Results for 'Karim Traore'

310 found
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  1.  25
    Understandings of Genomic Research in Developing Countries: A Qualitative Study of the Views of MalariaGEN Participants in Mali.Karim Traore, Susan Bull, Alassane Niare, Salimata Konate, Mahamadou A. Thera, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Michael Parker & Ogobara K. Doumbo - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-10.
    BackgroundObtaining informed consent for participation in genomic research in low-income settings presents specific ethical issues requiring attention. These include the challenges that arise when providing information about unfamiliar and technical research methods, the implications of complicated infrastructure and data sharing requirements, and the potential consequences of future research with samples and data. This study investigated researchers’ and participants’ parents’ experiences of a consent process and understandings of a genome-wide association study of malaria involving children aged five and under in Mali. (...)
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  2.  72
    Modelling Inequality.Karim P. Y. Thebault, Seamus Bradley & Alexander Reutlinger - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (3):691-718.
    Econophysics is a new and exciting cross-disciplinary research field that applies models and modelling techniques from statistical physics to economic systems. It is not, however, without its critics: prominent figures in more mainstream economic theory have criticized some elements of the methodology of econophysics. One of the main lines of criticism concerns the nature of the modelling assumptions and idealizations involved, and a particular target are ‘kinetic exchange’ approaches used to model the emergence of inequality within the distribution of individual (...)
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  3.  7
    Radicalizing Numerical Cognition.Karim Zahidi - 2020 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 1):529-545.
    In recent decades, non-representational approaches to mental phenomena and cognition have been gaining traction in cognitive science and philosophy of mind. In these alternative approach, mental representations either lose their central status or, in its most radical form, are banned completely. While there is growing agreement that non-representational accounts may succeed in explaining some cognitive capacities, there is widespread skepticism about the possibility of giving non-representational accounts of cognitive capacities such as memory, imagination or abstract thought. In this paper, I (...)
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  4.  35
    The Extent of Memory. From Extended to Extensive Mind.Karim Zahidi & Erik Myin - 2015 - In Annalisa Coliva, Volker Munz & Danièle Moyal-Sharrock (eds.), Mind, Language and Action: Proceedings of the 36th International Wittgenstein Symposium. De Gruyter. pp. 391-408.
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  5. Symplectic Reduction and the Problem of Time in Nonrelativistic Mechanics.Karim P. Y. Thébault - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (4):789-824.
    Symplectic reduction is a formal process through which degeneracy within the mathematical representations of physical systems displaying gauge symmetry can be controlled via the construction of a reduced phase space. Typically such reduced spaces provide us with a formalism for representing both instantaneous states and evolution uniquely and for this reason can be justifiably afforded the status of fun- damental dynamical arena - the otiose structure having been eliminated from the original phase space. Essential to the application of symplectic reduction (...)
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  6.  44
    Schrodinger Evolution for the Universe: Reparametrization.Karim P. Y. Thebault & Sean Gryb - unknown
    Starting from a generalized Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, we develop a new framework for constructing observables and their evolution in theories invariant under global time reparametrizations. Our proposal relaxes the usual Dirac prescription for the observables of a totally constrained system and allows one to recover the influential partial and complete observables approach in a particular limit. Difficulties such as the non-unitary evolution of the complete observables in terms of certain partial observables are explained as a breakdown of this limit. Identification of (...)
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  7.  89
    Theoretical Considerations for a Meaningful Code of Professional Ethics.Karim Jamal & Norman E. Bowie - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (9):703 - 714.
    The professions have focused considerable attention on developing codes of conduct. Despite their efforts there is considerable controversy regarding the propriety of professional codes of ethics. Many provisions of professional codes seem to exacerbate disputes between the profession and the public rather than providing a framework that satisfies the public''s desire for moral behavior.After examining three professional codes, we divide the provisions of professional codes into those provisions which urge professionals to avoid moral hazard, maintain professional courtesy and serve the (...)
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  8. [Professional Integration in a West African Urban Environment].S. Traore, E. Voland, R. I. Dunbar, C. Z. Guilmoto, K. B. Newbold, G. M. Nunez-Rocha, M. Bullen-Navarro, B. C. Castillo-Trevino, E. Solis-Perez & C. R. Duncan - 1997 - Journal of Biosocial Science 29 (3):251-65.
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  9. Existential Risks: Exploring a Robust Risk Reduction Strategy.Karim Jebari - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):541-554.
    A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. (...)
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  10. Many Worlds: Decoherent or Incoherent?Karim P. Y. Thébault & Richard Dawid - 2015 - Synthese 192 (5):1559-1580.
    We claim that, as it stands, the Deutsch–Wallace–Everett approach to quantum theory is conceptually incoherent. This charge is based upon the approach’s reliance upon decoherence arguments that conflict with its own fundamental precepts regarding probabilistic reasoning in two respects. This conceptual conflict obtains even if the decoherence arguments deployed are aimed merely towards the establishment of certain ‘emergent’ or ‘robust’ structures within the wave function: To be relevant to physical science notions such as robustness must be empirically grounded, and, on (...)
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  11. Brain Machine Interface and Human Enhancement – An Ethical Review.Karim Jebari - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (3):617-625.
    Brain machine interface (BMI) technology makes direct communication between the brain and a machine possible by means of electrodes. This paper reviews the existing and emerging technologies in this field and offers a systematic inquiry into the relevant ethical problems that are likely to emerge in the following decades.
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  12.  86
    Non-Representationalist Cognitive Science and Realism.Karim Zahidi - 2014 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (3):461-475.
    Embodied and extended cognition is a relatively new paradigm within cognitive science that challenges the basic tenet of classical cognitive science, viz. cognition consists in building and manipulating internal representations. Some of the pioneers of embodied cognitive science have claimed that this new way of conceptualizing cognition puts pressure on epistemological and ontological realism. In this paper I will argue that such anti-realist conclusions do not follow from the basic assumptions of radical embodied cognitive science. Furthermore I will show that (...)
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  13.  53
    Three Denials of Time in the Interpretation of Canonical Gravity.Karim P. Y. Thébault - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 43 (4):277-294.
    The analysis of the temporal structure of canonical general relativity and the connected interpretational questions with regard to the role of time within the theory both rest upon the need to respect the fundamentally dual role of the Hamiltonian constraints found within the formalism. Any consistent philosophical approach towards the theory must pay dues to the role of these constraints in both generating dynamics, in the context of phase space, and generating unphysical symmetry transformations, in the context of a hypersurface (...)
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  14. Feyerabend and Popper on Theory Proliferation and Anomaly Import: On the Compatibility of Theoretical Pluralism and Critical Rationalism.Karim Bschir - 2015 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):24-55.
    A fundamental tenet of Paul Feyerabend’s pluralistic view of science has it that theory proliferation, that is, the availability of theoretical alternatives, is of crucial importance for the detection of anomalies in established theories. Paul Hoyningen-Huene calls this the Anomaly Importation Thesis, according to which anomalies are imported, as it were, into well-established theories from competing alternatives. This article pursues two major objectives: (a) to work out the systematic details of Feyerabend’s ideas on theory proliferation and anomaly import as they (...)
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  15.  64
    What to Enhance: Behaviour, Emotion or Disposition?Karim Jebari - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (3):253-261.
    As we learn more about the human brain, novel biotechnological means to modulate human behaviour and emotional dispositions become possible. These technologies could be used to enhance our morality. Moral bioenhancement, an instance of human enhancement, alters a person’s dispositions, emotions or behaviour in order to make that person more moral. I will argue that moral bioenhancement could be carried out in three different ways. The first strategy, well known from science fiction, is behavioural enhancement. The second strategy, favoured by (...)
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  16.  20
    What Can We Learn From Analogue Experiments?Karim P. Y. Thebault - unknown
    In 1981 Unruh proposed that fluid mechanical experiments could be used to probe key aspects of the quantum phenomenology of black holes. In particular, he claimed that an analogue to Hawking radiation could be created within a fluid mechanical `dumb hole', with the event horizon replaced by a sonic horizon. Since then an entire sub-field of `analogue gravity' has been created. In 2016 Steinhauer reported the experimental observation of quantum Hawking radiation and its entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate analogue black (...)
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  17.  49
    Should Extinction Be Forever?Karim Jebari - 2016 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (3):211-222.
    This article will explore a problem which is related to our moral obligations towards species. Although the re-creation of extinct animals has been discussed to some degree both in lay deliberations as well as by scientists, advocates tend to emphasize the technological and scientific value of such an endeavour, and the “coolness” factor, 32–33, 2013). This article will provide an argument in favour of re-creation based on normative considerations. The environmentalist community generally accepts that it is wrong to exterminate species, (...)
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  18. What Is Left of the Active Externalism Debate?Victor Loughlin & Karim Zahidi - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):1614-1639.
    Since the publication of Clark and Chalmers' Extended Mind paper, the central claims of that paper, viz. the thesis that cognitive processes and cognitive or mental states extend beyond the brain and body, have been vigorously debated within philosophy of mind and philosophy of cognitive science. Both defenders and detractors of these claims have since marshalled an impressive battery of arguments for and against “active externalism.” However, despite the amount of philosophical energy expended, this debate remains far from settled. We (...)
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  19. Time Remains.Sean Gryb & Karim P. Y. Thébault - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):663-705.
    On one popular view, the general covariance of gravity implies that change is relational in a strong sense, such that all it is for a physical degree of freedom to change is for it to vary with regard to a second physical degree of freedom. At a quantum level, this view of change as relative variation leads to a fundamentally timeless formalism for quantum gravity. Here, we will show how one may avoid this acute ‘problem of time’. Under our view, (...)
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  20.  19
    Artificial Superintelligence and its Limits: Why AlphaZero Cannot Become a General Agent.Karim Jebari & Joakim Lundborg - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    An intelligent machine surpassing human intelligence across a wide set of skills has been proposed as a possible existential catastrophe. Among those concerned about existential risk related to artificial intelligence, it is common to assume that AI will not only be very intelligent, but also be a general agent. This article explores the characteristics of machine agency, and what it would mean for a machine to become a general agent. In particular, it does so by articulating some important differences between (...)
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  21.  70
    European Public Deliberation on Brain Machine Interface Technology: Five Convergence Seminars. [REVIEW]Karim Jebari & Sven-Ove Hansson - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1071-1086.
    We present a novel procedure to engage the public in ethical deliberations on the potential impacts of brain machine interface technology. We call this procedure a convergence seminar, a form of scenario-based group discussion that is founded on the idea of hypothetical retrospection. The theoretical background of this procedure and the results of five seminars are presented.
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  22.  24
    The COVID-19 pandemic: a case for epistemic pluralism in public health policy.Simon Lohse & Karim Bschir - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (4):1-5.
    This paper uses the example of the COVID-19 pandemic to analyse the danger associated with insufficient epistemic pluralism in evidence-based public health policy. Drawing on certain elements in Paul Feyerabend’s political philosophy of science, it discusses reasons for implementing more pluralism as well as challenges to be tackled on the way forward.
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  23.  17
    Emergence of Public Meaning From a Teleosemantic and Game Theoretical Perspective.Karim Baraghith - 2019 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 33 (1):23-52.
    The generalized theory of evolution suggests that evolutionary algorithms apply to biological and cultural processes like language alike. Variation, selection and reproduction constitute abstract and formal traits of complex, open and often self-regulating systems. Accepting this basic assumption provides us with a powerful background methodology for this investigation: explaining the emergence and proliferation of semantic patterns, that become conventional. A teleosemantic theory of public (conventional) meaning (Millikan 1984; 2005) grounded in a generalized theory of evolution explains the proliferation of public (...)
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  24.  78
    Regarding the `Hole Argument' and the `Problem of Time'.Karim P. Y. Thebault & Sean Gryb - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (4):563-584.
    The canonical formalism of general relativity affords a particularly interesting characterisation of the infamous hole argument. It also provides a natural formalism in which to relate the hole argument to the problem of time in classical and quantum gravity. In this paper we examine the connection between these two much discussed problems in the foundations of spacetime theory along two interrelated lines. First, from a formal perspective, we consider the extent to which the two problems can and cannot be precisely (...)
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  25.  25
    Quantisation, Representation and Reduction; How Should We Interpret the Quantum Hamiltonian Constraints of Canonical Gravity?Karim P. Y. Thébault - unknown
    Hamiltonian constraints feature in the canonical formulation of general relativity. Unlike typical constraints they cannot be associated with a reduction procedure leading to a non-trivial reduced phase space and this means the physical interpretation of their quantum analogues is ambiguous. In particular, can we assume that “quantisation commutes with reduction” and treat the promotion of these constraints to operators annihilating the wave function, according to a Dirac type procedure, as leading to a Hilbert space equivalent to that reached by quantisation (...)
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  26.  8
    Tagba Tone: a case of tier hierarchization.Mori Edwige Luo Traoré - 2019 - Corela. Cognition, Représentation, Langage 17.
    Tagba is a tone language that presents tonal patterns that appear quite regular at first glance. However, these are difficult to model under standard autosegmental hierarchical assumptions regarding the placement of skeleton, segments and tones. In this paper, we will present Tagba tonology and demonstrate that it can be accounted for by readjusting the tiers of hierarchization. From this, we reason that the proposed hierarchy is parametric and language specific.
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  27. Major and Minor: Crossed Perspectives.Karim Larose & Roxanne Lapidus - 2002 - Substance 31 (1):36-47.
  28.  11
    Liberalism’s Religion.Karim Sadek - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (3-4):695-697.
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  29. Book Review: Wang Xi, The Discursive Construction of Intercultural Understanding in China: A Case Study of an International Baccalaureate Diploma Program. [REVIEW]Karim Sadeghi - 2017 - Discourse Studies 19 (4):483-484.
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  30.  65
    Confirmation Via Analogue Simulation: What Dumb Holes Could Tell Us About Gravity.Radin Dardashti, Karim P. Y. Thébault & Eric Winsberg - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (1).
    In this article we argue for the existence of ‘analogue simulation’ as a novel form of scientific inference with the potential to be confirmatory. This notion is distinct from the modes of analogical reasoning detailed in the literature, and draws inspiration from fluid dynamical ‘dumb hole’ analogues to gravitational black holes. For that case, which is considered in detail, we defend the claim that the phenomena of gravitational Hawking radiation could be confirmed in the case that its counterpart is detected (...)
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  31.  1
    Plastic Bags, Pollution, and Identity: Women and the Gendering of Globalization and Environmental Responsibility in Mali.Assitan Sylla Traore & Yvonne A. Braun - 2015 - Gender and Society 29 (6):863-887.
    Research and policy interest in questions of environmental waste is growing, especially plastic bag pollution. Where trash disposal and recycling are not highly regulated, the proliferation of plastic bags has created dramatic social and environmental consequences. In this article, we draw on 30 interviews with women who sell goods in markets in Mali as an entry point into investigating this issue through the interrelated dimensions of identity, gender, globalization, and the environment. We find the choices of women become suspect and (...)
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  32.  73
    A Semantical Proof of the Strong Normalization Theorem for Full Propositional Classical Natural Deduction.Karim Nour & Khelifa Saber - 2006 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 45 (3):357-364.
    We give in this paper a short semantical proof of the strong normalization for full propositional classical natural deduction. This proof is an adaptation of reducibility candidates introduced by J.-Y. Girard and simplified to the classical case by M. Parigot.
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  33.  14
    Facilitating Access to a COVID-19 Vaccine Through Global Health Law.Lawrence O. Gostin, Safura Abdool Karim & Benjamin Mason Meier - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):622-626.
  34.  17
    Understanding the Unique Impact of Dimensions of Ethical Leadership on Employee Attitudes.Samina Karim & Sadia Nadeem - 2019 - Ethics and Behavior 29 (7):572-594.
    This study extends earlier findings on ethical leadership by testing the relationship of the seven dimensions of ethical leadership with job satisfaction, organization commitment, job embeddedness, and cynicism. It uses time-lagged data from 585 employees in Pakistan. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling, the study supports the concept of multidimensional ethical leadership in the Eastern setting and indicates that the dimensions of people orientation, fairness, power sharing, ethical guidance, and role clarification are associated with the majority of outcomes, (...)
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  35.  17
    Describing and Analyzing Learning in Action: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Misconceptions in Learning Science.Karim M. Hamza & Per‐Olof Wickman - 2008 - Science Education 92 (1):141-164.
  36. The Role of Time in Relational Quantum Theories.Sean Gryb & Karim Thébault - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (9):1210-1238.
    We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the full classical dynamics of the system and must therefore be deemed inappropriate. We propose a new strategy for consistently quantizing systems with a relational notion of time that does capture the full classical dynamics of the system and allows for evolution parametrized by an equitable internal (...)
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  37. On the Limits of Experimental Knowledge.Peter Evans & Karim P. Y. Thebault - 2020 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 378 (2177).
    To demarcate the limits of experimental knowledge, we probe the limits of what might be called an experiment. By appeal to examples of scientific practice from astrophysics and analogue gravity, we demonstrate that the reliability of knowledge regarding certain phenomena gained from an experiment is not circumscribed by the manipulability or accessibility of the target phenomena. Rather, the limits of experimental knowledge are set by the extent to which strategies for what we call ‘inductive triangulation’ are available: that is, the (...)
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  38.  74
    Mixed Logic and Storage Operators.Karim Nour - 2000 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 39 (4):261-280.
    In 1990 J-L. Krivine introduced the notion of storage operators. They are $\lambda$ -terms which simulate call-by-value in the call-by-name strategy and they can be used in order to modelize assignment instructions. J-L. Krivine has shown that there is a very simple second order type in AF2 type system for storage operators using Gödel translation of classical to intuitionistic logic. In order to modelize the control operators, J-L. Krivine has extended the system AF2 to the classical logic. In his system (...)
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  39. .Karīm Mujtahidī - 2006
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  40.  26
    The Morphogenetic Approach and Immanent Causality: A Spinozian Perspective.Karim Knio - 2018 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 48 (4):398-415.
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  41.  25
    Wissenschaft und Realität. Versuch eines pragmatischen Empirismus.Karim Bschir - 2012 - Mohr Siebeck.
    Versuch eines pragmatischen Empirismus Karim Bschir. vom Rationalismus abzugrenzen, welcher neben der Erfahrung auch die reine Verstandestätigkeit als Erkenntnisquelle zulässt. Auf der anderen Seite benutzt man „Empirismus“ bzw.
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  42.  23
    Risk, Uncertainty and Precaution in Science: The Threshold of the Toxicological Concern Approach in Food Toxicology.Karim Bschir - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):489-508.
    Environmental risk assessment is often affected by severe uncertainty. The frequently invoked precautionary principle helps to guide risk assessment and decision-making in the face of scientific uncertainty. In many contexts, however, uncertainties play a role not only in the application of scientific models but also in their development. Building on recent literature in the philosophy of science, this paper argues that precaution should be exercised at the stage when tools for risk assessment are developed as well as when they are (...)
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  43.  15
    Disease Prioritarianism: A Flawed Principle.Karim Jebari - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (1):95-101.
    Disease prioritarianism is a principle that is often implicitly or explicitly employed in the realm of healthcare prioritization. This principle states that the healthcare system ought to prioritize the treatment of disease before any other problem. This article argues that disease prioritarianism ought to be rejected. Instead, we should adopt ‘the problem-oriented heuristic’ when making prioritizations in the healthcare system. According to this idea, we ought to focus on specific problems and whether or not it is possible and efficient to (...)
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  44.  31
    Symmetry and Evolution in Quantum Gravity.Sean Gryb & Karim Thébaault - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (3):305-348.
    We propose an operator constraint equation for the wavefunction of the Universe that admits genuine evolution. While the corresponding classical theory is equivalent to the canonical decomposition of General Relativity, the quantum theory contains an evolution equation distinct from standard Wheeler–DeWitt cosmology. Furthermore, the local symmetry principle—and corresponding observables—of the theory have a direct interpretation in terms of a conventional gauge theory, where the gauge symmetry group is that of spatial conformal diffeomorphisms (that preserve the spatial volume of the Universe). (...)
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  45. The Hippocampus: Hub of Brain Network Communication for Memory.Francesco P. Battaglia, Karim Benchenane, Anton Sirota, Cyriel M. A. Pennartz & Sidney I. Wiener - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (7):310-318.
    A complex brain network, centered on the hippocampus, supports episodic memories throughout their lifetimes. Classically, upon memory encoding during active behavior, hippocampal activity is dominated by theta oscillations (6-10Hz). During inactivity, hippocampal neurons burst synchronously, constituting sharp waves, which can propagate to other structures, theoretically supporting memory consolidation. This 'two-stage' model has been updated by new data from high-density electrophysiological recordings in animals that shed light on how information is encoded and exchanged between hippocampus, neocortex and subcortical structures such as (...)
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  46.  3
    Introduction: The Armchair and the Pickaxe.Karim Dharamsi, Giuseppina D'Oro & Stephen Leach - 2018 - In Karim Dharamsi, Giuseppina D’Oro & Stephen Leach (eds.), Collingwood on Philosophical Methodology. Palgrave. pp. 1-14.
    Is philosophy continuous with science or does it have a distinctive domain of inquiry that differs from that of the special sciences? Collingwood claimed that philosophy has a distinctive subject matter and a distinctive method. Its distinctive subject matter is what he called the “absolute presuppositions” that govern the special sciences and its method consists in making these presuppositions explicit by showing that they are entailed by the questions asked in the special sciences. In this chapter the editors seek to (...)
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  47.  15
    Echeverría, Javier. El Arte de Innovar: Naturalezas, Lenguajes, Sociedades. Madrid: Plaza y Valdés Editores, 2017. 189 Pp. [REVIEW]Karim Gherab - 2018 - Ideas Y Valores 67 (167):334-336.
    RESUMEN Una vez que el foco de la reflexión pasa de las teorías ideales a la aplicación de la justicia social, centrada en las instituciones de las sociedades democráticas, se requiere prestar especial atención a los estilos de vida. Estos tienen una alta incidencia en cómo la justicia es realizada y afectan tanto a la desigualdad económica como a la disponibilidad de los recursos naturales. En nuestras sociedades es posible establecer restricciones a los estilos de vida, especialmente en aquellos casos (...)
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  48. Quantization as a Guide to Ontic Structure.Karim P. Y. Thébault - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):89-114.
    The ontic structural realist stance is motivated by a desire to do philosophical justice to the success of science, whilst withstanding the metaphysical undermining generated by the various species of ontological underdetermination. We are, however, as yet in want of general principles to provide a scaffold for the explicit construction of structural ontologies. Here we will attempt to bridge this gap by utilizing the formal procedure of quantization as a guide to ontic structure of modern physical theory. The example of (...)
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  49.  7
    Remarks on the NIP in a Model.Karim Khanaki & Anand Pillay - 2018 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 64 (6):429-434.
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  50. Die Evolution der Kohäsion. [REVIEW]Karim Baraghith - 2019 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 126 (2).
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