Results for 'Kantian ethics'

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  1.  73
    Debunking Confabulation: Emotions and the Significance of Empirical Psychology for Kantian Ethics.Pauline Kleingeld - 2014 - In Alix Cohen (ed.), Kant on Emotion and Value. Palgrave. pp. 145-165.
    It is frequently argued that research findings in empirical moral psychology spell trouble for Kantian ethics. Sometimes the charge is merely that Kantianism is mistaken about the role of emotions in human action, but it has also been argued that empirical moral psychology ‘debunks’ Kantian ethics as the product of precisely the emotion-driven processes it fails to acknowledge. In this essay I argue for a negative and a positive thesis. The negative thesis is that the ‘debunking’ (...)
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  2.  51
    Review of Allen W. Wood, Kantian Ethics[REVIEW]Noell Birondo - 2008 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (6).
    Two perennial doubts can linger in the minds of people working in the history of philosophy. Those who approach philosophical problems in a systematic, analytic spirit may come to think that work in the history of philosophy fails to amount to genuine philosophy; and those who are more historically-minded may come to think that the very same work fails to amount to genuine history. In this rich and rewarding new book, Allen Wood nevertheless succeeds in delivering a defense of (...) ethics that should satisfy, in terms of its philosophical credentials, any philosopher interested in ethics; and it should also satisfy, in terms of its historical credentials, anyone interested in the ethical thought of Immanuel Kant himself. (shrink)
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  3.  6
    Kantian Ethics: Indian Responses (Ethics-1, M24).Shyam Ranganathan - 2016 - In A. Raghuramaraju (ed.), Philosophy, E-PG Pathshala. Delhi: India, Department of Higher Education (NMEICT).
    In this lesson, I review critical responses to Kant that can be understood as having non-Western, Indian roots. One criticism is articulated by the famous contemporary moral philosopher, Thomas Nagel. While Nagel is not a Buddhist, his criticism of Kant’s ethics is Buddhist in essence. The other response is based on an appreciation of the philosophy of Yoga. Yoga and Kantian thought are both versions of a kind of moral philosophy, which we could call Explanatory Dualism. Moreover, Yoga (...)
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  4.  8
    Imprudence and Immorality: A Kantian Approach to the Ethics of Financial Risk.Tobey K. Scharding - 2015 - Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (2):243-265.
    This paper takes up recent challenges to consequentialist forms of ethically evaluating risks and explores how a non-consequentialist form of deliberation, Kantian ethics, can address questions about risk. I examine two cases concerning ethically- questionable financial risks: investing in abstruse financial instruments and investing while relying on a bailout. After challenging consequentialist evaluations of these cases, I use Kant’s distinction between morals and prudence to evaluate when the investments are immoral and when they are merely imprudent. I argue (...)
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  5. Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology.Marcia Baron - 1995 - Cornell University Press.
    The emphasis on duly in Kant's ethics is widely held to constitute a defect. Marcia W. Baron develops and assesses the criticism, which she sees as comprising two objections: that duty plays too large a role, leaving no room for the supererogatory, and that Kant places too much value on acting from duty. Clearly written and cogently argued, Kantian Ethics Almost without Apology takes on the most philosophically intriguing objections to Kant's ethics and subjects them to (...)
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  6.  96
    Kantian and Consequentialist Ethics: The Gap Can Be Bridged.Scott Forschler - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):88-104.
    Richard Hare argues that the fundamental assumptions of Kant's ethical system should have led Kant to utilitarianism, had Kant not confused a norm's generality with its universality, and hence adopted rigorist, deontological norms. Several authors, including Jens Timmermann, have argued contra Hare that the gap between Kantian and utilitarian/consequentialist ethics is fundamental and cannot be bridged. This article shows that Timmermann's claims rely on a systematic failure to separate normative and metaethical aspects of each view, and that Hare's (...)
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  7.  46
    From Supervenience to “Universal Law”: How Kantian Ethics Become Heteronomous.Scott Forschler - 2012 - In Dietmar Heidemann (ed.), Kant and Contemporary Moral Philosophy. De Gruyter.
    In his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant’s desiderata for a supreme principle of practical reasoning and morality require that the subjective conditions under which some action is thought of as justified via some maxim be sufficient for judging the same action as justified by any agent in those conditions. This describes the kind of universalization conditions now known as moral supervenience. But when he specifies his “formula of universal law” (FUL) Kant replaces this condition with a quite different (...)
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  8.  98
    Moral Self-Knowledge in Kantian Ethics.Emer O’Hagan - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (5):525-537.
    Kant’s duty of self-knowledge demands that one know one’s heart—the quality of one’s will in relation to duty. Self-knowledge requires that an agent subvert feelings which fuel self-aggrandizing narratives and increase self-conceit; she must adopt the standpoint of the rational agent constrained by the requirements of reason in order to gain information about her moral constitution. This is not I argue, contra Nancy Sherman, in order to assess the moral goodness of her conduct. Insofar as sound moral practice requires moral (...)
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  9.  62
    Perfecting Virtue: New Essays on Kantian Ethics and Virtue Ethics.Lawrence Jost & Julian Wuerth (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    In western philosophy today, the three leading approaches to normative ethics are those of Kantian ethics, virtue ethics and utilitarianism. In recent years the debate between Kantian ethicists and virtue ethicists has assumed an especially prominent position. The twelve newly commissioned essays in this volume, by leading scholars in both traditions, explore key aspects of each approach as related to the debate, and identify new common ground but also real and lasting differences between these approaches. (...)
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  10. Kantian Ethics.Allen W. Wood - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Allen Wood investigates Kant's conception of ethical theory, using it to develop a viable approach to the rights and moral duties of human beings. By remaining closer to Kant's own view of the aims of ethics, Wood's understanding of Kantian ethics differs from the received 'constructivist' interpretation, especially on such matters as the ground and function of ethical principles, the nature of ethical reasoning and autonomy as the ground of ethics. Wood does not (...)
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  11. Unsociable Sociability: The Anthropological Basis of Kantian Ethics.Allen W. Wood - 1991 - Philosophical Topics 19 (1):325-351.
    Kant holds that the moral principle is a priori, not empirical. But consistently with this, important parts of Kantian ethics, including his formulations of the moral principle, depend on a rich and interesting empirical theory of human nature.
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  12.  21
    Kantian Ethics and Economics: Autonomy, Dignity, and Character.Mark D. White - 2011 - Stanford University Press.
    This book introduces the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant—in particular, the concepts of autonomy, dignity, and character—to economic theory, explaining the importance of integrating these two streams of intellectual thought. Mainstream economics is rooted in classical utilitarianism, recommending that decision makers choose the options that are expected to generate the largest net benefits. For individuals, the standard economic model fails to incorporate the role of principles in decision-making, and also denies the possibility of true choice, which can be independent of (...)
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  13. Acting on Principle: An Essay on Kantian Ethics.Onora O'Neill - 1975 - Columbia University Press.
    'Two things', wrote Kant, 'fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe: the starry heavens above and the moral law within'. Many would argue that since Kant's day, the study of the starry heavens has advanced while ethics has stagnated, and in particular that Kant's ethics offers an empty formalism that tells us nothing about how we should live. In Acting on Principle Onora O'Neill shows that Kantian ethics has practical as well as (...)
     
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  14.  88
    Virtue Ethics, Kantian Ethics, and Consequentialism.Jane Singleton - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Research 27:537-551.
    Contemporary theories of Virtue Ethics are often presented as being in opposition to Kantian Ethics and Consequentialism. It is argued that Virtue Ethics takes as fundamental the question, “What sort of character would a virtuous person have?” and that Kantian Ethics and Consequentialism take as fundamental the question, “What makes an action right?” I argue that this opposition is misconceived. The opposition is rather between Virtue Ethics and Kantian Ethics on the (...)
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  15.  60
    Morality and the Pursuit of Happiness : A Study in Kantian Ethics.Johan Brännmark - unknown
    This work seeks to develop a Kantian ethical theory in terms of a general ontology of values and norms together with a metaphysics of the person that makes sense of this ontology. It takes as its starting point Kant’s assertion that a good will is the only thing that has an unconditioned value and his accompanying view that the highest good consists in virtue and happiness in proportion to virtue. The soundness of Kant’s position on the value of the (...)
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  16.  4
    Does Kantian Ethics Condone Mood and Cognitive Enhancement?Robert R. Clewis - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-13.
    The author examines whether Kantian ethics would condone the use of pharmaceutical drugs to enhance one’s moods and cognitive abilities. If key assumptions concerning safety and efficacy, non-addictiveness, non-coercion, and accessibility are not met, Kantian ethics would consider mood and cognitive enhancement to be impermissible. But what if these assumptions are granted? The arguments for the permissibility of neuroenhancement are stronger than those against it. After giving a general account of Kantian ethical principles, the author (...)
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  17.  1
    Love, Respect, and Individuals: Murdoch as a Guide to Kantian Ethics.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (2).
    I reconsider the relation between love and respect in Kantian ethics, taking as my guide Iris Murdoch's view of love as the fundamental moral attitude and a kind of attention to individuals. It is widely supposed that Kantian ethics disregards individuals, since we don't respect individuals but the universal quality of personhood they instantiate. We need not draw this conclusion if we recognise that Kant and Murdoch share a view about the centrality of love to virtue. (...)
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  18.  55
    Kantian Ethics Today.William K. Frankena - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Research 15:47-55.
    Kantian ethics is both very much alive and very much under attack in recent moral philosophy, and so I propose to review some of the discussion, though I must say in advance that my review will have to be incomplete and oversimplified in various ways.
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  19.  34
    The Right to Lie: Kantian Ethics and the Inquiring Murderer.Richard McCarty - 2012 - American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (4):331-344.
    Few challenges facing Kantian ethics are more famous and formidable than the so-called "case of the inquiring murderer." It appears in some form today in most introductory ethics texts, but it is not a new objection. Even Kant himself was compelled to respond to it, though by most accounts his response was embarrassingly unpersuasive. A more satisfactory reply can be offered to this old objection, however. It will be shown here that Kantian ethics permits lying (...)
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  20.  54
    What Can A Robot Teach Us About Kantian Ethics?," in Process".Anthony F. Beavers - unknown
    In this paper, I examine a variety of agents that appear in Kantian ethics in order to determine which would be necessary to make a robot a genuine moral agent. However, building such an agent would require that we structure into a robot’s behavioral repertoire the possibility for immoral behavior, for only then can the moral law, according to Kant, manifest itself as an ought, a prerequisite for being able to hold an agent morally accountable for its actions. (...)
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  21.  1
    Heideggerian Ethics and Kantian Ethics: Diverging Interpretations in Contemporary French Debate.Luca Serafini - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-17.
    The purpose of this paper is to show how the interaction between Kantian ethics and some aspects of Heideggerian philosophy can lead to the model of a subject in immediate relationship with others and with his or her community. The positions of Jean-Luc Nancy and Jacques Derrida on this question are presented in contrast with those of Alain Renaut and Emmanuel Lévinas to elucidate their differing ways of interpreting the relationship between Kant and Heidegger with regard to (...), apriorism, and subjectivity. (shrink)
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  22.  14
    Kantian Ethics and Intimate Attachments.Anthony Cunningham - 1999 - American Philosophical Quarterly 36 (4):279 - 294.
    This essay questions whether recent attempts to reconcile Kantian ethics and intimate attachments can be successful. Defenders have argued that Kantian commitments would leave enough room to pursue the sorts of intimate attachments that provide so much of the meaning and structures of most lives. However, close attention to the letter and spirit of Kant's ethics suggests that imperfect duties would demand far more of conscientious Kantians than defenders have acknowledged. The duties to prevent injustice and (...)
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  23.  14
    Moral Worth and Inclinations in Kantian Ethics.Christian Onof - unknown
    This paper addresses the issue of making sense of Kant’s notion of moral worth. Kant’s identification in GMM1 I of the good will as the unconditional good leads to understanding the moral worth of human agency in ways which, some critics claim, is at odds with our moral intuitions. By first focusing upon how Kant singles out action out of duty as characteristic of the good will, we shall show that a covert assumption about our nature potentially weakens the force (...)
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  24.  8
    "Immigration," "Immanuel Kant", and "Kantian Ethics".Harry van der Linden - unknown
    Three encyclopedia entries: "Immigration," published in Ethics, Revised Edition, pages 715-17, reprinted by permission of the publisher Salem Press. Copyright, ©, 2004 by Salem Press. "Immanuel Kant," published in Ethics, Revised Edition, pages 804-06, reprinted by permission of the publisher Salem Press. Copyright, ©, 2004 by Salem Press. "Kantian Ethics," published in Ethics, Revised Edition, pages 806-08, reprinted by permission of the publisher Salem Press. Copyright, ©, 2004 by Salem Press.
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  25.  15
    The Interconnection Between Willing and Believing for Kant’s and Kantian Ethics.Samuel Kahn - 2014 - International Philosophical Quarterly 54 (2):143-157.
    In this paper I look at the connection between willing and believing for Kant’s and Kantian ethics. I argue that the two main formulations of the categorical imperative are relativized to agents according to their beliefs. I then point out three different ways in which Kant or a present-day Kantian might defend this position. I conclude with some remarks about the contrast between Kant’s legal theory and his ethical theory.
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  26.  26
    Review: Wood, Kantian Ethics.Anne Margaret Baxley - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (4):pp. 627-629.
    Kantian Ethics aims to develop a defensible theory of ethics on the basis of Kantian principles. Its primary focus is Kantian ethics, not Kant scholarship or interpretation. The book fulfills a promise of Wood’s earlier book, Kant’s Ethical Thought , by developing a Kantian conception of virtue and theory of moral duties in greater detail, and it goes beyond Wood’s previous work on Kant’s ethics in offering extended treatments of substantive moral issues, (...)
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  27.  1
    Kantian Ethics Today.William K. Frankena - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Research 15:47-55.
    Kantian ethics is both very much alive and very much under attack in recent moral philosophy, and so I propose to review some of the discussion, though I must say in advance that my review will have to be incomplete and oversimplified in various ways.
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  28.  1
    Virtue Ethics, Kantian Ethics, and Consequentialism.Jane Singleton - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Research 27:537-551.
    Contemporary theories of Virtue Ethics are often presented as being in opposition to Kantian Ethics and Consequentialism. It is argued that Virtue Ethics takes as fundamental the question, “What sort of character would a virtuous person have?” and that Kantian Ethics and Consequentialism take as fundamental the question, “What makes an action right?” I argue that this opposition is misconceived. The opposition is rather between Virtue Ethics and Kantian Ethics on the (...)
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  29. Kantian Ethics[REVIEW]Anne Baxley - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47:627-629.
    Kantian Ethics aims to develop a defensible theory of ethics on the basis of Kantian principles. Its primary focus is Kantian ethics, not Kant scholarship or interpretation. The book fulfills a promise of Wood’s earlier book, Kant’s Ethical Thought, by developing a Kantian conception of virtue and theory of moral duties in greater detail, and it goes beyond Wood’s previous work on Kant’s ethics in offering extended treatments of substantive moral issues, such (...)
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  30. Kantian Ethics, Dignity and Perfection.Formosa Paul - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this volume Paul Formosa sets out a novel approach to Kantian ethics as an ethics of dignity by focusing on the Formula of Humanity as a normative principle distinct from the Formula of Universal Law. By situating the Kantian conception of dignity within the wider literature on dignity, he develops an important distinction between status dignity, which all rational agents have, and achievement dignity, which all rational agents should aspire to. He then explores constructivist and (...)
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  31. Kantian Ethics.Otfried Höffe - 2013 - In Roger Crisp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Ethicists who have been influenced by Kant's critical moral philosophy are called ‘Kantian’. The term can also be extended to ethicists who grappled with and rejected Kant or the Kantian spirit. This chapter first discusses the core of Kant's ethics, those important theorems that provide a criterion for determining the extent to which a given ethics is indeed ‘Kantian’. It then considers the views of several Kantians, including Friedrich Schiller, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, (...)
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  32. Perfecting Virtue: New Essays on Kantian Ethics and Virtue Ethics.Lawrence Jost & Julian Wuerth (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    In western philosophy today, the three leading approaches to normative ethics are those of Kantian ethics, virtue ethics and utilitarianism. In recent years the debate between Kantian ethicists and virtue ethicists has assumed an especially prominent position. The twelve newly commissioned essays in this volume, by leading scholars in both traditions, explore key aspects of each approach as related to the debate, and identify new common ground but also real and lasting differences between these approaches. (...)
     
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  33. Acting on Principle: An Essay on Kantian Ethics.Onora O'Neill - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    'Two things', wrote Kant, 'fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe: the starry heavens above and the moral law within'. Many would argue that since Kant's day, the study of the starry heavens has advanced while ethics has stagnated, and in particular that Kant's ethics offers an empty formalism that tells us nothing about how we should live. In Acting on Principle Onora O'Neill shows that Kantian ethics has practical as well as (...)
     
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  34. Kantian Ethics: Value, Agency and Obligation.Robert Stern - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This volume presents a selection of Robert Stern's work on the theme of Kantian ethics. It begins by focusing on the relation between Kant's account of obligation and his view of autonomy, arguing that this leaves room for Kant to be a realist about value. Stern then considers where this places Kant in relation to the question of moral scepticism, and in relation to the principle of 'ought implies can', and examines this principle in its own right. The (...)
     
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  35.  23
    Kantian Ethics in Being and Time.Sonia Sikka - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Research 31:309-334.
    Heidegger’s Being and Time has been accused of espousing empty decisionism and relativism. I argue, first, that in fact Being and Time’s stress on the situated character of human judgment is supplemented by a very Kantian account of being human that defi nes appropriate behavior towards all entities possessing a certain character. Its analysis of conscience and guilt attempts to uncover the existential basis for the distinction Kant draws between the phenomenal and the noumenal aspects of the self. Building (...)
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  36.  1
    Kantian Ethics in Being and Time.Sonia Sikka - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Research 31:309-334.
    Heidegger’s Being and Time has been accused of espousing empty decisionism and relativism. I argue, first, that in fact Being and Time’s stress on the situated character of human judgment is supplemented by a very Kantian account of being human that defi nes appropriate behavior towards all entities possessing a certain character. Its analysis of conscience and guilt attempts to uncover the existential basis for the distinction Kant draws between the phenomenal and the noumenal aspects of the self. Building (...)
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  37. The Importance of Personal Relationships in Kantian Moral Theory: A Reply to Care Ethics.Marilea Bramer - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (1):121-139.
    Care ethicists have long insisted that Kantian moral theory fails to capture the partiality that ought to be present in our personal relationships. In her most recent book, Virginia Held claims that, unlike impartial moral theories, care ethics guides us in how we should act toward friends and family. Because these actions are performed out of care, they have moral value for a care ethicist. The same actions, Held claims, would not have moral worth for a Kantian (...)
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  38. Toward a Kantian Ethics of Belief.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In this paper, I discuss the Categorical Imperative as a basis for an Ethics of Belief and its application to Kant's own project in his theoretical philosophy.
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  39.  18
    Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics.N. Johnson Robert - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Is there any moral obligation to improve oneself, to foster and develop various capacities in oneself? From a broadly Kantian point of view, Self-Improvement defends the view that there is such an obligation and that it is an obligation that each person owes to him or herself. The defence addresses a range of arguments philosophers have mobilized against this idea, including the argument that it is impossible to owe anything to yourself, and the view that an obligation to improve (...)
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  40. The Moral Gap: Kantian Ethics, Human Limits, and God's Assistance.John Hare - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Is morality too difficult for human beings? Kant said that it was, except with God's assistance. Contemporary moral philosophers have usually discussed the question without reference to Christian doctrine, and have either diminished the moral demand, exaggerated human moral capacity, or tried to find a substitute in nature for God's assistance. This book looks at these philosophers--from Kant and Kierkegaard to Swinburne, Russell, and R.M. Hare--and the alternative in Christianity.
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  41. Good but Not Required?—Assessing the Demands of Kantian Ethics.Jens Timmermann - 2005 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (1):9-27.
    There seems to be a strong sentiment in pre-philosophical moral thought that actions can be morally valuable without at the same time being morally required. Yet Kant, who takes great pride in developing an ethical system firmly grounded in common moral thought, makes no provision for any such extraordinary acts of virtue. Rather, he supports a classification of actions as either obligatory, permissible or prohibited, which in the eyes of his critics makes it totally inadequate to the facts of morality. (...)
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  42.  32
    Virtues of Autonomy: The Kantian Ethics of Care.John Paley - 2002 - Nursing Philosophy 3 (2):133-143.
  43. Contemporary Kantian Ethics.Andrews Reath - 2010 - In John Skorupski (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Ethics. Routledge.
    Kant’s project in ethics is to defend the conception of morality that he takes to be embedded in ordinary thought. The principal aims of his foundational works in ethics – the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Critique of Practical Reason – are to state the fundamental principle of morality, which he terms the “Categorical Imperative”, and then to give an account of its unconditional authority – why we should give moral requirements priority over non-moral reasons (...)
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  44.  37
    Kantian Ethics: After Darwin.John Teehan - 2003 - Zygon 38 (1):49-60.
  45.  3
    Kantian Ethics and Socialism.Harry van der Linden - 1988 - Philosophical Review 101 (2):393-396.
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  46.  9
    The Young Marx and Kantian Ethics.Philip J. Kain - 1986 - Studies in Soviet Thought 31 (4):277-301.
    THE YOUNG MARX EMPLOYS A CONCEPT OF ESSENCE WHICH IN MANY WAYS IS LIKE THAT OF ARISTOTLE AND A CONCEPT OF UNIVERSALIZATION MUCH LIKE THAT INVOLVED IN KANT'S CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE. AT THE SAME TIME, MARX'S TASK IS TO RECONCILE THESE ELEMENTS. SINCE OUR ESSENCE IS A SPECIES ESSENCE, TO WORK TO REALIZE THE SPECIES' ESSENCE IS ALSO TO WORK TO SATISFY UNIVERSALIZABLE NEEDS--NEEDS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE.
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  47.  12
    Johnson , Robert N. Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Pp. Viii+174. $55.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW]Robert B. Louden - 2012 - Ethics 122 (4):811-815.
    Book Reviews Anne Margaret Baxley, Kantian Review, FirstView Article.
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  48. An Essay in Kantian Ethics a New Interpretation and Justification of the Categorical Imperative.Christian F. R. Illies - 1995
     
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  49.  66
    A Kantian Approach to Codes of Ethics.Jacquie L'Etang - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (10):737 - 744.
    The paper discusses whether codes of ethics are Kantian notions through an analysis of their intention and structure. The article also discusses some of the ideas put forward by William Starr in his article, Codes of Ethics — Towards a Rule-Utilitarian Justification,Journal of Business Ethics 2(2) (May 1983).The paper refers to recent definitions of codes of ethics and considers reasons for the proliferation of such codes. It examines the moral justification for these codes and analyses (...)
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  50.  95
    When the Tail Wags the Dog: Animal Welfare and Indirect Duty in Kantian Ethics.Jens Timmermann - 2005 - Kantian Review 10 (1):128-149.
    Even the most sympathetic readers of Kant's moral philosophy usually disagree with him about some aspect of his theory, or some particular moral judgement. His unqualified condemnation of lying in the essay ‘On a supposed right to lie from philanthropy’ is a classical case in question, as is his strong endorsement of retributive justice and the death penalty. A third prominent source of discontent are Kant's repeated verdicts on the moral status of non-human animals, or rather the lack thereof. For, (...)
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