Results for 'Kaiden Stewart'

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  1.  6
    Thinking in a Foreign Language Distorts Allocation of Cognitive Effort: Evidence From Reasoning.Michał Białek, Rafał Muda, Kaiden Stewart, Paweł Niszczota & Damian Pieńkosz - 2020 - Cognition 205:104420.
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  2. Stewart Shapiro. Context, Conversation, and so-Called 'Higher-Order Vagueness'.Stewart Shapiro & Patrick Greenough - 2005 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):147–165.
    After a brief account of the problem of higher-order vagueness, and its seeming intractability, I explore what comes of the issue on a linguistic, contextualist account of vagueness. On the view in question, predicates like ‘borderline red’ and ‘determinately red’ are, or at least can be, vague, but they are different in kind from ‘red’. In particular, ‘borderline red’ and ‘determinately red’ are not colours. These predicates have linguistic components, and invoke notions like ‘competent user of the language’. On my (...)
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  3.  56
    Varieties of Logic.Stewart Shapiro - 2014 - Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Logical pluralism is the view that different logics are equally appropriate, or equally correct. Logical relativism is a pluralism according to which validity and logical consequence are relative to something. Stewart Shapiro explores various such views. He argues that the question of meaning shift is itself context-sensitive and interest-relative.
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  4.  17
    I—Stewart Shapiro.Stewart Shapiro - 2005 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 79 (1):147-165.
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  5.  31
    Optimism and Pessimism: STEWART R. SUTHERLAND.Stewart R. Sutherland - 1981 - Religious Studies 17 (4):537-548.
    My argument will be that our understanding of human beings, which is what I take the Christian doctrine of man to be concerned with, will benefit considerably from an examination of two different but related clusters of human attitudes which can be found respectively under the headings ‘optimism’ and ‘pessimism’. There are many pitfalls in the way of such an enterprise, and occasionally some prejudices to be overcome. For example L. E. Loemker in the relevant articles in the Encyclopedia of (...)
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  6.  39
    Religion and Ethics—I: Stewart Sutherland.Stewart Sutherland - 1992 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 31:123-134.
    It was, I believe, Thomas Arnold who wrote: ‘Educate men without religion and all you make of them is clever devils’. Thus the Headmaster of one famous school summarized pithily the view of the relationship between religion and ethics which informed educational theory and practice in this country for at least a further century. There is a confusion of two different assumptions usually to be found in this context. The first is that religious belief can provide an intellectual foundation for (...)
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  7.  22
    Religion, Experience and Privacy: STEWART R. SUTHERLAND.Stewart R. Sutherland - 1984 - Religious Studies 20 (1):121-132.
    It is of course true that the articulation of religious and theological views depends upon and often masks philosophical presuppositions. For example, those who quote with approval Anselm's ‘credo ut intelligam’, ‘I believe so that I may understand’, seldom follow the good example set by Anselm, and make explicit, as Anselm does in the following sentence, the fact that this principle rests upon a further principle: ‘For I believe this also, that “unless I believe, I shall not understand”’ . This (...)
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  8.  23
    Immortality and Resurrection: STEWART R. SUTHERLAND.Stewart R. Sutherland - 1967 - Religious Studies 3 (1):377-389.
    In the last ten years or so there has been some lively discussion of the questions of immortality and resurrection. Within the Christian tradition there has been debate at theological and exegetical level over the relative merits of belief in the immortality of the soul, and belief in the resurrection of the dead as an account of life after death. Further to this, however, there has been the suggestion that there may be good philosophical reasons for preferring the latter to (...)
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  9.  15
    Integrity and Self-Identity: Stewart R. Sutherland.Stewart R. Sutherland - 1993 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 35:19-27.
    The title of this paper proclaims its central interest—the relationship which holds between the concept of integrity and the concept of the identity of the self, or, for short, self-identity. Unreflective speech often suggests a close relationship between the two, but in the latter half of this century, notwithstanding one or two notable exceptions, they have been discussed with minimum cross-reference as if they belonged to two rather different philosophical menus which tended not to be available at the same restaurant (...)
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  10.  40
    Belief in God is Not Properly Basic: STEWART C. GOETZ.Stewart C. Goetz - 1983 - Religious Studies 19 (4):475-484.
    In this article I shall concern myself with the question ‘Is some type of justification required in order for belief in God to be rational?’ Many philosophers and theologians in the past would have responded affirmatively to this question. However, in our own day, there are those who maintain that natural theology in any form is not necessary. This is because of the rise of a different understanding of the nature of religious belief. Unlike what most people in the past (...)
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  11.  18
    Death and Fulfilment, or Would the Real Mr. Dostoyevsky Stand Up?: Stewart Sutherland.Stewart Sutherland - 1983 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 16:15-27.
    Philosophers have devoted much attention to a series of issues grouped under the heading ‘the problem of personal identity’. In most of these discussions the focus has been the question of identity over time and the issues confronted have been basically logical or metaphysical. Students enrolled in philosophy classes dealing with such topics often express a sense of disappointment or frustration, for, of course, they belong to a culture in which the jargon of ‘self’ or ‘personal’ identity belongs to a (...)
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  12.  20
    On the Idea of a Form of Life: STEWART R. SUTHERLAND.Stewart R. Sutherland - 1975 - Religious Studies 11 (3):293-306.
    Recent writing on the idea of a form of life has tended to be critical of the use made of this notion by writers such as Peter Winch, D. Z. Phillips and Norman Malcolm. Rightly or wrongly these writers have been regarded as meaning by ‘a form of life’, something like ‘a way or style of life’, and recent explicatory work on the notion has largely tended to discount this as a plausible interpretation of what Wittgenstein meant in his use (...)
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  13.  11
    Opinion and Reform in Hume's Political Philosophy.John B. Stewart - 1992 - Princeton University Press.
    "The picture of Hume clinging timidly to a raft of custom and artifice, because, poor skeptic, he has no alternative, is wrong," writes John Stewart. "Hume was confident that by experience and reflection philosophers can achieve true principles." In this revisionary work Stewart surveys all of David Hume's major writings to reveal him as a liberal moral and political philosopher. Against the background of seventeenth-and eighteenth-century history and thought, Hume emerges as a proponent not of conservatism but of (...)
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  14. Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion.Stewart Guthrie - 1993 - New York and Oxford: Oup Usa.
    Guthrie contends that religion can best be understood as systematic anthropomorphism - the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman things and events. Religion, he says, consists of seeing the world as human like. He offers a fascinating array of examples to show how this strategy pervades secular life and how it characterizes religious experience.
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  15.  12
    Honor.Frank Henderson Stewart - 1994 - University of Chicago Press.
    What is honor? Is it the same as reputation? Or is it rather a sentiment? Is it a character trait, like integrity? Or is it simply a concept too vague or incoherent to be fully analyzed? In the first sustained comparative analysis of this elusive notion, Frank Stewart writes that none of these ideas is correct. Drawing on information about Western ideas of honor from sources as diverse as medieval Arthurian romances, Spanish dramas of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, (...)
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  16. Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology.Stewart Shapiro - 1997 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Do numbers, sets, and so forth, exist? What do mathematical statements mean? Are they literally true or false, or do they lack truth values altogether? Addressing questions that have attracted lively debate in recent years, Stewart Shapiro contends that standard realist and antirealist accounts of mathematics are both problematic. As Benacerraf first noted, we are confronted with the following powerful dilemma. The desired continuity between mathematical and, say, scientific language suggests realism, but realism in this context suggests seemingly intractable (...)
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  17.  16
    Mossé Athens in Decline 404–86 B.C. Trans. J. Stewart. London: Routledge. 1973. Pp. Viii + 181. 4 Plates. 2 Maps. £3·50. [REVIEW]J. Roy, C. Mosse & J. Stewart - 1975 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 95:246-247.
  18. Contextualism, Skepticism, and the Structure of Reasons.Stewart Cohen - 1999 - Philosophical Perspectives 13:57-89.
  19.  19
    Computational Investigations of Multiword Chunks in Language Learning.Stewart M. McCauley & Morten H. Christiansen - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):637-652.
    Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language (...)
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  20. How to Be a Fallibilist.Stewart Cohen - 1988 - Philosophical Perspectives 2:91-123.
  21. Vagueness in Context.Stewart Shapiro - 2006 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Stewart Shapiro's ambition in Vagueness in Context is to develop a comprehensive account of the meaning, function, and logic of vague terms in an idealized version of a natural language like English. It is a commonplace that the extensions of vague terms vary according to their context: a person can be tall with respect to male accountants and not tall (even short) with respect to professional basketball players. The key feature of Shapiro's account is that the extensions of vague (...)
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  22. Justification and Truth.Stewart Cohen - 1984 - Philosophical Studies 46 (3):279--95.
  23.  39
    Vagueness in Context.Stewart Shapiro - 2006 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press UK.
    Stewart Shapiro's aim in Vagueness in Context is to develop both a philosophical and a formal, model-theoretic account of the meaning, function, and logic of vague terms in an idealized version of a natural language like English. It is a commonplace that the extensions of vague terms vary with such contextual factors as the comparison class and paradigm cases. A person can be tall with respect to male accountants and not tall with respect to professional basketball players. The main (...)
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  24. Thinking About Mathematics: The Philosophy of Mathematics.Stewart Shapiro - 2000 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    This unique book by Stewart Shapiro looks at a range of philosophical issues and positions concerning mathematics in four comprehensive sections. Part I describes questions and issues about mathematics that have motivated philosophers since the beginning of intellectual history. Part II is an historical survey, discussing the role of mathematics in the thought of such philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Kant, and Mill. Part III covers the three major positions held throughout the twentieth century: the idea that mathematics is logic (...)
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  25.  23
    Metaepistemology and Skepticism.Stewart Cohen - 1998 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 58 (4):913-918.
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  26. Basic Knowledge and the Problem of Easy Knowledge.Stewart Cohen - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):309-329.
    The dominant response to this problem of the criterion focuses on the alleged requirement that we need to know a belief source is reliable in order for us to acquire knowledge by that source. Let us call this requirement, “The KR principle”.
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  27.  19
    Hegel Myths and Legends.Jon Stewart - 1996 - Northwestern University Press.
    The essays collected in 'The Hegel Myths and Legends' serve the function of disabusing students and nonspecialists of these misconceptions by exposing these myths for what they are.
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  28. Foundations Without Foundationalism: A Case for Second-Order Logic.Stewart Shapiro - 1991 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    The central contention of this book is that second-order logic has a central role to play in laying the foundations of mathematics. In order to develop the argument fully, the author presents a detailed description of higher-order logic, including a comprehensive discussion of its semantics. He goes on to demonstrate the prevalence of second-order concepts in mathematics and the extent to which mathematical ideas can be formulated in higher-order logic. He also shows how first-order languages are often insufficient to codify (...)
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  29.  18
    The Moral Dimension: Toward a New Economics.Hamish Stewart - 1990 - Ethics 101 (1):205-206.
  30. A Defense of the (Almost) Equal Weight View.Stewart Cohen - 2013 - In David Phiroze Christensen & Jennifer Lackey (eds.), The Epistemology of Disagreement: New Essays. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 98-117.
  31.  44
    The Russell/Bradley Dispute and its Significance for Twentieth Century Philosophy.Stewart Candlish - 2007 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In the early twentieth century an apparently obscure philosophical debate took place between F. H. Bradley and Bertrand Russell. The historical outcome was momentous: the demise of the movement known as British Idealism, and its eventual replacement by the various forms of analytic philosophy. Since then, a conception of this debate and its rights and wrongs has become entrenched in English-language philosophy. Stewart Candlish examines afresh the events of this formative period in twentieth-century thought and comes to some surprising (...)
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  32. Theorizing About the Epistemic.Stewart Cohen - 2016 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 59 (7-8):839-857.
    I argue that epistemologists’ use of the term ‘epistemic’ has led to serious confusion in the discussion of epistemological issues. The source of the problem is that ‘epistemic’ functions largely as an undefined technical term. I show how this confusion has infected discussions of the nature of epistemic justification, epistemic norms for evidence gathering, and knowledge norms for assertion and belief.
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  33.  1
    Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology.Stewart Shapiro - 1997 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press USA.
    Moving beyond both realist and anti-realist accounts of mathematics, Shapiro articulates a "structuralist" approach, arguing that the subject matter of a mathematical theory is not a fixed domain of numbers that exist independent of each other, but rather is the natural structure, the pattern common to any system of objects that has an initial object and successor relation satisfying the induction principle.
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  34. Contextualist Solutions to Epistemological Problems: Scepticism, Gettier, and the Lottery.Stewart Cohen - 1998 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 76 (2):289 – 306.
    (1998). Contextualist solutions to epistemological problems: Scepticism, Gettier, and the lottery. Australasian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 76, No. 2, pp. 289-306. doi: 10.1080/00048409812348411.
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  35.  28
    Basic Knowledge and the Problem of Easy Knowledge.Stewart Cohen - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):309-329.
    The dominant response to this problem of the criterion focuses on the alleged requirement that we need to know a belief source is reliable in order for us to acquire knowledge by that source. Let us call this requirement, “The KR principle”.
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  36. Contextualism and Skepticism.Stewart Cohen - 2000 - Philosophical Issues 10 (1):94-107.
  37. Williamson on Gettier Cases and Epistemic Logic.Stewart Cohen & Juan Comesaña - 2013 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 56 (1):15-29.
    Timothy Williamson has fruitfully exploited formal resources to shed considerable light on the nature of knowledge. In the paper under examination, Williamson turns his attention to Gettier cases, showing how they can be motivated formally. At the same time, he disparages the kind of justification he thinks gives rise to these cases. He favors instead his own notion of justification for which Gettier cases cannot arise. We take issue both with his disparagement of the kind of justification that figures in (...)
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  38. Knowledge and Context.Stewart Cohen - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (10):574-583.
  39. Bootstrapping, Defeasible Reasoning, and a Priori Justification.Stewart Cohen - 2010 - Philosophical Perspectives 24 (1):141-159.
  40.  77
    Set Theory and Its Philosophy: A Critical Introduction.Stewart Shapiro - 2005 - Mind 114 (455):764-767.
  41.  12
    Language Learning as Language Use: A Cross-Linguistic Model of Child Language Development.Stewart M. McCauley & Morten H. Christiansen - 2019 - Psychological Review 126 (1):1-51.
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  42. Why Basic Knowledge is Easy Knowledge.Stewart Cohen - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (2):417 - 430.
    The problem of easy knowledge arises for theories that have what I call a "basic knowledge structure". S has basic knowledge of P just in case S knows P prior to knowing that the cognitive source of S's knowing P is reliable. Our knowledge has a basic knowledge structure just in case we have basic knowledge and we come to know our faculties are reliable on the basis of our basic knowledge. The problem I raised in "Basic Knowledge and the (...)
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  43. New V, ZF and Abstraction.Stewart Shapiro & Alan Weir - 1999 - Philosophia Mathematica 7 (3):293-321.
    We examine George Boolos's proposed abstraction principle for extensions based on the limitation-of-size conception, New V, from several perspectives. Crispin Wright once suggested that New V could serve as part of a neo-logicist development of real analysis. We show that it fails both of the conservativeness criteria for abstraction principles that Wright proposes. Thus, we support Boolos against Wright. We also show that, when combined with the axioms for Boolos's iterative notion of set, New V yields a system equivalent to (...)
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  44. Two Kinds of Skeptical Argument.Stewart Cohen - 1998 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 58 (1):143-159.
    This paper compares two kinds of epistemic principles-an underdetermination principle and a deductive closure principle. It argues that each principle provides the basis for an independently motivated skeptical argument. It examines the logical relations between the premises of the two kinds of skeptical argument and concludes that the deductive closure argument cannot be refuted without refuting the underdetermination argument. The underdetermination argument, however, can be refuted without refuting the deductive closure argument. In this respect, the deductive closure argument is the (...)
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  45.  2
    Georgina Tuari Stewart on Decolonizing and Indigenizing Education in Canada.Georgina Tuari Stewart - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 54 (4):434-436.
  46. Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology.Stewart Shapiro - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (198):120-123.
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  47.  37
    Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry.Stewart R. Sutherland & Alasdair Macintyre - 1992 - Philosophical Quarterly 42 (167):253.
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  48.  1
    Georgina Tuari Stewart on Decolonizing and Indigenizing Education in Canada : Canadian Scholars, 2020, RRP$59.95, ISBN 9781773381817. [REVIEW]Georgina Tuari Stewart - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 54 (4):434-436.
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  49. Knowledge, Context, and Social Standards.Stewart Cohen - 1987 - Synthese 73 (1):3 - 26.
    This paper defends the view that standards, which are typically social in nature, play a role in determining whether a subject has knowledge. While the argument focuses on standards that pertain to reasoning, I also consider whether there are similar standards for memory and perception.Ultimately, I argue that the standards are context sensitive and, as such, we must view attributions of knowledge as indexical. I exploit similarities between this view and a version of the relevant alternatives reply to skepticism in (...)
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  50. Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology.Stewart Shapiro - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):467-475.
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