Results for 'Karel Martens'

746 found
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  1.  21
    Emerging Urban Mobility Technologies Through the Lens of Everyday Urban Aesthetics: Case of Self-Driving Vehicle.Miloš N. Mladenović, Sanna Lehtinen, Emily Soh & Karel Martens - 2019 - Essays in Philosophy 20 (2):146-170.
    The goal of this article is to deepen the concept of emerging urban mobility technology. Drawing on philosophical everyday and urban aesthetics, as well as the postphenomenological strand in the philosophy of technology, we explicate the relation between everyday aesthetic experience and urban mobility commoning. Thus, we shed light on the central role of aesthetics for providing depth to the important experiential and value-driven meaning of contemporary urban mobility. We use the example of self-driving vehicle (SDV), as potentially mundane, public, (...)
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  2.  15
    Dark Matter = Modified Gravity? Scrutinising the Spacetime–Matter Distinction Through the Modified Gravity/ Dark Matter Lens.Niels C. M. Martens & Dennis Lehmkuhl - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 72:237-250.
    This paper scrutinises the tenability of a strict conceptual distinction between space and matter via the lens of the debate between modified gravity and dark matter. In particular, we consider Berezhiani and Khoury's novel 'superfluid dark matter theory' as a case study. Two families of criteria for being matter and being spacetime, respectively, are extracted from the literature. Evaluation of the new scalar field postulated by SFDM according to these criteria reveals that it is as much matter as anything could (...)
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  3.  16
    Yoga and the Rg Veda: An Interpretation of the Keśin Hymn : Karel Werner.Karel Werner - 1977 - Religious Studies 13 (3):289-302.
    The mystical experiences of the ṛṣis , the spiritual giants of the early Vedic times, led to the creation of the Vedic hymns and eventually to the formation of the whole elaborate structure of the Vedic religion, as upheld by the Indian priesthood. But there were obviously others who pursued mystical experiences without themselves engaging, like the ancient ṛṣis , in attempts to transmit their experiences through mythological poetry and religious leadership. They adopted mystical ecstasy as their way of life. (...)
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  4. Existence and Explanation Essays Presented in Honor of Karel Lambert.Karel Lambert, Wolfgang Spohn, Bas C. Van Fraassen & Brian Skyrms - 1991
     
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  5.  29
    Machian Comparativism About Mass.Niels C. M. Martens - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axz013.
    Absolutism about mass within Newtonian gravity claims that mass ratios obtain in virtue of absolute masses. Comparativism denies this. Defenders of comparativism promise to recover all the empirical and theoretical virtues of absolutism, but at a lower ‘metaphysical cost’. This article develops a Machian form of comparativism about mass in Newtonian gravity, obtained by replacing Newton’s constant in the law of universal gravitation by another constant divided by the sum over all masses. Although this form of comparativism is indeed empirically (...)
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  6.  11
    Ontology and the Vicious Circle Principle.Stanley C. Martens - 1976 - Philosophical Review 85 (2):256.
  7. Philosophical Applications of Free Logic.Karel Lambert (ed.) - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    Free logic, an alternative to traditional logic, has been seen as a useful avenue of approach to a number of philosophical issues of contemporary interest. In this collection, Karel Lambert, one of the pioneers in, and the most prominent exponent of, free logic, brings together a variety of published essays bearing on the application of free logic to philosophical topics ranging from set theory and logic to metaphysics and the philosophy of religion. The work of such distinguished philosophers as (...)
     
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  8.  21
    Kepler's Philosophy and the New Astronomy.Rhonda Martens - 2000 - Princeton University Press.
    Here, Rhonda Martens offers the first extended study of Kepler's philosophical views and shows how those views helped him construct and justify the new astronomy.
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  9.  54
    Free Logic: Selected Essays.Karel Lambert - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Free logic is an important field of philosophical logic that first appeared in the 1950s. J. Karel Lambert was one of its founders and coined the term itself. The essays in this collection explore the philosophical foundations of free logic and its application to areas as diverse as the philosophy of religion and computer science. Amongst the applications on offer are those to the analysis of existence statements, to definite descriptions and to partial functions. The volume contains a proof (...)
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  10.  54
    Individualism Versus Interactionism About Social Understanding.Judith Martens & Tobias Schlicht - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (2):245-266.
    In the debate about the nature of social cognition we see a shift towards theories that explain social understanding through interaction. This paper discusses autopoietic enactivism and the we-mode approach in the light of such developments. We argue that a problem seems to arise for these theories: an interactionist account of social cognition makes the capacity of shared intentionality a presupposition of social understanding, while the capacity of engaging in scenes of shared intentionality in turn presupposes exactly the kind of (...)
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  11.  28
    Against Comparativism About Mass in Newtonian Gravity - a Case Study in the Metaphysics of Scale.Niels C. M. Martens - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    This thesis concerns the metaphysics of scale. It investigates the implications of a physical determinable being dimensionful. In particular, it considers the case study of mass, as it features within Newtonian Gravity. Nevertheless, most of the terminology, methodology and arguments developed should be relatively straightforwardly applicable to other determinables and theories. -/- Weak Absolutism about mass holds that mass ratios obtain in virtue of absolute masses. Weak Comparativism denies this. In the first five chapters I argue in favour of Weak (...)
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  12.  4
    Cartography of the Space of Theories: An Interpretational Chart for Fields That Are Both (Dark) Matter and Spacetime.Niels C. M. Martens & Dennis Lehmkuhl - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 72:217-236.
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  13.  11
    The Detectability of Absolute Newtonian Masses.Niels C. M. Martens - forthcoming - Synthese:1-40.
    Absolutism about mass claims that mass ratios obtain in virtue of absolute masses. Comparativism denies this. Dasgupta, Oxford studies in metaphysics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013) argues for comparativism about mass, in the context of Newtonian Gravity. Such an argument requires proving that comparativism is empirically adequate. Dasgupta equates this to showing that absolute masses are undetectable, and attempts to do so. This paper develops an argument by Baker to the contrary: absolute masses are in fact empirically meaningful, that is (...)
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  14. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science [by] Karel Lambert [and] Gordon G. Brittan. --.Karel Lambert & Gordon G. Brittan - 1970 - Prentice-Hall.
  15. New Essays in Free Logic in Honour of Karel Lambert.Karel Lambert, Alexander Hieke & Edgar Morscher - 2001
  16.  28
    Regularity Comparativism About Mass in Newtonian Gravity.Niels C. M. Martens - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1226-1238.
    Comparativism—the view that mass ratios are not grounded in absolute masses—faces a challenge by Baker which suggests that absolute masses are empirically meaningful. Regularity comparativism uses a liberalized version of the Mill-Ramsey-Lewis Best Systems Account to have both the laws of Newtonian gravity and the absolute mass scale supervene on a comparativist Humean mosaic as a package deal. I discuss three objections to this view and conclude that it is untenable. The most severe problem is that once we have reduced (...)
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  17.  13
    Questioning Technology in South America: Ecuador’s FLOK Society Project and Andrew Feenberg’s Technical Politics.Cheryl Martens - 2017 - Thesis Eleven 138 (1):13-25.
    This paper examines Andrew Feenberg’s radical democratic politics of technology in relation to the context of Ecuador’s free and open software movement. It considers the articulation of this movement via the government sponsored activist project FLOK Society. Based on an ethnographic study, which included interviews with FLOK Society coordinators, the paper discusses how such government-activist collaborations, may be useful in expanding Feenberg’s notion of technical politics and the nature of representation in the technical sphere. More specifically, the paper looks at (...)
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  18.  14
    How to Assess the Democratic Qualities of a Multi-Stakeholder Initiative From a Habermasian Perspective? Deliberative Democracy and the Equator Principles Framework.Wil Martens, Bastiaan van der Linden & Manuel Wörsdörfer - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (4):1115-1133.
    The paper presents a renewed Habermasian view on transnational multi-stakeholder initiatives and assesses the institutional characteristics of the Equator Principles Association from a deliberative democracy perspective. Habermas’ work has been widely adopted in the academic literature on the political responsibilities of corporations, and also in assessing the democratic qualities of MSIs. Commentators, however, have noted that Habermas’ approach relies very much on ‘nation-state democracy’ and may not be applicable to democracy in MSIs—in which nation-states are virtually absent. We argue that (...)
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  19.  14
    Against Laplacian Reduction of Newtonian Mass to Spatiotemporal Quantities.Niels C. M. Martens - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):591-609.
    Laplace wondered about the minimal choice of initial variables and parameters corresponding to a well-posed initial value problem. Discussions of Laplace’s problem in the literature have focused on choosing between spatiotemporal variables relative to absolute space or merely relative to other material bodies and between absolute masses or merely mass ratios. This paper extends these discussions of Laplace’s problem, in the context of Newtonian Gravity, by asking whether mass needs to be included in the initial state at all, or whether (...)
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  20.  28
    Ontological Economy: Substitutional Quantification and Mathematics.Stanley Martens - 1983 - Philosophical Review 92 (4):636.
  21.  31
    The Metaphysics of Emergent Spacetime Theories.Niels C. M. Martens - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (7).
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  22.  59
    Meinong and the Principle of Independence: Its Place in Meinong's Theory of Objects and its Significance in Contemporary Philosophical Logic.Karel Lambert - 1983 - Cambridge University Press.
    As well as aiming to revive interest in Meinong's thought, this book challenges many of the most widespread assumptions of philosophical logic.
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  23. The Nature of Argument.Karel Lambert & William Ulrich - 1987 - Upa.
    The authors contend that most contemporary logic textbooks fail the average student because they emphasize the evaluation of arguments over their clarification, assuming that the student already understands what motivations underlie logic.
     
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  24.  7
    Sophistry about symmetries?Niels C. M. Martens & James Read - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    A common adage runs that, given a theory manifesting symmetries, the syntax of that theory should be modified in order to construct a new theory, from which symmetry-variant structure of the original theory has been excised. Call this strategy for explicating the underlying ontology of symmetry-related models reduction. Recently, Dewar has proposed an alternative to reduction as a means of articulating the ontology of symmetry-related models—what he calls sophistication, in which the semantics of the original theory is modified, and symmetry-related (...)
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  25.  16
    Logic and Arithmetic: Natural Numbers.Stanley C. Martens - 1976 - Philosophical Review 85 (1):102-105.
  26.  39
    Nonideal Quantum Measurements.Hans Martens & Willem M. de Muynck - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (3):255-281.
    A partial ordering in the class of observables (∼ positive operator-valued measures, introduced by Davies and by Ludwig) is explored. The ordering is interpreted as a form of nonideality, and it allows one to compare ideal and nonideal versions of the same observable. Optimality is defined as maximality in the sense of the ordering. The framework gives a generalization of the usual (implicit) definition of self-adjoint operators as optimal observables (von Neumann), but it can, in contrast to this latter definition, (...)
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  27.  8
    Points of View.David B. Martens - 2000 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 61 (2):488-491.
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  28.  20
    Inclusive Fitness as a Measure of Biological Utility.Johannes Martens - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (1):1-22.
    This article is about the analogy between inclusive fitness and utility. In behavioral ecology, it is often assumed that individual organisms behave as if they were “striving” to maximize their inclusive fitness—a measure analogue to the kind of utility function that is used to represent the preferences of rational agents. Here, I explore some conceptual puzzles related to this view and question whether the kind of biological utility posited by the advocates of the “maximizing agent analogy” can be adequately interpreted (...)
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  29. Review: Karel Lambert, Meinong and the Principle of Independence. Its Place in Meinong's Theory of Objects and Its Significance in Contemporary Philosophical Logic. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1986 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):248-252.
    Review of Karel Lambert, Meinong and the Principle of Independence: Its Place in Meinong's Theory of Objects and Its Significance in Contemporary Philosophical Logic.
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  30.  16
    Status Signals: Adaptive Benefits of Displaying and Observing the Nonverbal Expressions of Pride and Shame.Jason P. Martens, Jessica L. Tracy & Azim F. Shariff - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (3):390-406.
  31.  34
    Inclusive Fitness and the Maximizing-Agent Analogy.Johannes Martens - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axw003.
    ABSTRACT In social evolution theory, biological individuals are often represented on the model of rational agents, that is, as if they were ‘seeking’ to maximize their own reproductive success. In the 1990s, important criticisms of this mode of thinking were made by Brian Skyrms and Elliott Sober, who both argued that ‘rational agent’ models can lead to incorrect predictions when there are positive correlations between individuals’ phenotypes. In this article, I argue that one model of rational choice—namely, Savage’s model —can (...)
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  32.  29
    Organisms in Evolution.Johannes Martens - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2/3).
  33.  49
    The Inaccuracy Principle.Hans Martens & Willem M. de Muynck - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (4):357-380.
    The problem of joint measurement of incompatible observables is investigated. Measurements are represented by positive operator-valued measures. A quantitative notion of inaccuracy is defined. It is shown that within this framework joint inaccurate measurements are possible for arbitrary maximal projection-valued measures on finite-dimensional spaces. The accuracy of such measurements is limited, as is shown by an inaccuracy inequality we derive. This new type of uncertainty relation can be unambiguously interpreted as referring to measurement precision rather than preparative quality. Several recent (...)
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  34.  31
    Electronic Identity Management in Estonia Between Market and State Governance.Tarvi Martens - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):213-233.
    The present paper summarizes the development of the national electronic Identity Management System (eIDMS) in Estonia according to a conceptual framework developed in an European comparative research project outlined in the first chapter of this special issue. Its main function is to amend the picture of the European eIDMS landscape by presenting a case with high involvement of the private sector and thereby checking the generalizations from the comparisons of Austria, Belgium, Germany and Spain, presented by Kubicek and Noack in (...)
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  35.  24
    Semantic Organs: The Concept and Its Theoretical Ramifications.Karel Kleisner - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (3):367-379.
    Many biologists still believe in a sort of post-Cartesian foundation of reality wherein objects are independent of subjects which cognize them. Recent research in behaviour, cognition, and psychology, however, provides plenty of evidence to the effect that the perception of an object differs depending on the kind of animal observer, and also its personality, hormonal, and sensorial set-up etc. In the following, I argue that exposed surfaces of organisms interact with other organisms’ perception to form semiautonomous relational entities called semantic (...)
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  36.  49
    Confidence in Unwarranted Knowledge.David B. Martens - 2006 - Erkenntnis 65 (2):143 - 164.
    Epistemic minimalism affirms that mere true belief is sufficient for propositional knowledge. I construct a taxonomy of some specific forms of minimalism and locate within that taxonomy the distinct positions of various advocates of minimalism, including Alvin Goldman, Jaakko Hintikka, Crispin Sartwell, Wolfgang Lenzen, Franz von Kutschera, and others. I weigh generic minimalism against William Lycan’s objection that minimalism is incompatible with plausible principles about relations between knowledge, belief, and confidence. I argue that Lycan’s objection fails for equivocation but that (...)
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  37.  10
    Against Reducing Newtonian Mass to Kinematical Quantities.Niels C. M. Martens - unknown
    It is argued that Newtonian mass cannot be reduced to kinematical quantities---distance, velocity and acceleration---without losing the explanatory and predictive power of Newtonian Gravity.
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  38.  22
    Relational Autonomy and the Quantified Relationship.Hannah Martens & Timothy Emmanuel Brown - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (2):39-40.
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  39.  35
    The Semantic Morphology of Adolf Portmann: A Starting Point for the Biosemiotics of Organic Form? [REVIEW]Karel Kleisner - 2008 - Biosemiotics 1 (2):207-219.
    This paper develops the ideas of the Swiss zoologist Adolf Portmann or, more precisely, his concept of organic self-representation, wherein Portmann considered the outer surface of living organisms as a specific organ that serves in a self-representational role. This idea is taken as a starting point from which to elaborate Portman’s ideas, so as to make them compatible with the theoretical framework of biosemiotics. Today, despite the many theories that help us understand aposematism, camouflage, deception and other phenomena related to (...)
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  40.  14
    Exploring the Relation Between the Sense of Other and the Sense of Us: Core Agency Cognition, Emergent Coordination, and the Sense of Agency.Judith Martens - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (1):38-60.
    It has been claimed that a sense of us is presupposed for shared intentions to be possible. Searle introduced this notion together with the notion of the sense of the other. in joint action. It argues that the sense of the other is a necessary condition for a sense of us. Whereas thisarticle distinguishes between the “sense of the other” and the “sense of us” and elaborates on their role the sense of the other is immediate and automatic, the sense (...)
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  41.  47
    Existential Import Revisited.Karel Lambert - 1963 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 4 (4):288-292.
  42.  5
    Stackhouse’s Critical Realism: A Pragmatic Epistemology on the Lam.Paul Martens - 2016 - Journal of Analytic Theology 4:204-210.
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  43.  37
    Social Evolution and Strategic Thinking.Johannes Martens - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):697-715.
    Thinking about organisms as if they were rational agents which could choose their own phenotypic traits according to their fitness values is a common heuristic in the field of evolutionary theory. In a 1998 paper, however, Elliott Sober has emphasized several alleged shortcomings of this kind of analogical reasoning when applied to the analysis of social behaviors. According to him, the main flaw of this heuristic is that it proves to be a misleading tool when it is used for predicting (...)
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  44. Derivation and Counterexample.Karel Lambert - 1972 - Encino, Calif., Dickenson Pub. Co..
  45.  8
    The Dual Nature of Mimicry: Organismal Form and Beholder’s Eye.Karel Kleisner & S. Adil Saribay - 2019 - Biosemiotics 12 (1):79-98.
    Mimicry is often cited as a compelling demonstration of the power of natural selection. By adopting signs of a protected model, mimics usually gain a reproductive advantage by minimising the likelihood of being preyed upon. Yet while natural selection plays a role in the evolution of mimicry, it can be doubted whether it fully explains it. Mimicry is mediated by the emergence of formally analogous patterns between unrelated organisms and by the fact that these patterns are meaningfully perceived as similar. (...)
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  46.  39
    Free Logics Their Foundations, Character and Some Applications Thereof.Karel Lambert - 1997
  47.  44
    A Late Medieval Dispute About the Conditions for Knowledge.David B. Martens - 2011 - Philosophical Papers 40 (3):421-438.
    Philosophical Papers, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 421-438, November 2011.
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  48.  64
    William Heytesbury and the Conditions for Knowledge.David B. Martens - 2010 - Theoria 76 (4):355-374.
    Ivan Boh affirms and Robert Pasnau denies that William Heytesbury holds merely true belief to be sufficient for knowledge in the broad sense. I argue that Boh is correct and Pasnau is mistaken, and that there is a long-running orthodox medieval tradition agreeing with Heytesbury about the conditions for knowledge. I offer a hypothesis about the origins, continuance and demise of that medieval tradition, and some remarks about the tradition's significance.
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  49.  33
    Knowledge, True Belief, and Virtuous Fallibilism.David Martens - 2010 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 6 (2):14-24.
  50.  14
    “Yielding Ground to None”: Normative Perspectives on African Philosophy and its Curricula.David B. Martens - 2016 - South African Journal of Philosophy 35 (4):383-400.
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