their employment in religious linguistic environments that it at least appears to be the case that we have in such environments unwittingly emptied these predicates of all intelligible meaning so that we do not understand what we are asserting or denying when we utter ‘God loves mankind’ or ‘God created the heavens and the earth’ and the like. When we make well-formed assertions, it appears at least to be the case that a necessary condition for such wellformedness is that we should be able successfully to identify the subject of that putative statement so that we can understand what it is that we are talking about and thus understand that a genuine statement has actually been made. But, where God is conceived non-anthropomorphically, we have no even tolerably clear idea about how God, an infinite individual, occupying no particular place or existing at no particular time, and being utterly transcendent to the world, can be identified. Indeed we have no coherent idea of what it would be like to identify him and this means we have no coherent idea of what it would be like for God even to be a person or an it. He cannot be picked out and identified in the way persons and things can. (shrink)
I have developed an alternative narrative of seismic sedimentology from a geologist’s perspective. Seismic sedimentology is a high-resolution supplement for traditional, low-resolution seismic stratigraphy, reflecting the fact that seismic responds to sedimentary bodies differently at low and high resolution. Seismic stratigraphy is a model-driven method that follows the principles of field geology and the well-based study of subsurface sedimentology, and it assumes that seismic reflections can duplicate geologic correlations. Seismic sedimentology is a more data-driven approach based on the understanding of (...) how a seismic signal responds to thin-bedded depositional elements in the context of stratigraphy, which is a function of thickness, lithology-impedance model, wavelet phase, and frequency. Seismic sedimentology is focused on mapping seismic litho-geomorphologic facies, by joint investigation of seismic lithology and seismic geomorphology. In such an investigation, seismic lithology and seismic geomorphology are complementary, making more complete use of seismic information, and they can be more powerful in determining the sedimentary environment and reservoir quality. To reduce the knowledge gap between sedimentary geologists and seismic geophysicists, sedimentologists have to learn and master geophysical principles and techniques. To begin with, a simplified four-step workflow is recommended, which can be summarized as select-adjust-decompose-blend. (shrink)
Based on the institutional theory, this article attempts to examine two consecutive questions regarding the impact of various factors on corporate decision in environmental information disclosure (EID): (1) whether or not to disclose; and (2) the level of disclosure. The relevance of these factors is empirically tested using data collected from publicly listed manufacturing companies from 2006 to 2008 in China. Some interesting findings appear. We find that firms that are state-owned, those that operate in environmentally sensitive industries, those having (...) more industrial peers engaged in EID, and those with better reputation are more likely to disclose environmental information. When it comes to the content of EID, variables that attempt to capture external institutional pressures exhibit either no or weak explanatory power. Only the variable of organizational image and reputation is demonstrated to have a significant impact on both the act and the content of EID. This study provides a snapshot of the dialogues between constituencies in the organizational field and EID development. (shrink)
In little more than 30 years, China has recovered from the intellectual stagnation brought about by the Cultural Revolution to become a global leader in science and technology. Like other leading countries in science and technology, China has encountered some ethical problems related to the conduct of research. China 's leaders have taken some steps to respond to these problems, such as developing ethics policies and establishing oversight committees. To keep moving forward, China needs to continue to take effective action (...) to promote research integrity. Some of the challenges China faces include additional policy development, promoting education in responsible conduct of research, protecting whistle-blowers, and cultivating an ethical research environment. (shrink)
Emotion is widely agreed to have two dimensions, valence and arousal. Few studies have explored the effect of emotion on conflict adaptation by considering both of these, which could have dissociate influence. The present study aimed to fill the gap as to whether emotional valence and arousal would exert dissociable influence on conflict adaptation. In the experiments, we included positive, neutral, and negative conditions, with comparable arousal between positive and negative conditions. Both positive and negative conditions have higher arousal than (...) neutral ones. In Experiment 1, by using a two-colour-word Flanker task, we found that conflict adaptation was enhanced in both positive and negative contexts compared to a neutral context. Furthermore, this effect still existed when controlling stimulus–response repetitions in Experiment 2, which used a four-colour-word Flanker task. The findings suggest emotional arousal enhances conflict adaptation, regardless of emotional valence. Thus, future studies should consider emotional arousal when studying the effect of emotion on conflict adaptation. Moreover, the unique role of the emotional context in conflict-driven cognitive control is emphasised. (shrink)
Despite routine demand from petroleum explorationists and field developers, interpreting seismic data for reservoir thickness from acoustic impedance or lithology volume requires a high-quality, unbiased well database and the special skills of elite geophysicists. I have developed a new method, based on linear combination and color blending of multiple-frequency panels, to estimate AI and thickness without the strict implementation of complex mathematics and extensive well control. Aimed at readjusting the thin-bed tuning effect in a formation of normal thickness range, a (...) linear combination of three frequency panels from [Formula: see text] data would lead to a reasonable visual match between a sandstone body and its seismic event, should the combined amplitude spectrum roughly match the AI spectrum. A red-green-blue blending of frequency panels further extends the interpretive benefits by illustrating the thickness in color, adding a sense of thickness cyclicity on the vertical view and that of sandstone thickness map on stratal-slice view. Tests using a simple wedge model and a complex, geologically realistic multi-thin-bed model demonstrate that the proposed workflow may achieve decent geometry estimation and reasonably high correlation for AI prediction with minimal or no well control. The results are similar to colored inversion in the fast-track principle, with improved stability and less error. More complex procedures — such as linear regression and model-based inversion — may lead to minor to moderate improvement with adequate well control. An application to a field data set confirmed the value of the methods in high-resolution reservoir-thickness imaging, with a strong potential for stratigraphically oriented studies, such as seismic chronostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, and seismic sedimentology. (shrink)
The Triassic Yanchang Formation is currently a hot spot for lacustrine shale-gas exploration in the Ordos Basin, China. A seismic-sedimentological study using a newly acquired 3D survey was conducted to advance the interpretation and prediction of the shale-gas reservoirs. The seismic volume was converted into a log-lithology volume at the thin-bed level. The inverted acoustic impedance volume was stratal sliced to extract seismic geomorphologic information. Deltaic facies and depositional history were interpreted using lithologic and planform morphology of seismic attributes on (...) stratal slices. Detailed core analysis data including total organic content, mineral composition, and mechanical properties of sandstones and shales were correlated with seismic-derived lithology and facies. Microseismic data were evaluated for reservoir performance in production wells. Finally, shale-gas sweet spots, or optimal drilling targets, were predicted by mapping relatively high-brittleness lithofacies in 3D using seismic attributes. In the three submembers of the Chang 7 member of the Yanchang Formation, the high-TOC Ch7-1 shale unit is not ideal for shale-gas development because of its ductile nature and tunnel effect when fracturing. Ch7-2 prodelta sediments are shale-gas sweet spots because they are thick, relatively brittle, and in close proximity to high-TOC Ch7-1. (shrink)
Seismic clinoforms are the key building blocks for constructing the seismic stratigraphy of progradational depositional sequences. However, not all progradational systems are necessarily represented by seismic clinoforms. We evaluated the definition and interpretation of progradational systems that do not associate with seismic clinoforms. Nonclinoform seismic facies are mainly related to shallow-water deltas where the thickness of a prograding clinoform complex is too thin to be imaged as an offlapping reflection configuration. The clinoform detection limit for clinoform imaging is defined as (...) one wavelength and is related to the predominant frequency of the seismic data and the velocity of the sediments. Three examples from the Songliao Basin of China and Gulf of Mexico illustrated ancient shallow-water deltas with various morphologies in lacustrine and marine environments by integrating the analysis of the core, wireline logs, and amplitude stratal slices made from nonclinoform seismic events. A seismic model of an outcrop carbonate clinoform complex in west Texas further demonstrated the seismic frequency control on clinoform seismic stratigraphy, including transitions between different types of clinoforms and between clinoforms and nonclinoform seismic facies. Ambiguity in interpreting nonclinoform seismic facies can be reduced by high-resolution acquisition, high-frequency enhancement processing, and seismic sedimentology. (shrink)
- uneducated in the field authors who defend a consensus they are being TOLD when they enter offices of Ed-Sci, teaching and writing works on learning-theory - but never checked the facts, PART I and PART II.
I used a seismic sedimentology-based approach for interpreting the spatial geometry and stacking pattern of superimposed, seismically thin beds. The method was applicable to conventional low-frequency seismic data and required knowledge of the basic shape of the seismic wavelet and lithology-impedance relationship. It was primarily aimed at those beds that were spatially extensive enough to be resolved horizontally, but so thin as to only be detected vertically with a given bandwidth, and it assumed that the data had been converted to (...) stratal slices in the relative geologic time domain. A simple one-bed model illustrated that a thin-bed depositional system can be characterized by a seismic-geomorphologic pattern of the same spatial shape on sequential relative geologic-time slices, but the amplitude, phase, and polarity would vary depending upon the known seismic wavelet. This phenomenon could be captured and evaluated in the thin bed’s response window in the Wheeler domain. If multiple thin-bed units were present in the RW, the seismic responses from vertically adjacent units would interfere with the “true” seismic-geomorphologic pattern of any single thin-bed unit. The composite waveform for each of the units could be restored in variable quality, depending on its geomorphologic character, thickness, and stratigraphic position. Relative traveltime differences of thin-bed waveforms revealed the depositional history of the thin-bed sequence. A field-data test confirmed that within a stratigraphic interval of a composite seismic event at least two, and possibly three, thin fluvial channel sandstones could be identified and their spatial localities and distribution could be unraveled. (shrink)
Modern science developed in the interflow of culture between west and east. Combing of pratice technology with philosophic thoughts formed experimental method. Holistic views contacting atomism produced system theory. System thoughts are applicated in the science and engineering of biosystems, and the cencepts of system biomedicine (Kamada T.1992), systems biology (Zieglgansberger W, Tolle TR.1993), system bioengineering and system genetics (Zeng BJ. 1994) were established. From positive to synthetic thoughts, philosophy have been developed ontology, cosmology, organism theories. Structurity is structure (...) logic system founded on entity, develop, exist axioms, tolerance, adaptation, fluctuate, interweave, transform theorems and integrate, adaptation, construct laws. Structurity be discussed on the cosmos, life, culture system, creation, hologram theories of structure ontology, construct mutation, simi-structure organism and entity emergence, symbol implication. From the relation of structure, function and development, the structurity put forward the cycle, spiral, triangle structure stability patterns of self-organization in structure complement each other and stratification, functional couple and interflow bounds growth, coordinativetransformation and holographic symmetry. (shrink)
This paper focuses on the shear and dilatancy behavior of wheat stored in silos with various densities and normal stresses. The goal is to find a quantitative relationship modeling the peak friction angle and maximum dilatancy angle of wheat stored in silos. A total of 48 direct shear tests were carried out to research the evolution of shear and dilatancy of stored wheat in silos. It is revealed that strength of wheat in bulk attributes to the combination of frictional and (...) dilatant during shearing, in particular attributing to its elliptic shape. An increase in relative density enhances the peak friction angle as well as the dilation. The relationships between relative density, peak friction angle, and dilatancy angle were presented based on the tests data and Bolton’s theory. Then an advanced model is developed to evaluate the peak shear behavior of wheat stored in silos considering the dilatancy of the stored wheat. It is a practical method to predict the strength and dilatancy behavior of wheat stored in silos. (shrink)
Recent scholarship of comparative authoritarianism suggests that party institutions contribute to regime resilience by facilitating power-sharing among the party elites and preventing the paramount leaders’ abuse of power that undermines political stability. Existing studies tend to focus on the empirical association between party organizations and regime resilience, whereas the actual effects of institutions on elite behavior receive less attention. This paper conducts an in-depth study of China's appointment system to examine whether the CCP's power-sharing institutions indeed constrain the person- nel (...) authority of the party's paramount leader. Using a unique dataset of provincial leadership appointment from 1992 to 2014, the empirical analysis reveals that the General Secretary enjoys what can be described as ‘constrained supremacy’ in the making of personnel decisions: the leader can boost his own position by providing favorable treatment to key supporters, but the formal arrangement of collective decision-making constrains rampant reward of patronage that would unsettle the balance among the regime's top elites. The findings of the paper lay bare the diffculty of capturing the inner workings of authoritarian politics with broad, cross-national indicators of regime type; they also illustrate the complicated interaction between formal institutions and informal, personal logic of exercising power in authoritarian regimes. (shrink)
Various approaches exist for quantitative or qualitative predictions of seismically thin beds and their physical properties. The evolving definition of thin beds, the use of seismic attributes indicative of thin beds, thin-bed imaging on geologic-time surfaces, and thin-bed thickness estimation represent some of the most active aspects of the research and application. We reviewed some theoretical and technological developments in thin-bed analysis over recent decades. We also reviewed the data processing steps that affect seismic resolution and thin-bed evaluation.
Least-squares reverse time migration overcomes the shortcomings of conventional migration algorithms by iteratively fitting the demigrated synthetic data and the input data to refine the initial depth image toward true reflectivity. It gradually enhances the effective signals and removes the migration artifacts such as swing noise during conventional migration. When imaging the subsalt area with complex structures, many practical issues have to be considered to ensure the convergence of the inversion. We tackle those practical issues such as an unknown source (...) wavelet, inaccurate migration velocity, and slow convergence to make LSRTM applicable to subsalt imaging in geologic complex areas such as the Gulf of Mexico. Dynamic warping is used to realign the modeled and input data to compensate for minor velocity errors in the subsalt sediments. A windowed crosscorrelation-based confidence level is used to control the quality of the residual computation. The confidence level is further used as an inverse weighting to precondition the data residual so that the convergence rates in shallow and deep images are automatically balanced. It also helps suppress the strong artifacts related to the salt boundary. The efficiency of the LSRTM is improved so that interpretable images in the area of interest can be obtained in only a few iterations. After removing the artifacts near the salt body using LSRTM, the image better represents the true geology than the outcome of conventional RTM; thus, it facilitates the interpretation. Synthetic and field data examples examine and demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive strategies. (shrink)
This study examined the relationship between CEO ethical leadership and corporate social responsibility by focusing on the mediating role of organizational ethical culture and the moderating role of managerial discretion. Based on a sample of 242 domestic Chinese firms, we found that CEO ethical leadership positively influences corporate social responsibility via organizational ethical culture. In addition, moderated path analysis indicated that CEO founder status strengthens while firm size weakens the direct effect of CEO ethical leadership on organizational ethical culture and (...) its indirect effect on corporate social responsibility. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed. (shrink)
Metaphilosophy is itself philosophy about philosophy. It is not something before or independent of philosophy. Both Kai Nielsen and Richard Rorty are deeply concerned (someone might say obsessively preoccupied) with metaphilosophy. They both are thoroughly historicist and contextualist resolutely rejecting any form of a transcendental or metaphysical turn. They argue against claims to absolute validity (as well as against absolutism in any form) and a natural order of reasons: some 'Reason' to which any rational agent must be committed. They both (...) see philosophy as a transitional genre first (historically speaking) from religion then metaphysics and more latterly from scientistic conceptions of the world. But they differ about what philosophy is transitional to. For Rorty it is historical narrative and utopian proposals; for Nielsen it is critical theory. Rorty claims this, Nielsen's intentions to the contrary notwithstanding, commits him to enlightenment rationalism. Nielsen replies that his form of critical theory is deeply historicist and contextual without being resolutely atheoretical. This plays out in political orientation to Nielsen's being a socialist while Rorty is a social democrat. (shrink)
This festschrift includes a dozen essays on issues that have been at the focus of Kai Nielsen's research, mainly issues in ethics and political philosophy. Among these are four essays on socialism and Marxism. There are also essays on philosophy of religion, epistemology, and meta-philosophy.
The subjective experience of time is a fundamental constituent of human consciousness and can be disturbed under conditions of mental disorders such as schizophrenia or affective disorders. Besides the scientific domain of psychiatry, time consciousness is a topic that has been extensively studied both by theoretical philosophy and cognitive neuroscience. It can be shown that both approaches exemplified by the philosophical analysis of time consciousness and the neuroscientific theory of cross-temporal contingencies as the neurophysiological basis of human consciousness implemented in (...) the prefrontal cortex converge in 2 respects. Firstly, a tripartite conception of consciousness divides human cognition in 3 different temporal domains comprising retention, presentation, and protention and the past, the present, and the future corresponding to working memory, interference control, and preparatory set. Secondly, both concepts refer to the present as an extended duration that integrates information from the recent past and the future. We propose that the integration of phenomenological and neuroscientific approaches can stimulate the development of enriched pathophysiological concepts of mental disorders. This approach appears to be particularly fruitful with respect to schizophrenia that is interpreted as a structural disturbance of time consciousness. (shrink)
A self-designed questionnaire was given to 634 health professionals in a large teaching hospital in Hubei Province in mainland China, to clarify the participants’ attitude towards information disclosure to cancer patients. Statistic description was used to analyze the data. The item ‘inappropriate information about cancer easily leads to medical disputes’ scored highest at 3.86, while the scores of such items as ‘advantages of fully informing patients outweigh disadvantages’, ‘if their family members demand nondisclosure, you will find it difficult to cooperate (...) in good faith with patients’, and ‘telling white lies to patients disturbs you a lot’ were less than 3. The health care staff placed a high value on both the desire and priority of patients to know the truth, though most of them did not think that patients had received enough information about their disease. In order to improve cancer patients’ current state of knowledge, health professionals should learn more about informed consent, and special methods and guidelines compatible with Chinese culture are urgently required in China. (shrink)
Using a sample of Chinese listed firms in polluting industries for the period of 2008–2010, we empirically investigate whether and how Buddhism, China’s most influential religion, affects corporate environmental responsibility (CER). In this study, we measure Buddhist variables as the number of Buddhist monasteries within a certain radius around Chinese listed firms’ registered addresses. In addition, we hand-collect corporate environmental disclosure scores based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) sustainability reporting guidelines. Using hand-collected Buddhism data and corporate environmental disclosure scores, (...) we provide strong and robust evidence that Buddhism is significantly positively associated with CER. This finding is consistent with the following view: Buddhism can serve as social norms to evoke the consciousness of social responsibility, and thereof strengthen CER. Our findings also reveal that the positive association between Buddhism and CER is attenuated for firms with higher law enforcement index. The results are robust to various measures of Buddhism and a variety of sensitivity tests. (shrink)
Many find the prospect of death distressing at least partly because they believe that death deprives its subject of life’s benefits. Properly qualified, the belief is surely true. But should its truth lead us to conclude that there is something dreadful or awful about death, something that merits distress?
Identity, we're told, is the binary relation that every object bears to itself, and to itself only. But how can a relation be binary if it never relates two objects? This puzzled Russell and led Wittgenstein to declare that identity is not a relation between objects. The now standard view is that Wittgenstein's position is untenable, and that worries regarding the relational status of identity are the result of confusion. I argue that the rejection of identity as a binary relation (...) is perfectly tenable. To this end, I outline and defend a logical framework that is not committed to an objectual identity relation but is nevertheless expressively equivalent to first-order logic with identity. After it has thus been shown that there is no indispensability argument for objectual identity, I argue that we have good reasons for doubting the existence of such a relation, and rebut a number of attempts at discrediting these reasons. (shrink)
In §93 of The Principles of Mathematics, Bertrand Russell observes that “the variable is a very complicated logical entity, by no means easy to analyze correctly”. This assessment is borne out by the fact that even now we have no fully satisfactory understanding of the role of variables in a compositional semantics for first-order logic. In standard Tarskian semantics, variables are treated as meaning-bearing entities; moreover, they serve as the basic building blocks of all meanings, which are constructed out of (...) variable assignments. But this has disquieting consequences, including Fine’s antinomy of the variable and an undue dependence of meanings on language. Here I develop an alternative, Fregean version of predicate logic that uses the traditional quantifier–variable apparatus for the expression of generality, possesses a fully compositional, non-representational semantics, and is not subject to the antinomy of the variable. The advantages of Fregean over Tarskian predicate logic are due to the former’s treating variables not as meaningful lexical items, but as mere marks of punctuation, similar to parentheses. I submit that this is indeed how the variables of predicate logic should be construed. (shrink)
We see a systematic set of cut-free axiomatisations for all the basic normal modal logics formed by some combination the axioms d, t, b, 4, 5. They employ a form of deep inference but otherwise stay very close to Gentzen’s sequent calculus, in particular they enjoy a subformula property in the literal sense. No semantic notions are used inside the proof systems, in particular there is no use of labels. All their rules are invertible and the rules cut, weakening and (...) contraction are admissible. All systems admit a straightforward terminating proof search procedure as well as a syntactic cut elimination procedure. (shrink)
This article re-examines the role of the brain in self-recognition. It reconsiders the idea that the frontal and cortical midline structures are important for self-specific experience in light of several recent reviews of neuroscience literature. The findings suggests that the frontal cortex and the cortical midline structure are not the only areas involved in self-related tasks and that these areas may be involved not because the tasks are self-specific, but because they are tasks that involve a specific kind of cognitive (...) operation, specifically reflective evaluation. (shrink)
Although thought suppression is a commonly used self-control strategy that has far-reaching consequences, its effect on ethical decision making is unclear. Whereas ironic process theory suggests that suppressing ethics-related thoughts leads to mental rebounds of ethicality and decreased unethical behavior, ego depletion theory suggests that thought suppression can lead to reduced self-control and increased unethical behavior. Integrating the two theories, I propose that the effect of thought suppression on unethical behavior hinges on the content of the suppressed thoughts. Participants who (...) suppressed ethics-related [-unrelated] thoughts engaged in less [more] cyber bullying, cheating, and dishonesty compared to participants in the control conditions. Explicit and implicit moral awareness was found to mediate this moderated effect. Experiment 4 further demonstrated that suppressing ethics-related thoughts reduces self-control performance on a subsequent amoral task, but not on subsequent ethical decision making. (shrink)