In the West, it is widely believed that, since Africans lack an emotional experience with romanticism and transcendentalism, they do not possess the philosophical prerequisites necessary to protect wilderness. However, the West’s disdain for African systems of thought has precluded examination of customary African views of wilderness. Examination of ethnographic reports on Kenya’s Highland Bantu reveals a complex view of phenomena that the West generally associates with wilderness. For the Bantu, wilderness is an extension of human living space, and through (...) concerted social action rather than individual initiative, it is, or at least can be, dominated by society. Wildlife is unnatural and alienated from human society, which is natural. Because wilderness is, consequently, understood to be fearsome and hostile, it is not a place that can provide inspiration or self-actualization. Almost all forests have a special spiritual relationship with humankind, and some trees have a special relationship with God. Althoughtraditional Bantu thought is contrary to a concept of wilderness as conserved, managed space filled with tourists and recreators, it does embrace a concept of wilderness as wildlands. The Bantu have gone to considerable length to develop an approach to wilderness that minimizes individual contact while requiring association with wilderness as a social activity. Population growth and want of vocational opportunities continue to thrust Highland Bantu into wilderness as a fundamental and traditional survival technique. (shrink)
Ji Kang’s “An Essay on Nourishing Life” has, for much of its history, been overshadowed by his more famous work “Sound is without Grief or Joy.” Be that as it may, “An Essay on Nourishing Life” is also an important text in that it delves into the interdependence of the heart-mind, spirit, and vital breath, and into how harmony between them is the key to ensuring physical longevity. In addition to investigating this aspect of his thought, this paper will also (...) discuss Ji Kang’s attention to the vicissitudes of knowledge and desire and to the need to temper them with tranquility and stillness. “An Essay on Nourishing Life” can thus be read as an extension of classical Daoist theories of self-cultivation while at the same time elaborating upon them by bringing together their disparate components into a coherently unified doctrine. (shrink)
El texto es un manifiesto de las autoridades tradicionales U'wa Werjain Shita, en las que reafirman sus principios y convicciones, y denuncian las malas prácticas y mala conciencia del hombre blanco. Afirman su decisión de defender su Tierra, y proclaman que con cada especie que desaparece y con cada pueblo originario que se extingue, la comunidad humana se empequeñece.
Reviews : Zygmunt Bauman, Intimations of Postmodernity ; Steven Seidman and David G. Wagner , Postmodernism and Social Theory ; Stephen Crook, Jan Pakulski and Malcolm Wa ters, Postmodernization: Change in Advanced Society ; Gianni Vattimo, The End of Modernity—Nihilism and Hermeneutics in Post-modern Culture.
Wei-Jin period is characterized by neo-Daoism ( xuanxue 玄學), and J I Kang lived in the midst of this philosophical exploration. Adopting the naturalism of the Zhuangzi , J i Kang expressed his socio-political concerns through the medium of music, which was previously regarded as having moral bearing and rectitude. Denying such rectitude became central for J i Kang, who claimed that music was incapable of possessing human emotion, releasing it from the chains of Confucian ritualism. His investigation into the (...) name and reality of musical expression gave music an “aesthetic turn” lacking in Qin and early Han thought, and by making use of concepts such as natural harmony and spontaneity, J i Kang was able to turn away from the negative aesthetics of earlier thinkers such as H e Yan and W ang Bi to one cherishing the naturalism espoused by Zhuangzi. (shrink)
Ji Kang was a noted thinker, man of letters, and musician of the period of the Three Kingdoms and of the state of Cao-Wei. His thought possessed very salient characteristics of the spirit of those times. Since the decline of the Han dynasty, owing to the turmoil of the society and internal developments within Chinese thought, the classical scholarship [jing xue] of the earlier and latter Han dynasties had gradually but steadily begun to lose its role and ability to maintain (...) orthodox dominance over thought. In the period after the Eastern Han, some keen-thinking people started afresh and began to explore once again and reevaluate the real value and meaning of humanity and that of the world as a whole. This kind of exploration led to an intellectual return to the world itself , or, a return to "nature." One might say that the exaltation of "nature" was the spirit of the age for the Wei-Jin period—its zeitgeist, if you will. One could also go on to say that this spirit reached its peak of development in the ideas of Ruan Ji and Ji Kang. Ruan Ji and Ji Kang both considered nature [ziran] to be the supreme existence and the highest law and principle. They believed that: "Heaven and Earth [tiandi] are born of nature [ziran], then all things [wanwu] are born of Heaven and Earth.". (shrink)
a houseis a structure that provides shelter for humanity. Studies have shown that in most parts of the world, urban rents are determined by various factors. These factors include location, level of facilities and services, neighborhood characteristics, space etcetera. Among these factors, the most influencing factor of rent in Wa Municipality is the level of facilities and services provided for tenant use. The objectives of this research was to examine the cost of housing construction, to determine the role played by (...) government in housing provision, recommend policies for housing provision, determine the portion of household income spent on rent. The methodology of this research is base on interplay of deskwork and fieldwork and these took the form of data collection, presentation and data analysis of findings. In the course of this study, both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary data were collected. A summary of the findings from the research indicates that: cost of building materials is the major contributory factor to the cost of construction aside land and labour cost, the existing rent control law as currently operated have little or no impact on rent charged in the Municipality, current rent levels in the municipality are deemed to be satisfactory, besides the already documented rent determinants, population, occupation, and prospective duration of lease were also identified. One other major finding was that landlords do not take into account the room v let but take into consideration the number of people occupying the room to charge their rent and as such tenants who cannot afford to pay the full recoverable rent has to search for tenants they don‟t know. The group recommends that, There should be given a high priority to local building materials, which could reduce the cost of building and the improvement of the supply chain of various building materials; there should be a mechanism that would ensure that the Rent Control Board, the house owners and tenants would be provided with a platform where consensus building can be done in order to ensure transparency in rent charge Finally, the government should also urge the exemption of value added taxes on building components sourced locally as well as import duties on imported goods. (shrink)
In this article, the author attempts to explicate the notion of the best known Talmudic inference rule called qal wa- omer. He claims that this rule assumes a massive-parallel deduction, and for formalizing it, he builds up a case of massive-parallel proof theory, the proof-theoretic cellular automata, where he draws conclusions without using axioms.
Este artículo se basa en el capítulo de Ibo Ruid sobre los atributos qa'd wa-qadar de Alláb, que se ocupa del concepto de "predestinación", como ejemplo de una aproximación racionalista que introduce conceptos filosóficos en un viejo debate religioso. Es mi propósito presentar el argumento de Ibo RuId que contiene inequívocas alusiones aristotélicas; por tanto, la armonización de la religión y la filosofia implícita en sus argumentos es uno de los puntos que trataré de explorar en este trabajo. Igualmenle, estoy (...) interesada en la cuestión de si las soluciones propuestas por Ibo Ruid suponen un térmimo medio entre dos posiciones enfrentadas y resuelven el eterno problema del determinismo. Este trabajo discute también si lbn Ruid defiende la predestinación, es decir, la cuestión de si los sucesos están predeterminados por Dios antes de que tengan lugar. (shrink)
Traducción y estudio de la sección 11,2,12-14 del Maymar fi "wupud al-Haliq wa-l-din al-qawim" de Teodoro Abu Qurrah. Buscando demostrar que el cristianismo es la única religión verdadera, Abu Qurrah plantea un método analítico de corte apologético que desarrolla a partir de criterios racionalistas de naturaleza comparatista, adoptando para ello un discurso expositivo, moralista o escriturista en cada caso, de acuerdo con sus necesidades.
Abú Hayyán al-Tawhidi (d. 414/1023) actively contributed to the rich and diverse debate that took place in all fields of adab in the middle Abbasid period. In the 251h night of this Kitab al-imta wal-l-ma ánasa, al-Tawhidi talks about the respective virtues of poetry and prose. This highly entertaining debate where jest and earnest (jidd wa-hazl) are skillfully interwoven, also stands under the influence of Aristotelian ideas that were applied lo literary theory. The article offer> a commented translation with references (...) to other contemporary sources. (shrink)
Graeco-Arabic studies, or the study of the translations of classical Greek works into Arabic during the early ‘Abbāsid caliphate of the Arabs , is a field that is well known; it has been cultivated, with significant results for the study of medieval Islamic civilization, for more than a century and a half now. What is less well known is the opposite trend of translations from Arabic into Greek, which began after the Photian renaissance — as a direct result, I have (...) claimed, of the Graeco-Arabic translation movement — and is of comparable significance for the study of Byzantine civilization. For reasons that it might be interesting to investigate at some point, Byzantinists have shied away from Arabo-Greek studies, to the great detriment of a deepened study of Byzantine writings, especially the scientific literature. The book by Dr. Hélène Condylis under review here, a study of the Greek translation of the famous Arabic book of fables Kalīla wa-Dimna , finally breaks open this unduly neglected area and makes a most impressive first contribution to Arabo-Greek studies that will, in years to come, be considered as pioneering. (shrink)
Ji Kang was a great writer and thinker of the Wei-Jin period. He said that he was "indebted to Laozi and Zhuangzi" , and that "Laozi and Zhuangzi are my teachers" . But unlike He Yan and Wang Bi, Ji Kang did not accept Laozi's idea that "Being comes from Nonbeing." He did not take the mental construct of "Nonbeing" as the source or origin of the universe, nor did he, as some comrades suggest, take the material, physical "qi" as (...) the foundation of the existence of all things in the universe. In Ji Kang's view, "Where is this Being and Nonbeing?" That is, why should we conceive of "Being" or "Nonbeing" as the source or origin of the universe? He proposed transcending totally the mysticism of "Being" and "Nonbeing." The present article will discuss a few aspects of this question. (shrink)
Scopo del saggio è confrontare alcune tra le principali visiones della letteratura occidentale – tra cui la Visio Pauli e la Commedia – e le diverse redazioni della tradizione islamica dell’ascensione celeste e viaggio oltremondano del profeta Muhammad, nel tentativo di stabilire se le affinità, tematiche e strutturali, osservabili tra i due gruppi di testi siano frutto di semplice poligenesi o vadano piuttosto spiegate con rapporti di effettiva intertestualità.Tra le visiones, la tradizione mirajica e la Commedia si instaura dunque un (...) dialogo a tre voci, o di sinfonia, i cui temi principali si arricchiscono e si richiamano a vicenda. Dante, primo comparatista, è in grado di reinventare, armonizzandoli, elementi strutturali e tematici provenienti sia dalle visiones latine che dalla tradizione islamica del Isra’ wa’ l Mi‘râj.The purpose of this essay is to make a confrontation between the main important visiones of the Occidental Literature – also the Visio Pauli and the Dante’s Commedia – anche the various redactions of the Islamic Isra’ wa-l mi’râj. The confrontation is in order to establish if the remarked affinities are just due to polygenesis or rather caused by concrete intertestuality.Between the visiones, the mirajic tradition and the Commedia we are in front of a three voices dialogue: it’s like a symphony, in which the themes enriches themselves and, at least, the arrive to Dante for being harmonized. Dante is the first comparatist. (shrink)
It is dwelling that allows mortals to initiate themselves in time and space. As such, dwelling constitutes the event of being. In his essay “Building Dwelling Thinking,” Martin Heidegger stipulates that dwelling can only be achieved through harmonious relations among the constituents, earth, sky, mortals and gods, of the “fourfold.” Heidegger writes, “To preserve the fourfold, to save the earth, to receive the sky, to await the divinities, to initiate mortals – this fourfold preserving is the simple essence of dwelling.” (...) Initiating themselves in time and space is the great difficulty that the residents of Ilmorog, the remote village in postcolonial Kenya in which Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s novel Petals of Blood is set, experience; in Petals of Blood, dwelling is what defines mortals’ being. (shrink)
Traducción y estudio de la sección II,2,12-14 del Maymar fÌ wuÞñd al-.ªliq wa-l-dÌn al-qawÌm de Teodoro Abñ Qurrah. Buscando demostrar que el cristianismo es la única religión verdadera, Abñ Qurrah plantea un método analítico de corte apologético que desarrolla a partir de criterios racionalistas de naturaleza comparatista, adoptando para ello un discurso expositivo, moralista o escriturista en cada caso, de acuerdo con sus necesidades.
Moroccan congregational mosques are equipped with a minbar (pulpit) which is used for the Friday sermon. Many mosques in Morocco are also equipped with one or more smaller chairs, which differ in their form and function from the minbar. These chairs are used by professors to give regular lectures to students of traditional education, and by scholars to give occasional lectures to the general public. This tradition of the professorial chair was probably introduced to Morocco from the Middle East in (...) the thirteenth century. Most of the existing chairs in Morocco seem to date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and they continue to be made and used today. The chairs always have two steps, a seat, a backrest and armrests. This form probably evokes the original minbar of the Prophet in Medina, which had two steps and a seat, and this is one of many aspects of the conservatism and se parate evolution of Moroccan Malikism. (shrink)