Results for 'Katharina Wezel'

637 found
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  1.  74
    15 Challenges for AI: Or What AI (Currently) Can’T Do.Thilo Hagendorff & Katharina Wezel - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):355-365.
    The current “AI Summer” is marked by scientific breakthroughs and economic successes in the fields of research, development, and application of systems with artificial intelligence. But, aside from the great hopes and promises associated with artificial intelligence, there are a number of challenges, shortcomings and even limitations of the technology. For one, these challenges arise from methodological and epistemological misconceptions about the capabilities of artificial intelligence. Secondly, they result from restrictions of the social context in which the development of applications (...)
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  2. Kant on Self-Knowledge and Self-Formation: The Nature of Inner Experience.Katharina T. Kraus - 2020 - Cambridge University Press.
    As the pre-eminent Enlightenment philosopher, Kant famously calls on all humans to make up their own minds, independently from the constraints imposed on them by others. Kant's focus, however, is on universal human reason, and he tells us little about what makes us individual persons. In this book, Katharina T. Kraus explores Kant's distinctive account of psychological personhood by unfolding how, according to Kant, we come to know ourselves as such persons. Drawing on Kant's Critical works and on his (...)
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  3. Number Words and Reference to Numbers.Katharina Felka - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 168 (1):261-282.
    A realist view of numbers often rests on the following thesis: statements like ‘The number of moons of Jupiter is four’ are identity statements in which the copula is flanked by singular terms whose semantic function consists in referring to a number (henceforth: Identity). On the basis of Identity the realists argue that the assertive use of such statements commits us to numbers. Recently, some anti-realists have disputed this argument. According to them, Identity is false, and, thus, we may deny (...)
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  4.  69
    The Virtuous Arguer: One Person, Four Roles.Katharina Stevens - 2016 - Topoi 35 (2):375-383.
    When evaluating the arguer instead of the argument, we soon find ourselves confronted with a puzzling situation: what seems to be a virtue in one argumentative situation could very well be called a vice in another. This paper will present the idea that there are in fact two sets of virtues an arguer has to master—and with them four sometimes very different roles.
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  5.  23
    The Attraction of the Ideal has No Traction on the Real: On Adversariality and Roles in Argument.Katharina Stevens & Daniel Cohen - 2018 - Argumentation and Advocacy:forthcoming.
    If circumstances were always simple and all arguers were always exclusively concerned with cognitive improvement, arguments would probably always be cooperative. However, we have other goals and there are other arguers, so in practice the default seems to be adversarial argumentation. We naturally inhabit the heuristically helpful but cooperation-inhibiting roles of proponents and opponents. We can, however, opt for more cooperative roles. The resources of virtue argumentation theory are used to explain when proactive cooperation is permissible, advisable, and even mandatory (...)
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  6.  31
    Solving the Puzzle About Early Belief‐Ascription.Katharina A. Helming, Brent Strickland & Pierre Jacob - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (4):438-469.
    Developmental psychology currently faces a deep puzzle: most children before 4 years of age fail elicited-response false-belief tasks, but preverbal infants demonstrate spontaneous false-belief understanding. Two main strategies are available: cultural constructivism and early-belief understanding. The latter view assumes that failure at elicited-response false-belief tasks need not reflect the inability to understand false beliefs. The burden of early-belief understanding is to explain why elicited-response false-belief tasks are so challenging for most children under 4 years of age. The goal of this (...)
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  7.  17
    Angelic Devil’s Advocates and the Forms of Adversariality.Katharina Stevens & Daniel H. Cohen - forthcoming - Topoi:1-14.
    Is argumentation essentially adversarial? The concept of a devil's advocate—a cooperative arguer who assumes the role of an opponent for the sake of the argument—serves as a lens to bring into clearer focus the ways that adversarial arguers can be virtuous and adversariality itself can contribute to argumentation's goals. It also shows the different ways arguments can be adversarial and the different ways that argumentation can be said to be "essentially" adversarial.
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  8.  4
    Critical Realism: The Epistemic Position of Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy.Katharina Sternek - 2021 - Gestalt Theory 43 (1):13-27.
    Summary In this contribution, I discuss the relevance of epistemological models for psychotherapy. Despite its importance epistemology is seldom explicitly dealt with in the psychotherapeutic landscape. Based on the presentation of “Critical Realism,” the epistemological position of Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy, I intend to show to which extent this explanatory model supports a differentiated understanding of problems between human beings, arising from the differences in experiencing “reality.” The presentation deals explicitly with some conclusions that can be drawn from the CR model (...)
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  9.  26
    The Roles We Make Others Take: Thoughts on the Ethics of Arguing.Katharina Stevens - 2019 - Topoi 38 (4):693-709.
    Feminist argumentation theorists have criticized the Dominant Adversarial Model in argumentation, according to which arguers should take proponent and opponent roles and argue against one another. The model is deficient because it creates disadvantages for feminine gendered persons in a way that causes significant epistemic and practical harms. In this paper, I argue that the problem that these critics have pointed out can be generalized: whenever an arguer is given a role in the argument the associated tasks and norms of (...)
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  10.  65
    Making Sense of Early False-Belief Understanding.Katharina A. Helming, Brent Strickland & Pierre Jacob - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (4):167-170.
  11.  37
    Case-to-Case Arguments.Katharina Stevens - 2018 - Argumentation 32 (3):431-455.
    Arguers sometimes cite a decision made in an earlier situation as a reason for making the equivalent decision in a later situation. I argue that there are two kinds of “case-to-case arguments”. First, there are arguments by precedent, which cite the mere existence of the past decision as a reason to decide in the same way again now, independent of the past decision’s merits. Second, there are case-to-case arguments from parralel reasoning which presuppose that the past decision was justified and (...)
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  12. What Is Conventionalism About Moral Rights and Duties?Katharina Nieswandt - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (1):15-28.
    ABSTRACTA powerful objection against moral conventionalism says that it gives the wrong reasons for individual rights and duties. The reason why I must not break my promise to you, for example, should lie in the damage to you—rather than to the practice of promising or to all other participants in that practice. Common targets of this objection include the theories of Hobbes, Gauthier, Hooker, Binmore, and Rawls. I argue that the conventionalism of these theories is superficial; genuinely conventionalist theories are (...)
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  13.  35
    The Parity and Disparity Between Inner and Outer Experience in Kant.Katharina Kraus - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (2):171-195.
    This article advocates a new interpretation ofinner experience– the experience that one has of one’s empirical-psychological features ‘from within’ – in Kant. It argues that for Kant inner experience is the empirical cognition of mental states, but not that of a persistent mental substance. The schema of persistence is thereby substituted with the regulative idea of the soul. This view is shown to be superior to two opposed interpretations: the parity view that regards inner experience as empirical cognition of a (...)
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  14.  21
    Understanding Collective Agency in Bioethics.Katharina Beier, Isabella Jordan, Claudia Wiesemann & Silke Schicktanz - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (3):411-422.
    Bioethicists tend to focus on the individual as the relevant moral subject. Yet, in highly complex and socially differentiated healthcare systems a number of social groups, each committed to a common cause, are involved in medical decisions and sometimes even try to influence bioethical discourses according to their own agenda. We argue that the significance of these collective actors is unjustifiably neglected in bioethics. The growing influence of collective actors in the fields of biopolitics and bioethics leads us to pursue (...)
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  15.  39
    Reasoning by Precedent—Between Rules and Analogies.Katharina Stevens - 2018 - Legal Theory 24 (3):216-254.
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  16.  16
    Relational Capacity: Broadening the Notion of Decision-Making Capacity in Paediatric Healthcare.Katharina M. Ruhe, Eva De Clercq, Tenzin Wangmo & Bernice S. Elger - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (4):515-524.
    Problems arise when applying the current procedural conceptualization of decision-making capacity to paediatric healthcare: Its emphasis on content-neutrality and rational cognition as well as its implicit assumption that capacity is an ability that resides within a person jeopardizes children’s position in decision-making. The purpose of the paper is to challenge this dominant account of capacity and provide an alternative for how capacity should be understood in paediatric care. First, the influence of developmental psychologist Jean Piaget upon the notion of capacity (...)
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  17.  56
    To Be or Not to Be Authentic. In Defence of Authenticity as an Ethical Ideal.Katharina Bauer - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (3):567-580.
    It has recently been pointed out that the cloudiness of the concept of authenticity as well as inflated ideologies of the ‘true self’ provide good reasons to criticize theories and ideals of authenticity. Nevertheless, there are also good reasons to defend an ethical ideal of authenticity, not least because of its critical and oppositional force, which is directed against experiences of self-abandonment and self-alienation. I will argue for an elaborated ethical ideal of authenticity: the ambitious ideal of a continuous self-reflective (...)
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  18.  10
    Towards an Experimental Test of Gravity-Induced Quantum State Reduction.Jasper van Wezel, Tjerk Oosterkamp & Jan Zaanen - 2008 - Philosophical Magazine 88 (7):1005-1026.
  19.  26
    Implicit Bias and Discrimination.Katharina Berndt Rasmussen - 2020 - Theoria 86 (6):727-748.
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  20.  3
    Use and Usefulness of Dynamic Face Stimuli for Face Perception Studies—a Review of Behavioral Findings and Methodology.Katharina Dobs, Isabelle Bülthoff & Johannes Schultz - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  21.  28
    An Alternative to Mapping a Word Onto a Concept in Language Acquisition: Pragmatic Frames.Katharina J. Rohlfing, Britta Wrede, Anna-Lisa Vollmer & Pierre-Yves Oudeyer - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  22.  88
    The Soul as the ‘Guiding Idea’ of Psychology: Kant on Scientific Psychology, Systematicity, and the Idea of the Soul.Katharina T. Kraus - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 71:77-88.
    This paper examines whether Kant’s Critical philosophy offers resources for a conception of empirical psychology as a theoretical science in its own right, rather than as a part of applied moral philosophy or of pragmatic anthropology. In contrast to current interpretations, this paper argues that Kant’s conception of inner experience provides relevant resources for the theoretical foundation of scientific psychology, in particular with respect to its subject matter and its methodological presuppositions. Central to this interpretation is the regulative idea of (...)
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  23.  87
    On the Presuppositions of Number Sentences.Katharina Felka - 2015 - Synthese 192 (5):1393-1412.
    This paper is concerned with an intuitive contrast that arises when we consider sentences containing empty definite descriptions. A sentence like ‘The king of France is bald’ appears neither true nor false, while a sentence like ‘My friend was visited by the king of France’ appears false. Recently, Stephen Yablo has suggested an account of this intuitive contrast. Yablo’s account is particularly interesting, since it has important consequences for the ontological commitments of number sentences like ‘The number of planets is (...)
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  24.  11
    Plasticity of Executive Control Through Task Switching Training in Adolescents.Katharina Zinke, Manuela Einert, Lydia Pfennig & Matthias Kliegel - 2012 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.
  25.  19
    A Practical Ethics of Care: Tinkering with Different ‘Goods’ in Residential Nursing Homes.Katharina Molterer, Patrizia Hoyer & Chris Steyaert - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 165 (1):95-111.
    In this paper, we argue that ‘good care’ in residential nursing homes is enacted through different care practices that are either inspired by a ‘professional logic of care’ that aims for justice and non-maleficence in the professional treatment of residents, or by a ‘relational logic of care’, which attends to the relational quality and the meaning of interpersonal connectedness in people’s lives. Rather than favoring one care logic over the other, this paper indicates how important aspects of care are constantly (...)
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  26.  12
    The Value of Law.Katharina Pistor - 2020 - Theory and Society 49 (2):165-186.
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  27.  8
    Mood States Determine the Degree of Task Shielding in Dual-Task Performance.Katharina Zwosta, Bernhard Hommel, Thomas Goschke & Rico Fischer - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (6):1142-1152.
  28.  50
    Imperceptible Impressions and Disorder in the Soul: A Characterization of the Distinction Between Calm and Violent Passions in Hume.Katharina Paxman - 2015 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 13 (3):265-278.
    Hume's explanation of our tendency to confuse calm passions with reason due to lack of feeling appears to present a tension with his claim that we cannot be mistaken about our own impressions. I argue that the calm/violent distinction cannot be understood in terms of presence/absence of feeling. Rather, for Hume the presence or absence of disruption and disordering of natural and/or customary modes of thought is the key distinction between the calm and violent passions. This reading provides new explanations (...)
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  29. Should the Probabilities Count?Katharina Berndt Rasmussen - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 159 (2):205-218.
    When facing a choice between saving one person and saving many, some people have argued that fairness requires us to decide without aggregating numbers; rather we should decide by coin toss or some form of lottery, or alternatively we should straightforwardly save the greater number but justify this in a non-aggregating contractualist way. This paper expands the debate beyond well-known number cases to previously under-considered probability cases, in which not (only) the numbers of people, but (also) the probabilities of success (...)
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  30.  28
    Harm and Discrimination.Katharina Berndt Rasmussen - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (4):873-891.
    Many legal, social, and medical theorists and practitioners, as well as lay people, seem to be concerned with the harmfulness of discriminative practices. However, the philosophical literature on the moral wrongness of discrimination, with a few exceptions, does not focus on harm. In this paper, I examine, and improve, a recent account of wrongful discrimination, which divides into a definition of group discrimination, and a characterisation of its moral wrong-making feature in terms of harm. The resulting account analyses the wrongness (...)
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  31. Anscombe on the Sources of Normativity.Katharina Nieswandt - 2017 - Journal of Value Inquiry 51 (1):141-163.
    Anscombe is usually seen as a critic of “Modern Moral Philosophy.” I attempt a systematic reconstruction and a defense of Anscombe’s positive theory. Anscombe’s metaethics is a hybrid of social constructivism and Aristotelian naturalism. Her three main claims are the following: (1) We cannot trace all duties back to one moral principle; there is more than one source of normativity. (2) Whether I have a certain duty will often be determined by the social practices of my community. For instance, duties (...)
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  32.  36
    Speaking Two Languages at Once: Unconscious Native Word Form Access in Second Language Production.Katharina Spalek, Noriko Hoshino, Yan Jing Wu, Markus Damian & Guillaume Thierry - 2014 - Cognition 133 (1):226-231.
  33.  6
    Leitbilder in den Sozialwissenschaften: Begriffe, Theorien Und Forschungskonzepte.Katharina D. Giesel - 2007 - Vs Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
    Katharina D. Giesel befasst sich mit den Fragen, was in den verschiedensten Sozialwissenschaften unter Leitbildern verstanden wird, wie diese Kategorie konzeptionell in Forschungs- und Handlungskonzepte eingebunden wird und inwiefern ...
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  34.  8
    Neural Mechanisms of Goal-Directed Behavior: Outcome-Based Response Selection is Associated with Increased Functional Coupling of the Angular Gyrus.Katharina Zwosta, Hannes Ruge & Uta Wolfensteller - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  35.  24
    Why is It (Un-)Ethical? Comparing Potential European Partners: A Western Christian and an Eastern Islamic Country – on Arguments Used in Explaining Ethical Judgments. [REVIEW]Katharina J. Srnka, A. Ercan Gegez & S. Burak Arzova - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (2):101 - 118.
    Located at the crossroads of the Eastern and Western world, Turkey today is characterized by a demographically versatile and modernizing society as well as a rapidly developing economy. Currently, the country is negotiating its accession to the European Union. This article yields some factual grounding into the ongoing value-related debate concerning Turkey's potential EU-membership. It describes a mixed-methodology study on moral reasoning in Austria and Turkey. In this study, the arguments given by individuals when evaluating ethically problematic situations in business (...)
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  36.  24
    Rethinking Explicit Expectations: Connecting Placebos, Social Cognition, and Contextual Perception.Katharina A. Schwarz, Roland Pfister & Christian Büchel - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (6):469-480.
  37.  6
    The Multifaceted Nature of Alexithymia – A Neuroscientific Perspective.Katharina S. Goerlich - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  38.  24
    The Everyday Dynamics of Rumination and Worry: Precipitant Events and Affective Consequences.Katharina Kircanski, Renee J. Thompson, James Sorenson, Lindsey Sherdell & Ian H. Gotlib - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (7):1424-1436.
    ABSTRACTRumination and worry are two perseverative, negatively valenced thought processes that characterise depressive and anxiety disorders. Despite significant research interest, little is known about the everyday precipitants and consequences of rumination and worry. Using an experience sampling methodology, we examined and compared rumination and worry with respect to their relations to daily events and affective experience. Participants diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, co-occurring MDD–GAD, or no diagnosis carried an electronic device for one week and reported on rumination, (...)
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  39.  3
    Dealing With the COVID-19 Infodemic: Distress by Information, Information Avoidance, and Compliance With Preventive Measures.Katharina U. Siebenhaar, Anja K. Köther & Georg W. Alpers - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  40.  8
    Good Scientific Practice: Developing a Curriculum for Medical Students in Germany.Katharina Fuerholzer, Maximilian Schochow & Florian Steger - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):127-139.
    German medical schools have not yet sufficiently introduced students to the field of good scientific practice. In order to prevent scientific misconduct and to foster scientific integrity, courses on GSP must be an integral part of the curriculum of medical students. Based on a review of the literature, teaching units and materials for two courses on GSP were developed and tested in a pilot course. The pilot course was accompanied by a pre-post evaluation that assessed students’ knowledge and attitudes towards (...)
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  41.  9
    The Relationship Between Austrian Tax Auditors and Self-Employed Taxpayers: Evidence From a Qualitative Study.Katharina Gangl, Barbara Hartl, Eva Hofmann & Erich Kirchler - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  42.  14
    Does Rhetoric Have a Place in Wohlrapp’s Theory of Argument?Katharina Stevens - 2017 - Informal Logic 37 (3):183-210.
    When a new theory of argumentation becomes available on the English-speaking market, such as it is happening now through the translation of Harald Wohlrapp’s The Concept of Argument, it is always interesting to work out how the new input will interact with the work that has otherwise been done in the field. This comment aims to determine whether rhetoric has a place in Wohlrapp’s account of argumentation.
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  43.  3
    Mentalization-Based Treatment From the Patients’ Perspective – What Ingredients Do They Emphasize?Katharina Teresa Enehaug Morken, Per-Einar Binder, Nina Margot Arefjord & Sigmund Wiggen Karterud - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  44.  46
    Surrogate Motherhood: A Trust-Based Approach.Katharina Beier - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (6):633-652.
    Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit––the “surrogacy triad” consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents––whose constituents are bound (...)
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  45.  16
    Learning What to See in a Changing World.Katharina Schmack, Veith Weilnhammer, Jakob Heinzle, Klaas E. Stephan & Philipp Sterzer - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  46.  6
    Early Life Epigenetic Programming and Transmission of Stress-Induced Traits in Mammals.Katharina Gapp, Lukas von Ziegler, Ry Yves Tweedie-Cullen & Isabelle M. Mansuy - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (5):491-502.
    The environment can have a long‐lasting influence on an individual's physiology and behavior. While some environmental conditions can be beneficial and result in adaptive responses, others can lead to pathological behaviors. Many studies have demonstrated that changes induced by the environment are expressed not only by the individuals directly exposed, but also by the offspring sometimes across multiple generations. Epigenetic alterations have been proposed as underlying mechanisms for such transmissible effects. Here, we review the most relevant literature on these changes (...)
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  47.  7
    Worth Less?: Why Men Devalue Care-Oriented Careers.Katharina Block, Alyssa Croft & Toni Schmader - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  48.  72
    Cognitive Self‐Enhancement as a Duty to Oneself: A Kantian Perspective.Katharina Bauer - 2018 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 56 (1):36-58.
    Recently some bioethicists and neuroscientists have argued for an imperative of chemical cognitive enhancement. This imperative is usually based on consequentialist grounds. In this paper, the topic of cognitive self-enhancement is discussed from a Kantian point of view in order to shed new light on the controversial debate. With Kant, it is an imperfect duty to oneself to strive for perfecting one’s own natural and moral capacities beyond one’s natural condition, but there is no duty to enhance others. A Kantian (...)
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  49.  11
    Self-Directedness and the Susceptibility to Distraction by Saliency.Katharina Dinica, Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Anton Lord, Anna Linda Krause, Roselinde Kaiser, Dorothea Horn, Coraline Danielle Metzger & Martin Walter - 2016 - Cognition and Emotion 30 (8).
  50. Do Rights Exist by Convention or by Nature?Katharina Nieswandt - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):313-325.
    I argue that all rights exist by convention. According to my definition, a right exists by convention just in case its justification appeals to the rules of a socially shared pattern of acting. I show that our usual justifications for rights are circular, that a right fulfills my criterion if all possible justifications for it are circular, and that all existing philosophical justifications for rights are circular or fail. We find three non-circular alternatives in the literature, viz. justifications of rights (...)
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