Монографія об‘єднала зусилля науковців факультету міжнародної економіки Дніпропетровського національного університету імені Олеся Гончара та учасників Міжнародної науково-практичної конференції «Стратегії економічного розвитку країн в умовах глобалізації» у процесі пошуку й визначення стратегічних орієнтирів економічного розвитку України в глобальному середовищі й обрання своєї вірної дороги. На відміну від Ван Гога, усі дороги якого ведуть у нікуди, ми віримо, що спроможні обрати ту саму – нашу дорогу у світле й заможне майбутнє, й усі наші зусилля не будуть марними.
Gareth Evans has observed that one merely needs to ‘look outward’ to discover one’s own beliefs. This observation of what has become known as belief ‘transparency’ has formed a basis for a cluster of views on the nature of introspection. These views may be well suited to account for our introspective access to beliefs, but whether similar transparency-based accounts of our introspective access to mental states other than belief can be given is not obvious. The question of whether a transparency-based (...) account can be generalized beyond beliefs is part of the larger issue whether introspection of different mental states can receive broadly the same account—whether introspection is unified. My aim is to examine one particularly thorough attempt at generalizing a transparency-based account of introspection due to Alex Byrne. I argue that the resulting view does not offer a unified account of introspection, even across a handful of mental states. In doing so, I highlight two difficulties most views on introspection that try to offer a unified account would have to face, even if they are not based in belief transparency. The subsequent move away from introspective unification has ramifications for several other philosophical debates, such as the architecture of the mind and our rationality. (shrink)
Economic instability, continuous change of conditions, that innovatively oriented enterprises function in, complicate the achievement of planned results and decrease the efficiency of using strategic management of the development. Taking into account the aforesaid, the aim of the article is to elaborate a conception of providing the operational development in the functioning process of innovatively oriented enterprises, based on the complex of operational actions, achieving tactic and strategic purpose-oriented results for transferring the economic system of an enterprise in the new (...) development stage. According to research results, it was grounded, that the aim of functioning of innovatively oriented enterprises at realizing the operational development process forms as a combination of the innovatively oriented evolution of the economic system and the increase of the economic return for the further use in the development process. It was proved, that the development at the operational level is a process of purpose-oriented changes that provide transferring an enterprise to the new development stage. Such purpose-oriented changes are offered to be realized through realizing economic functions in the internal environment of an enterprise, directed not only on current functioning processes, but also development that allows to attain the sufficient economic return level. It was revealed, that it is expedient to realize them, based on using factors of production and management of economic relations both at the level “subject – object” and “object – object”, considering an innovatively oriented enterprise as an ecosystem. For this aim, its construction and structure are grounded; the characteristic of key complicated functional environments of components of an ecosystem is given. It was elucidated, that the economic evolution of an enterprise takes place through the change of stages of the functional development level, at each of them the complex of economic functions is realized, and the economic return is obtained according to an achieved position in the development process. (shrink)
У статті розглянуто основні соціальні екзистенціали, їх природу та зв'язок із екзистенціалами індивідуального рівня. Зроблено висновок про тенденції формування на Донбасі соціальної спільноти, яка заснована на єдності історичної долі. Аналізується зміна змісту соціальних екзистенціалів східно-українського соціуму під впливом збройного конфлікту на Донбасі.
The phenomenon of war occupies one of the leading places in socio-philosophical and cultural studies. War also has an ambiguous position in human life. On the historical map we see the ongoing waves of armed conflicts, which inevitably lead to fatal consequences for countries, peoples and human beings. War mainly appears in the form of horrors and tragedies. However, in philosophical studies, war is considered from different angles. Philosophers often emphasize the ambiguity and multidimensionality of war. In this work, the (...) authors analyze the phenomenon of war, given a certain “attractiveness” and even the “necessity” of this phenomenon for humans. The authors also summarize the available range of answers to the question of where the desire for violence comes from, that is, the so-called “thirst for war”. It is this desire that gives rise to a constant stay of people in a state of war. The results of this study show that war is indeed an important phenomenon, which can also be considered one of the fundamental attributes of human nature. Analyzing various approaches that explain the causes of war the authors note that the source of any armed conflict is precisely the “militancy” in the very essence of homo sapiens. Human beings must constantly fight for their existence. And such a struggle often takes various forms, which can be considered as concrete variants of the same phenomenon. This phenomenon at the theoretical and philosophical level is fixed in the concept of war. Despite the natural sense of horror that the word “war” evokes at the level of everyday consciousness, pain and hope, death and freedom, faith in human and the justice of the universe, as well as a willingness to fight for this justice, are simultaneously hidden under this “ language shell”. All these internally contradictory meanings are united within the framework of the philosophically processed concept of war, and are also embodied in many different “wars” that a person constantly wages due to his / her specific “being structure”. Human, therefore, is a “warring creature,” or, as the authors propose to denote this feature, “homo militaris”. (shrink)
The paper study methodological principles of choice strategy to ensure the effectiveness of the innovation project. Overview most common approaches to defining the essence of the concepts of "strategy" and "innovation strategy". The strategy for the company means a set of rules, techniques and methods by which the goal is achieved, solve specific problems and shared resources. Strategy innovation strategy includes ensuring the effectiveness of an innovative project that a radical means to achieve the goal of innovation in highly uncertain (...) outcomes and risks, which is to receive mainly economic effect. The author definition of the "strategy of ensuring the effectiveness of the innovative project", which is as follows: a set of measures on location, distribution and coordination of resources throughout the life cycle of innovation needed for economic benefit. The algorithm for choosing a strategy to ensure the effectiveness of the innovation project, the key is to analyze factors influencing the amount of costs from the position adopted by a particular decision, and a set of values which define a strategy. The proposed scientific and methodical approach to the selection of priority strategies to position vytratnosti is an efficient, since the group considers various factors influence the amount of costs and can now be used for the intended economic effect. The chosen strategy allows realistic assessment of the economic opportunities of the project, to ensure maximum utilization of innovative potential and minimize the negative consequences of the risks of innovation. (shrink)
The preference for learning styles is an important and widely discussed topic in educational psychology. Knowing students' preferences regarding learning style enables teachers to use more effective methods of providing information and to choose better educational tools for a particular student. This research deals with the comparison of male and female students' learning styles and contributes to the discussion of whether gender can affect a student's learning style. Kolb's assessment method was used to determine an individual's learning style. The research (...) uses both quantitative and qualitative methods in order to strengthen each method and get clearer results. 100 questionnaires were given out and 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted. The study took place at the College of Healthcare and Nursing in Brno. To concentrate on the research objectives, the respondents of similar age, same education level, and similar background were chosen. The results clearly show that male and female students tend to prefer different learning styles and that is contrary to the findings of previous research done in this area. The study helps to understand how gender can affect our way of studying and how to help individuals learn more effectively. (shrink)
The purpose of the article is to describe secularism, secularization and secularity in their relationship with the metaphysical and post-metaphysical philosophizing. The objective of the research is to analyze and compare the sense of the term secularism, secularization and secularity in metaphysical and post-metaphysical philosophizing. The scientific novelty of the research is that secularism is seen as an ideology derived from secularization and inextricably linked with the metaphysical constructions of modernism and secularity as a natural consequence of the ongoing process (...) of secularization in the post-metaphysical paradigm of thinking. Post-secular philosophy is philosophy after secular ontology and epistemology have been criticized; after we have been aware of the secular as a framework that relentlessly dictates the specific outlines of our experience, but which we are free to deploy in any way that impresses us; after we have taken in quotation marks all the usual secular divisions and wondered whether it is possible to live, feel and think differently. Speaking of post-secular philosophy, it is impossible to avoid the question of what is meant by secular, which in this post-secular seems to be overcome. To answer this question, it is necessary to distinguish between secularism, secularization and secularity, because these concepts are not equivalent. The author understands secularism as an ideology that presupposes the disappearance of religion, the “disenchantment” of the world, the liberation of man and humanity from all sorts of charms, especially religious. Secularization is the positive way in which society responds to the call of its own religious tradition. Secularization does not eliminate religion as such, but only some forms of religiosity that are incompatible with the new vision of reality. Thus, by secularization the author means a certain process of changing the status of religious faith in the public consciousness. Secularism is an ideology according to which a person criticizes everything religious, including religious institutions, and also believes that non-religious and anti-religious principles should be the basis of human morality. The term secularity refers either to the state of consciousness of a modern subject who has ceased to be religious or for whom religious faith has been replaced by modern experience; or the state of modern institutions and practices that operate outside any connection with religion. Completion of metaphysics means loss of confidence in any metanarratives, including secularism. The prefix “post” applies to the present era, when we speak of the end of secularism, and by no means the end of secularity. (shrink)
The article gives characteristics of pedagogical conditions of responsible attitude towards students’ future profession formation in pedagogical universities based on the analysis of scientific sources and empirical material: 1) purposeful motivation, awareness of the need for the formation of the specified quality as the future teacher’s spiritual value ; 2) improvement of students’ educational and non-auditing activities content in pedagogical universities ; 3) organization of student activity on the implementation of responsible organizational and teaching assignments. It is substantiated that the (...) second pedagogical condition is realized by deepening the future teachers’ educational professional training disciplines content as educational material of the given direction in order to master professional duty requirements; students’ non-auditing educational activities through the circle “Pedagogical Volunteering” functioning. It is indicated that the third pedagogical condition is realized by the way of: student self-government, aimed at organizing various educational activities for the purpose of multi-role execution of responsible orders by the students, modern methods of using future teachers’ self-education on a reflection basis; application of interactive forms and methods in extra-curriculum educational work; organization of managerial interaction between the practice organizers at different levels and educational institutions in order to monitor the formation of a responsible attitude towards students’ future profession.However, only the harmonization of the general pedagogical conditions will be a prerequisite for the effective formation of a responsible attitude towards the students’ future profession in pedagogical universities. (shrink)
The article deals with the problem of classification of wooden utensils from burials of Catacomb culture. The classification of this type of artifacts meets the problem of their persistence in ground. The information about most artifacts is limited to "reminds of wood from wooden utensil'. Nevertheless, there is representative selection of undamaged or archaeologically undamaged wooden utensils of Catacomb culture which allows to build classification scheme. Analysis of historiography showed that previously the classification of wooden utensils of Catacomb culture have (...) not been provided. But there are classifications for the utensils of other nomadic cultures of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. We studied the works of G. Pjatyh, S. Mahortyh, O. Dudin, S. Ljashko, R. Litvinenko. For the development of the classification, the main features of wooden utensils were distinguished. They were organized into four groups: morphological, technological, functional and stylistic. Our typological scheme is based on the principles of morphological classification. All wooden utensils were divided into two groups: container and table-ware. The scientific novelty of the work consist in systematization of the information on the findings of wooden utensils in burials of Catacomb culture, clarifying of the the terminology for different types of wooden utensils and developing of unitary classificational scheme for this type of artifacts. (shrink)
The article presents the results of analysis of nine wooden utensils of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in comparison with previous analysis of different authors. In eight cases remains were represented by deciduous trees. Comparison of this results with data from other investigators allowed to conclude that for making objects from wood used mainly local breeds. When selecting trees for making utensils, old masters have used certain principles such as ease of cutting and aesthetic preferences. For the manufacture of (...) wooden utensils, pastoral nomads used mostly local wood that grew in gullies and floodplains. Most often for the manufacture of wooden utensils used maple, which is recorded in the Catacomb monuments, Zrubna, Scythian and Sarmatian burials. The generally accepted view is of the greatest accessibility of oak as a material for the manufacture of wooden utensils. However, our analysis and findings of other studies suggest limited use of wood for making utensils. Only in one case, for making fixed tray was used oak bark. However, generally we have to assume that the old masters avoided the use of oak wood for cutting wooden utensils due to its physical properties and considering that the tools were quite simple for working with brittle kinds of wood. In two cases the data shows that for producing of the bowl chestnut wood was utilized. In the Steppe zone the willow and birch bark were broadly widespread. They could be used to make baskets and birch products, however, we do not have the results of relevant analyzes to talk about it with confidence. (shrink)
The problems of logistic costs management on domestic enterprises are considered. The essence and negative consequences of such problems are shown. The ponderability of highlighted problems is researched. The connection between determined problems is shown.
In the article is given the assessment of environmental balance of economic development of agrarian enterprise, the aims of enterprise were elaborated, and their positivity was verified. There was graphically built the “tree of aims” for realization of environmentally balanced strategy of PRAE Agro-firm “Mir”. It was scientifically grounded, that all aims and correspondent conditions that provide their attainment are devoid of conflict.
У статті обґрунтовано економічну та технологічну доцільність використання в енергетиці збагаченого палива. Запропоновано підхід до корегування ціни вугілля, який забезпечує врахування теплоенергетичних властивостей палива та надає можливість визначати показники конкурентоспроможності кам'яного вугілля на ринку первинних енергоносіїв.
One of the key problems facing bioethics concerns those cases where, due to the limited human and technical resources of medicine, patients are in fact doomed to die. The reason for withdrawing treatment may be the futility of using the available means, as well as the burden of certain procedures. In the contemporary world, euthanasia is offered as an alternative to withdrawing treatment, that is, direct causing the death of a patient, killing. They distinguish these two types of practice by (...) analyzing the duties of the physician, the intentions of all subjects, the differences between action and inaction. The obligation to save the patient at all costs should be rejected because of the non-humanity of this principle. That is why, however, the doctor faces a dilemma: to leave the patient to natural processes, or to kill him or her directly. The intention in both cases is to solve a problem in which the treatment of the patient becomes futile, and the withdrawing sooner or later leads to death. Euthanasia in its passive form may procedurally coincide with the withdrawing treatment. Withdrawing treatment is the decision, and therefore, it is more an action than inaction. It seems that the choice between euthanasia and withdrawing treatment is purely technical. The author of the article suggests comparing the mechanisms of decision making in the application of euthanasia and withdrawing treatment, looking at the purpose of these decisions and the means of its reaching. In the case of euthanasia, the purpose of action or inaction is to relieve suffering, and the means is to cause death. In the case of withdrawing treatment, instead, the goal is also the good of the patient, but death is not a means but a side effect. Therefore, the author recognizes that withdrawing treatment is a more moral practice than euthanasia, which is a direct killing and is justified by the low value of one’s life. (shrink)
It is a common intuition that I am in a better position to know my own mental states than someone else's. One view that takes this intuition very seriously is Neo-Expressivism, providing a “non-epistemic” account of first-person privilege. But some have denied that we enjoy any principled first-person privilege, as do those who have the Third-Person View, according to which there is no deep difference in our epistemic position with regard to our own and others' mental states. Despite their apparently (...) deep differences, I argue that Neo-Expressivism and the Third-Person View differ in their location of first-person privilege. This difference in the source of first-person privilege allows the key elements of each of these views to be compatible, and can even be combined into a single view about the nature of introspection and self-knowledge. The compatibility of these two views that otherwise appear to be in direct opposition is methodologically significant, highlighting several dialectical lessons that clar.. (shrink)
In her exciting and thought-provoking book, The Rationality of Perception, Susanna Siegel tackles some bedrock issues concerning the nature and epistemology of perception: its rationality and relation to inference. Examining those issues from the perspective of everyday perception, where our vanity, fears, wishful thinking, general outlook, etc. can influence what we believe ourselves to see, Siegel offers a constructive defence of the claim that ‘both perceptual experiences and the processes by which they arise can be rational or irrational’ and goes (...) on to analyze these processes in terms of inference. (shrink)
In the article the author presents a guide to the development of happiness in Ukraine at the stage of its transformation. The author substantiates the importance of taking into account the person's happiness in the integral model of a social organism and the forms of its steady development. Happiness of a person as a universal social value is particularly acute for modern Ukraine in the light of the significant transformations that take place today. Over the past decade, Ukrainian society did (...) not know the problems of military aggression, terrorism, information and psychological influence, manipulation of individual behavior and consciousness, they lead to a change in the picture of the world, the destruction of the integrity of being of individuals. The author analyzes the reasons for the destruction of happiness of the general population based on the mutual influence of personal happiness and public happiness. In this article, the author understands happiness as a dynamic state of social being, in which, in the process of active conscious-creative activity, a person realizes socially significant needs, interests, goals, values, reaches harmony with the internal and external worlds. The author shows for the achievement of happiness the necessary activity of subjects of social development. The scale of happiness is personal and social. Seeds of personal happiness should be sought in the recent Soviet past. Happiness depends on many external and internal conditions. Thus, in order to ensure the level of happiness of Ukrainians, the necessary sustainable development has increased: a harmonious combination of economic, social, environmental, political, spiritual prerequisites that will protect the future generations, provide opportunities for the development of freedom of life, careful attitude to the environment. Stability in the functioning of society, the development of democratic freedoms, the trust of citizens in the institutions of power, as well as labor, are the prerequisites for the formation of happiness. (shrink)
Автор досліджує визначення «віртуальна реальність» та його історичне становлення у філософії від найдавніших часів до наших днів. Розглянуто тривалий шлях формування терміна: у різні епохи його визначали по-своєму. Відзначено, що в античній філософії віртуальне було ознакою буття і представлено двома лініями тлумачення: Платона і Арістотеля. У середні віки філософи також використовували поняття «віртуальність». І тут вже поєднались елементи як платонівської, так і арістотелівської моделей. У Новий час концепція віртуальності зустрічається у працях Г. Лейбніца, І. Канта, Г. Гегеля та ін. Наприкінці (...) XIX – на початку XX ст. ідея віртуальності продовжувала розвиватися як ідея наявності особливого, проміжного стану чогось. Зазначається, що сьогодні варіативне тлумачення ідеї віртуальності продовжує виявлятися у різних галузях науки і техніки, корелюючи між ними. Автор відзначає, що сучасні технології та Інтернет надають визначенню нові аспекти. Розглядається поступове нашарування інтерпретацій терміна, яке до нині має досить розмите визначення. (shrink)
The interview focuses on the status of historico-philosophical science in the USSR, including comparative analysis of education at Moscow University and in provincial universities. Models of socialization, social elevators, level of professionalism, ideological control, as well as the Soviet heritage in the academic practices of independent Ukraine are discussed.
У статті досліджено концептуальні засади онтологічного дослідження держави як комплексного соціального явища, яке наразі переживає сутнісні трансформації, викликані цивілізаційними процесами. Узагальнено досвід політико-філософської експлікації концепту держави в дослідженнях британського теоретика Боба Джессопа. Визначено евристичний потенціал стратегічно-реляційного підходу до визначення поняття держави, запропонованого Б. Джессопом.
A clear understanding of the concept of health plays a key role in defining what health care should comprise and in developing adequate strategies for overcoming the current "health care crisis". This volume is the result of an international and interdisciplinary cooperation between medicine and philosophy on the current debate on the concept of health.Besides offering a critical analysis of the WHO definition and a review of both ancient and contemporary conceptions of health, the cooperative effort of physicians and philosophers (...) presented in this book works through the challenges which any definition of health faces, if it is to be both truly personalist, and at the same time operational.The overall purpose of this book is to capture the essentials of human health and to propose the outlines for a personalist understanding of this concept, i.e., a conception that does justice to the personal nature of human beings by introducing dimensions that are essential to personal life and well-being, such as the realms of rationality, affectivity and freedom, the realms of meaning, values, morality, and spirituality, the realms of social and interpersonal relations. To grasp the uniqueness of the human person is not yet to grasp the specific nature of personal health. But it is certainly a first step, and it becomes evident that every theory of human health presupposes a theory of the person. Accordingly, the debate presented in this book is no less a debate about the nature of the human person than it is a debate about the nature of health.The investigations offered in this volume intend to provide an impetus for new conceptions of personhood and human health. The phenomenological approach has the advantage of advocating a systematic conception of the total person which combines surface experiences (subjective experiences of well-being) with deeper dimensions of the person (value and being). An adequate conception of the human person has enormous implications not only for our understanding of what constitutes the health and well-being of the person, but also for our conception of what health care should comprise. Hence, answering the philosophical questions, such as those raised in this volume about health, is crucial for the solution of political problems such as how to legislate health care policy. (shrink)
У статті подається короткий огляд прагматичного емпіризму Джеймса, емпіризму Дьюї, неопрагматистських ідей Рорті, огляд метамоделей Крейга щодо теорії комунікації. На основі даного огляду авторка обґрунтовує необхідність радикалізації прагматизму та аналізує його вплив на комунікаційні дослідження. Досліджується теорія комунікації Роберта Крейга, яку він розглядає як практичну дисципліну. Доводиться, що всі теорії комунікації є взаєморелевантними, якщо їх адресують у практичний життєвий світ, в якому «комунікація» вже є багатозначним терміном. Кожна традиція теорії комунікації походить з риторичних посилань на певні загальноприйняті уявлення про комунікації, (...) оскаржуючи інші переконання. Взаємодоповнення та напруженість традицій породжують теоретичний метадискурс, який перетинається з існуючим практичним метадискурсом у суспільстві та потенційно інформує про нього. За попередньою схемою комунікативного поля риторична, семіотична, феноменологічна, кібернетична, соціально-психологічна, соціокультурна і критична традиції теорії комунікації вирізняються властивими способами визначення комунікації та проблем спілкування, метадискурсивними словниками та метадискурсивними загальними поняттями. Запропоновано порівняльну аргументацію між традиціями, розглянуто результати для теоретичної роботи та дисциплінарної практики в цій галузі. (shrink)
The dynamics of life and environment destruction in the east of Ukraine is rapidly increasing. This article analyzes the main factors of contamination and destruction of the environment as a result of the military operations in eastern Ukraine. There were held the calculations of areas destroyed by fire, analyzed the dynamics of fires in the east of Ukraine and compared with the previous years, there were analyzed the soils in the Krasnolymanskyi region and water form Siverskyi Donets River. It was (...) found that the military operations have devastating impact on all of the environment objects without exception. For a complete evaluation of the scope of environment destruction and pollution, it is necessary to conduct environmental monitoring, to develop an action plan on restoration of the environment. (shrink)
The article is dedicated to the study of the emotions of mystery in Gothic novels and thrillers. For many years, beginning with ancient times and up to modernity, mysteries and secrets were under thorough investigation by scientists. Mysteries, secrets and silence are associated with horror and happiness. That’s why they became the object of the proposed article. According to the linguacultural approach, the concepts were studied as complex phenomena, with composite meaning peculiar to the concepts under analysis. The concepts MYSTERY, (...) SILENCE and SECRET, were considered as the typical situations, the structure of which consists of such spheres: actants, predicates, attributes, quantifiers, space and time. Each of these spheres represents part of the characteristics and makes it possible to create a general understanding of the concepts under analysis as of complex phenomena, which are most vividly revealed in Gothic novels and thrillers. These novels disclose the emotions of mystery as unknown, horrific and tense situations are the main feature of these genres. Mystery has the key role here and is the inseparable part of their understanding. It was demonstrated that the concepts under analysis represent positive and negative features which denote their ambiguous and binary character at the same time. (shrink)