36 found
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  1.  26
    The Relevance Effect and Conditionals.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, Henrik Singmann & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2016 - Cognition 150:26-36.
    More than a decade of research has found strong evidence for P(if A, then C) = P(C|A) (“the Equation”). We argue, however, that this hypothesis provides an overly simplified picture due to its inability to account for relevance. We manipulated relevance in the evaluation of the probability and acceptability of indicative conditionals and found that relevance moderates the effect of P(C|A). This corroborates the Default and Penalty Hypothesis put forward in this paper. Finally, the probability and acceptability of concessive conditionals (...)
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  2. Cancellation, Negation, and Rejection.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, Peter Collins, Karolina Krzyżanowska, Ulrike Hahn & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2019 - Cognitive Psychology 108:42-71.
    In this paper, new evidence is presented for the assumption that the reason-relation reading of indicative conditionals ('if A, then C') reflects a conventional implicature. In four experiments, it is investigated whether relevance effects found for the probability assessment of indicative conditionals (Skovgaard-Olsen, Singmann, and Klauer, 2016a) can be classified as being produced by a) a conversational implicature, b) a (probabilistic) presupposition failure, or c) a conventional implicature. After considering several alternative hypotheses and the accumulating evidence from other studies as (...)
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  3. Norm Conflicts and Conditionals.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, David Kellen, Ulrike Hahn & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2019 - Psychological Review (5):611-633.
    Suppose that two competing norms, N1 and N2, can be identified such that a given person’s response can be interpreted as correct according to N1 but incorrect according to N2. Which of these two norms, if any, should one use to interpret such a response? In this paper we seek to address this fundamental problem by studying individual variation in the interpretation of conditionals by establishing individual profiles of the participants based on their case judgments and reflective attitudes. To investigate (...)
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  4. Relevance and Reason Relations.Niels Skovgaard‐Olsen, Henrik Singmann & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S5):1202-1215.
    This paper examines precursors and consequents of perceived relevance of a proposition A for a proposition C. In Experiment 1, we test Spohn's assumption that ∆P = P − P is a good predictor of ratings of perceived relevance and reason relations, and we examine whether it is a better predictor than the difference measure − P). In Experiment 2, we examine the effects of relevance on probabilistic coherence in Cruz, Baratgin, Oaksford, and Over's uncertain “and-to-if” inferences. The results suggest (...)
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  5. Relevance Differently Affects the Truth, Acceptability, and Probability Evaluations of “and”, “but”, “Therefore”, and “If–Then”.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, David Kellen, Hannes Krahl & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (4):449-482.
    In this study we investigate the influence of reason-relation readings of indicative conditionals and ‘and’/‘but’/‘therefore’ sentences on various cognitive assessments. According to the Frege-Grice tradition, a dissociation is expected. Specifically, differences in the reason-relation reading of these sentences should affect participants’ evaluations of their acceptability but not of their truth value. In two experiments we tested this assumption by introducing a relevance manipulation into the truth-table task as well as in other tasks assessing the participants’ acceptability and probability evaluations. Across (...)
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  6.  29
    On Belief Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning.Karl Christoph Klauer, Jochen Musch & Birgit Naumer - 2000 - Psychological Review 107 (4):852-884.
  7.  14
    New Normative Standards of Conditional Reasoning and the Dual-Source Model.Henrik Singmann, Karl Christoph Klauer & David Over - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  8.  7
    Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning.Mandy Hütter, Steven Sweldens, Christoph Stahl, Christian Unkelbach & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2012 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141 (3):539-557.
  9.  26
    Priming of Semantic Classifications by Novel Subliminal Prime Words☆.Karl Christoph Klauer, Andreas B. Eder, Anthony G. Greenwald & Richard L. Abrams - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):63-83.
    Four experiments demonstrate category congruency priming by subliminal prime words that were never seen as targets in a valence-classification task and a gender-classification task . In Experiment 1, overlap in terms of word fragments of one or more letters between primes and targets of different valences was larger than between primes and targets of the same valence. In Experiments 2 and 3, the sets of prime words and target words were completely disjoint in terms of used letters. In Experiment 4, (...)
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  10.  67
    Deductive and Inductive Conditional Inferences: Two Modes of Reasoning.Henrik Singmann & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (3):247 - 281.
    A number of single- and dual-process theories provide competing explanations as to how reasoners evaluate conditional arguments. Some of these theories are typically linked to different instructions?namely deductive and inductive instructions. To assess whether responses under both instructions can be explained by a single process, or if they reflect two modes of conditional reasoning, we re-analysed four experiments that used both deductive and inductive instructions for conditional inference tasks. Our re-analysis provided evidence consistent with a single process. In two new (...)
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  11.  19
    Behavioral Components of Impulsivity.Christoph Stahl, Andreas Voss, Florian Schmitz, Mandy Nuszbaum, Oliver Tüscher, Klaus Lieb & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (2):850-886.
  12.  56
    Working Memory Involvement in Propositional and Spatial Reasoning.Karl Christoph Klauer - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (1):9 – 47.
    Four experiments assessed the relative involvement of different working memory components in two types of reasoning tasks: propositional and spatial reasoning. Using the secondary-task methodology, visual, central-executive, and phonological loads were realised. Although the involvement of visuospatial resources in propositional reasoning has traditionally been considered to be small, an overall analysis of the present data suggests an alternative account. A theoretical analysis of the pattern of results in terms of Evans' (1984, 1989) twostage theory of reasoning is proposed and tested (...)
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  13.  7
    A Common-Coding Account of the Bidirectional Evaluation–Behavior Link.Andreas B. Eder & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2009 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 138 (2):218-235.
  14.  14
    On the Normative Justification for Information Gain in Wason's Selection Task.Karl Christoph Klauer - 1999 - Psychological Review 106 (1):215-222.
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  15.  9
    Assessing the Belief Bias Effect with ROCs: Reply to Dube, Rotello, and Heit.Karl Christoph Klauer & David Kellen - 2011 - Psychological Review 118 (1):164-173.
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  16.  5
    On the Controllability of Evaluative-Priming Effects: Some Limits That Are None.Sarah Teige-Mocigemba & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (4):632-657.
  17.  24
    Common Valence Coding in Action and Evaluation: Affective Blindness Towards Response-Compatible Stimuli.Andreas B. Eder & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (6):1297-1322.
  18.  31
    Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory.Karl Christoph Klauer & Zengmei Zhao - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (3):355-381.
  19.  18
    Does Ignoring Lead to Worse Evaluations? A New Explanation of the Stimulus Devaluation Effect.Kerstin Dittrich & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (2):193-208.
  20.  9
    Correcting for Measurement Error in Detecting Unconscious Cognition: Comment on Draine and Greenwald.Karl Christoph Klauer, Anthony G. Greenwald & Sean C. Draine - 1998 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 127 (3):318-319.
  21.  17
    From Sunshine to Double Arrows: An Evaluation Window Account of Negative Compatibility Effects.Karl Christoph Klauer & Kerstin Dittrich - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (3):490-519.
  22.  10
    On the Measurement of Criterion Noise in Signal Detection Theory: The Case of Recognition Memory.David Kellen, Karl Christoph Klauer & Henrik Singmann - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (3):457-479.
  23.  78
    Matching Bias in the Selection Task is Not Eliminated by Explicit Negations.Edgar Erdfelder, Karl Christoph Klauer & Christoph Stahl - 2008 - Thinking and Reasoning 14 (3):281-303.
    The processes that guide performance in Wason's selection task (WST) are still under debate. The matching bias effect in the negations paradigm and its elimination by explicit negations are central arguments against a substantial role for inferential processes. Two WST experiments were conducted in the negations paradigm to replicate the basic finding and to compare effects of implicit and explicit negations. Results revealed robust matching bias in implicit negations. In contrast to previous findings, matching bias was reduced but not eliminated (...)
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  24.  40
    Locational Uncertainty Moderates Affective Congruency Effects in the Evaluative Decision Task.Jochen Musch & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2001 - Cognition and Emotion 15 (2):167-188.
  25.  9
    Signal Detection and Threshold Modeling of Confidence-Rating ROCs: A Critical Test with Minimal Assumptions.David Kellen & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2015 - Psychological Review 122 (3):542-557.
  26.  6
    The Invariance Assumption in Process-Dissociation Models: An Evaluation Across Three Domains.Karl Christoph Klauer, Kerstin Dittrich, Christine Scholtes & Andreas Voss - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (1):198-221.
  27.  12
    On the Measurement of Criterion Noise in Signal Detection Theory: Reply to Benjamin.David Kellen, Karl Christoph Klauer & Henrik Singmann - 2013 - Psychological Review 120 (3):727-730.
  28.  17
    Accounting for Belief Bias in a Mental Model Framework? No Problem! Reply to Garnham and Oakhill.Karl Christoph Klauer & Jochen Musch - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (2):519-520.
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  29. Affective Priming: Findings and Theories.Karl Christoph Klauer, Jochen Musch, J. Musch & K. C. Klauer - 2003 - In Jochen Musch & Karl C. Klauer (eds.), The Psychology of Evaluation: Affective Processes in Cognition and Emotion. Lawerence Erlbaum.
  30.  3
    The Law of Categorical Judgment Extended: A Note on Rosner and Kochanski.Karl Christoph Klauer & David Kellen - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (1):216-220.
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  31. Conditionals, Individual Variation, and the Scorekeeping Task.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, David Kellen, Ulrike Hahn & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2017 - Proceedings of Cognitive Science 39:xxx.
    In this manuscript we study individual variation in the interpretation of conditionals by establishing individual profiles of the participants based on their behavioral responses and reflective attitudes. To investigate the participants’ reflective attitudes we introduce a new experimental paradigm called the Scorekeeping Task, and a Bayesian mixture model tailored to analyze the data. The goal is thereby to identify the participants who follow the Suppositional Theory of conditionals and Inferentialism and to investigate their performance on the uncertain and-to-if inference task.
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  32.  15
    Corrigendum to “The Relevance Effect and Conditionals” [Cognition 150 26–36].Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, Henrik Singmann & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2018 - Cognition 170:338.
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  33.  14
    Controlling the “Uncontrollable”: Faking Effects on the Affect Misattribution Procedure.Sarah Teige-Mocigemba, Barnabas Penzl, Manuel Becker, Laura Henn & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2016 - Cognition and Emotion 30 (8).
  34.  7
    Are Rank Orders Mentally Represented by Spatial Arrays?Ulrich von Hecker & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The present contribution argues that transitive reasoning, as exemplified in paradigms of linear order construction in mental space, is associated with spatial effects. Starting from robust findings from the early 70s, research so far has widely discussed the symbolic distance effect. This effect shows that after studying pairs of relations, e.g., “A > B,” “B > C,” and “D > E,” participants are more correct, and faster in correct responding, the wider the “distance” between two elements within the chain A (...)
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  35.  4
    Spatial Processes in Category Assignment.Ulrich von Hecker & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2021 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 150 (3):446-465.
    Investigates the hypothesis that spatial processes are involved in judgments on membership in a category. It is argued that membership versus non-membership of an object or a concept, in a category, is spatially simulated in mental space by a minimal continuum with 2 levels, left for membership and right for non-membership. In analogy to other embodied dimensions (e.g., time line or number line), the orientation of membership levels on the mental dimension is assumed to follow the acquired reading/writing schema, with (...)
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  36.  17
    Editorial: What's Shared in Sharing Tasks and Actions? Processes and Representations Underlying Joint Performance.Motonori Yamaguchi, Timothy N. Welsh, Karl Christoph Klauer & Kerstin Dittrich - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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