Experimental phenomenology has demonstrated that perception is much richer than stimulus. As is seen in color perception, one and the same stimulus provides more than several modes of appearance or perceptual dimensions. Similarly, there are various perceptual dimensions in form perception. Even a simple geometrical figure inducing visual illusion gives not only perceptual impressions of size, shape, slant, depth, and orientation, but also affective or aesthetic impressions. The present study reviews our experimental phenomenological work on visual illusion and experimental aesthetics, (...) and examines how aesthetic preference is influenced by stimulus factors determining visual illusions including anomalous surface and transparency as well as geometrical illusion. Along with line figures producing geometrical illusions, illusory surface figures inducing neon color spreading and transparency effects were used as test patterns. Participants made both of psychophysical judgments and of aesthetic judgments for the same test pattern. Both of geometrical illusions and aesthetic preferences were found to change similarly as a function of stimulus variables such as the number of filling lines and the size ratio of the inner and outer figural components. Also, following specific stimulus variables such as lightness contrast ratio and spatial interval between inducing figural elements (so called ``packmen''), strong effects of color spreading and transparency were accompanied with strong preferences. It seems that the paradigm to investigate aesthetic phenomena along with perceptual dimensions is useful to bridge the gap between experimental phenomenology and experimental aesthetics. (shrink)
Japan's remarkable economic success especially from the 1960s to the 1980s has attracted extensive worldwide attention. However, the world's admiration has plummeted since the 1990s, when the Bubble Economy burst, bringing on chronic stagnation. Since then, the world has regarded the Japanese economy less as a desirable model and more as an evident failure with many lessons for other economies. These external judgments, positive and negative, have also affected how the Japanese perceive their own economy. This article reviews how these (...) domestic and international perceptions of Japan's economy have varied. It situates the companion articles by Hwang (2012) and Harada (2012) in the historical context of studies of the Japanese economy. This article especially discusses one recurring fixation that muddles comprehension of factors underpinning Japan's economic success and failure: the tendency to overestimate characteristics that supposedly are specific to Japan and different from other market-oriented economies. From the 1960s through the 1980s, scholars, commentators, policy-makers, and the public insisted these characteristics were singular and significant contributors to Japan's remarkable economic development. Since the 1990s, they have considered them the root causes of Japan's remarkable stagnation. Both are exaggerations. Although some singularly Japanese attributes perhaps contributed to Japan's economic ascent and decline, it is equally plausible they did not. It is more likely that poorly conceived and executed macroeconomic policies, especially monetary policy, had greater influence on Japan's post-1990s stagnation. (shrink)
In a legal expert system based on CBR (Case-Based Reasoning), legal statute rules are interpreted on the basis of precedents. This interpretation, because of its vagueness and uncertainty of the interpretation cannot be handled with the means used for crisp cases. In our legal expert system, on the basis of the facts of precedents, the statute rule is interpreted as a form of case rule, the application of which involves the concepts of membership and vagueness. The case rule is stored (...) in a data base by means of fuzzy frames. The inference based on a case rule is made by fuzzy YES and fuzzy NO, and the degree of similarity of cases. The system proposed here will be used for legal education; its main area of application is contract, especially in relation to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). (shrink)
In the United States, property rights are afforded protection, but moral rights are not. Up until 1989, the United States adamantly refused to join the Berne Copyright Convention, the first multilateral copyright treaty, now ratified by seventy-eight countries. The American government refused to comply because the Berne Convention grants moral rights to authors. This international policy was—and is—incompatible with United States copyright law, which recognizes only economic rights. Although ten states have enacted some form of moral rights legislation, federal copyright (...) laws tend to prevail, and those are still wholly economic in their motivation. Indeed, the recent pressure for the United States to agree, at least in part, to the terms of the Berne Convention came only as a result of a dramatic increase in the international piracy of American records and films.In September 1986, Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts first introduced a bill called the Visual Artists Rights Act. This bill attempts to amend federal copyright laws to incorporate some aspects of international moral rights protection. The Kennedy bill would prohibit the intentional distortion, mutilation, or destruction of works of art after they have been sold. Moreover, the act would empower artists to claim authorship, to receive royalties on subsequent sales, and to disclaim their authorship if the work were distorted.4 This legislation would have prevented Clement Greenburg and the other executors of David Smith’s estate from authorizing the stripping of paint from Several of Smith’s later sculptures so that they would resemble his earlier—and more marketable—unpainted sculptures. Such moral rights legislations would have prevented a Japanese bank in New York from removing and destroying a sculpture by Isamu Noguchi simply because the bank president did not like it. And such legislation would have prevented the United States government from destroying Tilted Arc. 4. Although this section appeared in the original version of Kennedy’s bill, the current version provides for a study of resale royalties. Richard Serra is known for his large-scale site-specific works in landscapes, urban environments, and museums. (shrink)
A total of 366 UK children in four different schools, one in Wales, one in Northern Ireland, and two in England, were asked to respond to 20 potentially stressful life experiences. Each event was rated on a scale ranging from 7 to 1 , and the scale value and interquartile range were calculated. In addition, whether or not a given event was actually experienced was noted. Across the groups, there was a very high degree of agreement on all three measures, (...) the median correlations being 0.95 for scale values, 0.70 for interquartile ranges, and 0.92 for incidence. Furthermore, the pooled UK results were found to correlate equally closely with the figures previously obtained in the USA and five other countries. The possibility of a prevalent ‘culture of childhood’, cutting across geo‐political boundaries and ethnic groupings, appears to receive further support. (shrink)
Neuronal activities have recently been reported to exhibit power-law scaling behavior. However, it has not been demonstrated that the power-law component can play an important role in human perceptual functions. Here, we demonstrate that the power spectrum of magnetoencephalograph recordings of brain activity varies in coordination with perception of subthreshold visual stimuli. We observed that perceptual performance could be better explained by modulation of the power-law component than by modulation of the peak power in particular narrow frequency ranges. The results (...) suggest that the brain operates in a state of self-organized criticality, modulating the power spectral exponent of its activity to optimize its internal state for response to external stimuli. (shrink)
InhaltVorwort SiglenverzeichnisWerner Beierwaltes: Zum Tode von Reinhard Lauth am 23. August 2007 Marco Ivaldo: Nachruf auf Reinhard Lauth Wilhelm Lütterfelds: »Ich allein aber verstehe es recht.« Fichtes idealistischer Verstehensbegriff und seine Paradoxie Jean-François Goubet: Über die akademische Freiheit. Analyse eines sittlich, rechtlich und philosophisch grundlegenden Begriffs in Bezug auf Fichtes Antrittsrede zum Rektorenamt im Jahre 1811 Marco Rampazzo Bazzan: Idee und Gesicht in den Fünf Vorlesungen über die Bestimmung des Gelehrten Nina W. Gromyko: Das Transzendieren als grundlegende anthropologische Konstruktion in (...) Fichtes Vorlesungen über die Bestimmung des Gelehrten Valérie Kokoszka: L’Affektenlehre dans la dernière philosophie de Fichte Kaoru Hoshiba: Das Problem der Sprache bei Fichte Martin Siegel: Die Einforderung eines lebendigen Sprachvollzugs als Kennzeichen der späten Wissenschaftslehren FichtesRainer Adolphi: Die Tatsachen der Tathandlung. Über Fichtes implizite Auseinandersetzung mit den Anfängen einer ›anthropologischen‹ Depotenzierung der Vernunft Marina Bykova: Fichte’s Doctrine of the Self-Positing Subject Alexander Kudrjaschew: Die Entfaltung des Fichteschen Erfahrungsgrundes Peter L. Oesterreich: Fichte und die Kunst des PhilosophierensGiorgia Cecchinato: Fichtes Ästhetik. Eigene Reflexionen über Kunst und WissenschaftslehreManuel Jiménez Redondo: Die unzeitgemäße Aktualität Fichtes, aufgezeigt am Beispiel der Beziehung der theoretischen und praktischen Philosophie in seinem SpätwerkFranck Fischbach: De l’acte à l’être: la dernière philosophie de Fichte Marco Ivaldo: Sittlicher »Begriff« als wirklichkeitsbildendes Prinzip in der späten Sittenlehre Katja V. Taver: Interpersonalität. Von den Wolfskindern zu den Thatsachen des Bewusstseyns von 1810/11Ulrich Fritz Wodarzik: Prinzip Liebe – zwischen Natur und Freiheit beim späten FichteAlois K. Soller: Keine moralische Selbstbestimmung im Spätwerk Fichtes. Zur Genese eines VernunftdeterminismusJean-Marie Vaysse: Fichte, penseur de l’actualité. (shrink)
Graduate studies at Western
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