Results for 'Kamaran Hassan Ismail'

614 found
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  1.  71
    The Threat Simulation Theory of the Evolutionary Function of Dreaming: Evidence From Dreams of Traumatized Children.Katja Valli, Antti Revonsuo, Outi Pälkäs, Kamaran Hassan Ismail, Karzan Jalal Ali & Raija-Leena Punamäki - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):188-218.
    The threat simulation theory of dreaming states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation (...)
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  2. Katja Valli, Antti Revonsuo, Outi Pälkäs, Kamaran Hassan Ismahil, Karsan Jelal Ali, and Raija-Leena Punamäki. The.Gayle B. Speck, Kieron P. OÕConnor, Frederick Aardema, Walter J. Perrig, Doris Eckstein, Berenice Valdes Conroy, A. Catena, P. Marı-Beffa, Michiel B. de Ruiter & R. Hans Phaf - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13:655.
     
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  3.  14
    Use of Evidence‐Based Therapy for the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Malaysian Practice.Yaman Walid Kassab, Yahaya Hassan, Noorizan Abd Aziz, Hadeer Akram & Omar Ismail - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):658-663.
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  4. Explaining Imagination.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2020 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    ​Imagination will remain a mystery—we will not be able to explain imagination—until we can break it into parts we already understand. Explaining Imagination is a guidebook for doing just that, where the parts are other ordinary mental states like beliefs, desires, judgments, and decisions. In different combinations and contexts, these states constitute cases of imagining. This reductive approach to imagination is at direct odds with the current orthodoxy, according to which imagination is a sui generis mental state or process—one with (...)
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  5. Imaginative Attitudes.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 90 (3):664-686.
    The point of this paper is to reveal a dogma in the ordinary conception of sensory imagination, and to suggest another way forward. The dogma springs from two main sources: a too close comparison of mental imagery to perceptual experience, and a too strong division between mental imagery and the traditional propositional attitudes (such as belief and desire). The result is an unworkable conception of the correctness conditions of sensory imaginings—one lacking any link between the conditions under which an imagining (...)
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  6.  30
    Ismail Kadere’s Idea of Europe.Marinus Ossewaarde - 2015 - The European Legacy 20 (7):715-730.
    The aim of this article is to reconstruct and pinpoint the peculiarities of Ismail Kadare’s idea of Europe. Kadare’s idea of Europe, it is argued, differs from the ideas of Europe embraced or presumed by intellectuals like Paul Valéry, Georg Simmel, Danilo Kiš, Václav Havel, Adam Michnik, or Milan Kundera, or from that of the European Union. For Kadare it is literature rather than the polis or its particular ideology that is the guardian of European values. Thus the European (...)
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  7. On Choosing What to Imagine.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2016 - In A. Kind & P. Kung (eds.), Knowledge Through Imagination. Oxford University Press. pp. 61-84.
    If imagination is subject to the will, in the sense that people choose the content of their own imaginings, how is it that one nevertheless can learn from what one imagines? This chapter argues for a way forward in addressing this perennial puzzle, both with respect to propositional imagination and sensory imagination. Making progress requires looking carefully at the interplay between one’s intentions and various kinds of constraints that may be operative in the generation of imaginings. Lessons are drawn from (...)
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  8. Pretense, Imagination, and Belief: The Single Attitude Theory.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 159 (2):155-179.
    A popular view has it that the mental representations underlying human pretense are not beliefs, but are “belief-like” in important ways. This view typically posits a distinctive cognitive attitude (a “DCA”) called “imagination” that is taken toward the propositions entertained during pretense, along with correspondingly distinct elements of cognitive architecture. This paper argues that the characteristics of pretense motivating such views of imagination can be explained without positing a DCA, or other cognitive architectural features beyond those regulating normal belief and (...)
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  9. What Sort of Imagining Might Remembering Be?Peter Langland-Hassan - 2021 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 7 (2):231-251.
    This essay unites current philosophical thinking on imagination with a burgeoning debate in the philosophy of memory over whether episodic remembering is simply a kind of imagining. So far, this debate has been hampered by a lack of clarity in the notion of imagining at issue. Several options are considered and constructive imagining is identified as the relevant kind. Next, a functionalist account of episodic remembering is defended as a means to establishing two key points: first, one need not defend (...)
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  10.  1
    Knowing God: Ibn ʿarabī and ʿabd Al-Razzāq Al-Qāshānī’s Metaphysics of the Divine.Ismail Lala - 2019 - Brill.
    In _Knowing God_, Ismail Lala investigates the nature of God and whether we can truly know Him according to the influential mystic, Muḥyī al-Dīn ibn ʿArabī, and his disciple, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī.
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  11.  18
    Ultimate Bound Sets of a Hyperchaotic System and its Application in Chaos Synchronization.Hassan Saberi Nik, Sohrab Effati & Jafar Saberi-Nadjafi - 2015 - Complexity 20 (4):30-44.
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  12. There Are No I-Beliefs or I-Desires at Work in Fiction Consumption and This is Why.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2020 - In Explaining Imagination. Oxford: pp. 210-233.
    Currie’s (2010) argument that “i-desires” must be posited to explain our responses to fiction is critically discussed. It is argued that beliefs and desires featuring ‘in the fiction’ operators—and not sui generis imaginings (or "i-beliefs" or "i-desires")—are the crucial states involved in generating fiction-directed affect. A defense of the “Operator Claim” is mounted, according to which ‘in the fiction’ operators would be also be required within fiction-directed sui generis imaginings (or "i-beliefs" and "i-desires"), were there such. Once we appreciate that (...)
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  13. Inner Speech.Peter Langland-Hassan - forthcoming - WIREs Cognitive Science.
    Inner speech travels under many aliases: the inner voice, verbal thought, thinking in words, internal verbalization, “talking in your head,” the “little voice in the head,” and so on. It is both a familiar element of first-person experience and a psychological phenomenon whose complex cognitive components and distributed neural bases are increasingly well understood. There is evidence that inner speech plays a variety of cognitive roles, from enabling abstract thought, to supporting metacognition, memory, and executive function. One active area of (...)
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  14. Assessing Abstract Thought and its Relation to Language with a New Nonverbal Paradigm: Evidence From Aphasia.Peter Langland-Hassan, Frank R. Faries, Maxwell Gatyas, Aimee Dietz & Michael J. Richardson - 2021 - Cognition 211:104622.
    In recent years, language has been shown to play a number of important cognitive roles over and above the communication of thoughts. One hypothesis gaining support is that language facilitates thought about abstract categories, such as democracy or prediction. To test this proposal, a novel set of semantic memory task trials, designed for assessing abstract thought non-linguistically, were normed for levels of abstractness. The trials were rated as more or less abstract to the degree that answering them required the participant (...)
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  15.  44
    Inner Speech: New Voices.Peter Langland-Hassan & Agustin Vicente (eds.) - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    Much of what we say is never said aloud. It occurs only silently, as inner speech. We chastise, congratulate, joke and cajole, all without making a sound. This distinctively human ability to create public language in the privacy of our own minds is no less remarkable for its familiarity. And yet, until recently, inner speech remained at the periphery of philosophical and psychological theorizing. This essay collection, from an interdisciplinary group of leading philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists, displays the rapidly growing (...)
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  16. Remembering, Imagining, and Memory Traces: Toward a Continuist Causal Theory.Peter Langland-Hassan - forthcoming - In Christopher McCarroll, Kourken Michaelian & Andre Sant'Anna (eds.), Current Controversies in Philosophy of Memory. Routledge.
    The (dis)continuism debate in the philosophy and cognitive science of memory concerns whether remembering is continuous with episodic future thought and episodic counterfactual thought in being a form of constructive imagining. I argue that settling that dispute will hinge on whether the memory traces (or “engrams”) that support remembering impose arational, perception-like constraints that are too strong for remembering to constitute a kind of constructive imagining. In exploring that question, I articulate two conceptions of memory traces—the replay theory and the (...)
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  17.  38
    Religious Attitudes Towards Living Kidney Donation Among Dutch Renal Patients.Sohal Y. Ismail, Emma K. Massey, Annemarie E. Luchtenburg, Lily Claassens, Willij C. Zuidema, Jan J. V. Busschbach & Willem Weimar - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2):221-227.
    Terminal kidney patients are faced with lower quality of life, restricted diets and higher morbidity and mortality rates while waiting for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Fortunately, living kidney donation has proven to be a better treatment alternative (e.g. in terms of waiting time and graft survival rates). We observed an inequality in the number of living kidney transplantations performed between the non-European and the European patients in our center. Such inequality has been also observed elsewhere in this field and it (...)
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  18. Inner Speech and Metacognition: In Search of a Connection.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2014 - Mind and Language 29 (5):511-533.
    Many theorists claim that inner speech is importantly linked to human metacognition (thinking about one's own thinking). However, their proposals all rely upon unworkable conceptions of the content and structure of inner speech episodes. The core problem is that they require inner speech episodes to have both auditory-phonological contents and propositional/semantic content. Difficulties for the views emerge when we look closely at how such contents might be integrated into one or more states or processes. The result is that, if inner (...)
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  19. Creativity.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2020 - In Explaining Imagination. Oxford: pp. 262-296.
    Comparatively easy questions we might ask about creativity are distinguished from the hard question of explaining transformative creativity. Many have focused on the easy questions, offering no reason to think that the imagining relied upon in creative cognition cannot be reduced to more basic folk psychological states. The relevance of associative thought processes to songwriting is then explored as a means for understanding the nature of transformative creativity. Productive artificial neural networks—known as generative antagonistic networks (GANs)—are a recent example of (...)
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  20. What It Is to Pretend.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2014 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):397-420.
    Pretense is a topic of keen interest to philosophers and psychologists. But what is it, really, to pretend? What features qualify an act as pretense? Surprisingly little has been said on this foundational question. Here I defend an account of what it is to pretend, distinguishing pretense from a variety of related but distinct phenomena, such as (mere) copying and practicing. I show how we can distinguish pretense from sincerity by sole appeal to a person's beliefs, desires, and intentions – (...)
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  21.  8
    Mathematics and the Mind: An Introduction Into Ibn Sīnā’s Theory of Knowledge.Hassan Tahiri - 2015 - Springer Verlag.
    Few philosophers that have been studied as much as Ibn Sīnā have been as much misunderstood. His extraordinary ability to reflect upon and write in a variety of styles about seemingly every topic in every domain has steered his thought from philosophy and theology to mysticism and esoterism. Instead of helping us to learn and understand better Ibn Sīnā than he has previously been understood, the recent surge of Avicennan studies only adds more confusion to the already complex social context (...)
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  22.  14
    Open-World Probabilistic Databases: Semantics, Algorithms, Complexity.İsmail İlkan Ceylan, Adnan Darwiche & Guy Van den Broeck - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 295:103474.
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  23. Fractured Phenomenologies: Thought Insertion, Inner Speech, and the Puzzle of Extraneity.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (4):369-401.
    Abstract: How it is that one's own thoughts can seem to be someone else's? After noting some common missteps of other approaches to this puzzle, I develop a novel cognitive solution, drawing on and critiquing theories that understand inserted thoughts and auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia as stemming from mismatches between predicted and actual sensory feedback. Considerable attention is paid to forging links between the first-person phenomenology of thought insertion and the posits (e.g. efference copy, corollary discharge) of current cognitive (...)
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  24. Introspective Misidentification.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (7):1737-1758.
    It is widely held that introspection-based self-ascriptions of mental states are immune to error through misidentification , relative to the first person pronoun. Many have taken such errors to be logically impossible, arguing that the immunity holds as an “absolute” necessity. Here I discuss an actual case of craniopagus twins—twins conjoined at the head and brain—as a means to arguing that such errors are logically possible and, for all we know, nomologically possible. An important feature of the example is that (...)
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  25.  6
    The Effect of the Fear of COVID-19 on Healthcare Professionals’ Psychological Adjustment Skills: Mediating Role of Experiential Avoidance and Psychological Resilience.İsmail Seçer, Sümeyye Ulaş & Zeynep Karaman-Özlü - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  26. Imagining Experiences.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2016 - Noûs:561-586.
    It is often held that in imagining experiences we exploit a special imagistic way of representing mentality—one that enables us to think about mental states in terms of what it is like to have them. According to some, when this way of thinking about the mind is paired with more objective means, an explanatory gap between the phenomenal and physical features of mental states arises. This paper advances a view along those lines, but with a twist. What many take for (...)
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  27. Inner Speech: New Voices -- Introduction.Peter Langland-Hassan & Agustin Vicente - 2018 - In Peter Langland-Hassan & Agustin Vicente (eds.), Inner Speech: New Voices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This is the introductory chapter to the anthology: Inner Speech: New Voices, to be published in fall 2018 by OUP. It gives an overview of current debates in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience concerning inner speech, and situates the chapters of the volume with respect to those debates.
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  28.  8
    Rethinking Our Understanding of Diagrams.Kamaran Fathulla - 2011 - Semiotica 2011 (184):123-137.
    The role and value of diagrams in advancing human knowledge throughout history is evident in the literature. However, persistent evidence from the research and practitioner communities from across a range of disciplines points to difficulties and problems with understanding and using diagrams. Whether it is at the application level or as an abstract definition, our existing frameworks for understanding diagrams reduce the full meaning of diagrams to a single perspective or emphasis. This paper advocates placing multi-aspectual human functioning in a (...)
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  29. Hearing a Voice as One’s Own: Two Views of Inner Speech Self-Monitoring Deficits in Schizophrenia.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (3):675-699.
    Many philosophers and psychologists have sought to explain experiences of auditory verbal hallucinations and “inserted thoughts” in schizophrenia in terms of a failure on the part of patients to appropriately monitor their own inner speech. These self-monitoring accounts have recently been challenged by some who argue that AVHs are better explained in terms of the spontaneous activation of auditory-verbal representations. This paper defends two kinds of self-monitoring approach against the spontaneous activation account. The defense requires first making some important clarifications (...)
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  30.  18
    İsmail Hikmetî and His Divan.Fatih Sona - 2012 - Journal of Turkish Studies 7:2287-2298.
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  31. Inner Speech Deficits in People with Aphasia.Peter Langland-Hassan, Frank R. Faries, Michael J. Richardson & Aimee Dietz - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:1-10.
    Despite the ubiquity of inner speech in our mental lives, methods for objectively assessing inner speech capacities remain underdeveloped. The most common means of assessing inner speech is to present participants with tasks requiring them to silently judge whether two words rhyme. We developed a version of this task to assess the inner speech of a population of patients with aphasia and corresponding language production deficits. As expected, patients’ performance on the silent rhyming task was severely impaired relative to controls. (...)
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  32. From Introspection to Essence: The Auditory Nature of Inner Speech.Peter Langland-Hassan - forthcoming - In Peter Langland-Hassan & Agustin Vicente (eds.), Inner Speech: New Voices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    To some it is a shallow platitude that inner speech always has an auditory-phonological component. To others, it is an empirical hypothesis with accumulating support. To yet others it is a false dogma. In this chapter, I defend the claim that inner speech always has an auditory-phonological component, confining the claim to adults with ordinary speech and hearing. It is one thing, I emphasize, to assert that inner speech often, or even typically, has an auditory-phonological component—quite another to propose that (...)
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  33. A Puzzle About Visualization.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2011 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):145-173.
    Visual imagination (or visualization) is peculiar in being both free, in that what we imagine is up to us, and useful to a wide variety of practical reasoning tasks. How can we rely upon our visualizations in practical reasoning if what we imagine is subject to our whims? The key to answering this puzzle, I argue, is to provide an account of what constrains the sequence in which the representations featured in visualization unfold—an account that is consistent with its freedom. (...)
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  34. Self-Knowledge and Imagination.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2015 - Philosophical Explorations 18 (2):226-245.
    How do we know when we have imagined something? How do we distinguish our imaginings from other kinds of mental states we might have? These questions present serious, if often overlooked, challenges for theories of introspection and self-knowledge. This paper looks specifically at the difficulties imagination creates for Neo-Expressivist, outward-looking, and inner sense theories of self-knowledge. A path forward is then charted, by considering the connection between the kinds of situations in which we can reliably say that another person is (...)
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  35.  62
    Secret Charades: Reply to Hutto.Peter Langland-Hassan - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-5.
    In reply to Daniel Hutto's "Getting Real About Pretense," I defend my theory of pretense against his claim that it is subject to counterexamples by clarifying the value of the analysis. Then I argue that the central challenge still facing Hutto's "primacy of practice" approach, as well as other 4E approaches to pretense, is to explain the link between pretense and deception.
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  36. Virtue and the Problem of Egoism in Schopenhauer's Moral Philosophy.Patrick Hassan - forthcoming - In Schopenhauer's Moral Philosophy. Routledge.
    It has previously been argued that Schopenhauer is a distinctive type of virtue ethicist (Hassan, 2019). The Aristotelian version of virtue ethics has traditionally been accused of being fundamentally egoistic insofar as the possession of virtues is beneficial to the possessor, and serve as the ultimate justification for obtaining them. Indeed, Schopenhauer himself makes a version of this complaint. In this chapter, I investigate whether Schopenhauer’s moral framework nevertheless suffers from this same objection of egoism in light of how (...)
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  37.  10
    YILDIRIM, İsmail Milli Mücadele'nin Başlangıcında Eskişehir , Eskişehir.Handan Haykir - 2014 - Journal of Turkish Studies 9 (Volume 9 Issue 4):1273-1273.
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  38. The Importance of Flexibility in Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Heritage: Learning From Iranian Cases.Hassan Bazazzadeh, Adam Nadolny, Asma Mehan & Seyedeh Sara Hashemi Safaei - 2021 - International Journal of Conservation Science 12 (1):113-128.
    In recent years, the significance of industrial heritage has seemed to become a growing trend in international heritage studies. Concerning their attributed values and the crucial needs for urban development, this branch of cultural heritage has been considered the important grid of cities. This has caused a great acceptance of adaptive reuse practices especially among developing countries which is a smart response to an ongoing debate to reach sustainable development. The flexibility of these buildings and sites seems an important criterion, (...)
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  39.  8
    An Investigation Into Ethical Issues in Occupational Therapists in Adult with Physical Disabilities: Using the Qualitative Approach.Hassan Vahidi & Narges Shafaroodi - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092097179.
    Background Occupational therapists may be encountered with a variety of ethical issues. The aim of this study was to explore ethical issues of Occupational therapist’s practice in adult physical dysfunction field. Methods Ten graduated Occupational therapists were selected by purposive sampling method. Data were gathered by semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed by content analysis approach. Results Data analysis ultimately leads to the emergence of three themes which reflects Ethical issues in Occupational Therapy. These themes include: unethical practice of Occupational therapists, (...)
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  40.  3
    Should Free-Text Data in Electronic Medical Records Be Shared for Research? A Citizens’ Jury Study in the UK.Elizabeth Ford, Malcolm Oswald, Lamiece Hassan, Kyle Bozentko, Goran Nenadic & Jackie Cassell - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):367-377.
    BackgroundUse of routinely collected patient data for research and service planning is an explicit policy of the UK National Health Service and UK government. Much clinical information is recorded in free-text letters, reports and notes. These text data are generally lost to research, due to the increased privacy risk compared with structured data. We conducted a citizens’ jury which asked members of the public whether their medical free-text data should be shared for research for public benefit, to inform an ethical (...)
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  41.  69
    A Not Imaginative Solution to the Paradox of Fiction.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2020 - In Explaining Imagination. Oxford University Press. pp. 234-261.
    The chapter considers the “paradox of fiction,” understood as the claim that it is in some sense irrational or inappropriate to respond emotionally to mere fictions. Several theorists have held that special features of imagination, or other “arational” mental reflexes, play a role in its resolution. I argue, to the contrary, that imagination need not enter into the solution, and that the paradox can be resolved in a way that shows our responses to fictions to be reasonable and warranted, even (...)
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  42. Karl Popper's Critique of Idealism.İsmail Kurun - 2018 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 8 (1):273-301.
    Karl Popper’s critique of idealism manifests itself with the application of his method, falsificationism, to metaphysics, epistemology, and social and political philosophy. According to Popper, who identifies himself as a philosophical realist, idealism has emerged as a result of the idea that reality cannot be known by reason and of the search for certainty which is erroneous, and it has begotten two mistaken and detrimental views. These views are historicism, the notion that history has an irresistible course, and holism, the (...)
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  43.  34
    The Trans-Iranian Railway: A UNESCO World Heritage Site.Hassan Bazazzadeh, Mohsen Ghomeshi & Asma Mehan - 2022 - TICCIH Bulletin 95:31-33.
    The construction of railways has been one of the symbols of advanced technology and modernity in various societies and is known as a means of expanding and transferring goods, men, and their ideas. During the political-economic circumstances of the second half of the 19th century, the first rail line of Iran was built under the Qajar rule. This was an 8 km railway to connect Tehran to Rey with some small wagons, most local people tended to call it Mashin-Doodi, which (...)
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  44.  6
    L’oppression des communautés autochtones hindoues au Pakistan.Sibth Ul Hassan, Usman Ashraf & Michèle Collin - 2019 - Multitudes 2:200.
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  45.  32
    Organic Unity and the Heroic: Nietzsche's Aestheticization of Suffering.Patrick Hassan - 2022 - In Daniel Came (ed.), Nietzsche on Morality and the Affirmation of Life.
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  46.  3
    YILDIRIM, İsmail Cumhuriyet Döneminde Demiryolları , Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Yayınları.Yavuz Haykir - 2014 - Journal of Turkish Studies 9 (Volume 9 Issue 4):1277-1277.
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  47.  2
    The Mediator Role of Academic Resilience in the Relationship of Anxiety Sensitivity, Social and Adaptive Functioning, and School Refusal With School Attachment in High School Students.İsmail Seçer & Sümeyye Ulaş - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  48.  95
    Propping up the causal theory.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-27.
    Martin and Deutscher’s causal theory of remembering holds that a memory trace serves as a necessary causal link between any genuine episode of remembering and the event it enables one to recall. In recent years, the causal theory has come under fire from researchers across philosophy and cognitive science, who argue that results from the scientific study of memory are incompatible with the kinds of memory traces that Martin and Deutscher hold essential to remembering. Of special note, these critics observe, (...)
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  49.  8
    Kit'b-ı Ata-Dede'deki Karışık Dil Özellikleri.İsmail GÜNEŞ - 2015 - Journal of Turkish Studies 10 (Volume 10 Issue 16):605-605.
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  50. Metacognitive Deficits in Categorization Tasks in a Population with Impaired Inner Speech.Peter Langland-Hassan, Christopher Gauker, Michael J. Richardson, Aimee Deitz & Frank F. Faries - 2017 - Acta Psychologica 181:62-74.
    This study examines the relation of language use to a person’s ability to perform categorization tasks and to assess their own abilities in those categorization tasks. A silent rhyming task was used to confirm that a group of people with post-stroke aphasia (PWA) had corresponding covert language production (or “inner speech”) impairments. The performance of the PWA was then compared to that of age- and education-matched healthy controls on three kinds of categorization tasks and on metacognitive self-assessments of their performance (...)
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