30 found
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  1.  17
    Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project.Arleen Salles, Kathinka Evers & Michele Farisco - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):201-211.
    Responsible Research and Innovation is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms (...)
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  2.  1
    Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication: New Insights and Responsibilities Concerning Speechless but Communicative Subjects.Michele Farisco & Kathinka Evers (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    __Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication__ focuses on recent neuroscientific investigations of infant brains and of patients with disorders of consciousness, both of which are at the forefront of contemporary neuroscience. The prospective use of neurotechnology to access mental states in these subjects, including neuroimaging, brain simulation and brain computer interfaces, offers new opportunities for clinicians and researchers, but has also received specific attention from philosophical, scientific, ethical and legal points of view. This book offers the first systematic assessment of these (...)
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  3.  18
    Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach.Michele Farisco, Arleen Salles & Kathinka Evers - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):717-727.
    :In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific and philosophical interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.
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  4.  60
    A Precautionary Principle for Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences.Frida Kuhlau, Anna T. Höglund, Kathinka Evers & Stefan Eriksson - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (1):1-8.
    Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges against the (...)
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  5.  60
    Taking Due Care: Moral Obligations in Dual Use Research.Frida Kuhlau, Stefan Eriksson, Kathinka Evers & Anna T. Höglund - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (9):477-487.
    In the past decade, the perception of a bioterrorist threat has increased and created a demand on life scientists to consider the potential security implications of dual use research. This article examines a selection of proposed moral obligations for life scientists that have emerged to meet these concerns and the extent to which they can be considered reasonable. It also describes the underlying reasons for the concerns, how they are managed, and their implications for scientific values. Five criteria for what (...)
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  6.  26
    First Page Preview.Fritz Allhoff, Françoise Baylis, Richard Glen Boire, Christopher Buford, Tom Buller, Raymond DeVries, Hubert Doucet, Kathinka Evers, Joseph Fins & Ruth L. Fischbach - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):29-31.
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  7.  15
    Spatiotemporal Neuroscience – What is It and Why We Need It.Georg Northoff, Soren Wainio-Theberge & Kathinka Evers - 2020 - Physics of Life Reviews 33:78-87.
    The excellent commentaries to our target paper hint upon three main issues, spatiotemporal neuroscience; neuro-mental relationship; and mind, brain, and world relationship. We therefore discuss briefly the history of Spatiotemporal Neuroscience. Distinguishing it from Cognitive Neuroscience and related branches, Spatiotemporal Neuroscience can be characterized by focus on brain activity, spatiotemporal relationship, and structure. Taken in this sense, Spatiotemporal Neuro-science allows one to conceive the neuro-mental relationship in dynamic spatiotemporal terms that complement and extend their cognitive characterization. Finally, more philosophical issues (...)
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  8.  2
    Neuroscience of Childhood Poverty: Evidence of Impacts and Mechanisms as Vehicles of Dialog With Ethics.Sebastián J. Lipina & Kathinka Evers - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  9.  8
    Towards Establishing Criteria for the Ethical Analysis of Artificial Intelligence.Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2413-2425.
    Ethical reflection on Artificial Intelligence has become a priority. In this article, we propose a methodological model for a comprehensive ethical analysis of some uses of AI, notably as a replacement of human actors in specific activities. We emphasize the need for conceptual clarification of relevant key terms in order to undertake such reflection. Against that background, we distinguish two levels of ethical analysis, one practical and one theoretical. Focusing on the state of AI at present, we suggest that regardless (...)
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  10.  24
    Possibilities and Limits of Mind-Reading: A Neurophilosophical Perspective.Kathinka Evers & Mariano Sigman - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):887-897.
    Access to other minds once presupposed other individuals’ expressions and narrations. Today, several methods have been developed which can measure brain states relevant for assessments of mental states without 1st person overt external behavior or speech. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and trace conditioning are used clinically to identify patterns of activity in the brain that suggest the presence of consciousness in people suffering from severe consciousness disorders and methods to communicate cerebrally with patients who are motorically unable to communicate. The (...)
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  11.  21
    The Ethical Relevance of the Unconscious.Michele Farisco & Kathinka Evers - 2017 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 12:11.
    BackgroundEthical analyses of disorders of consciousness traditionally focus on residual awareness. Going one step further, this paper explores the potential ethical relevance of the unawareness retained by patients with disorders of consciousness, focusing specifically on the ethical implications of the description of the unconscious provided by recent scientific research.MethodsA conceptual methodology is used, based on the review and analysis of relevant scientific literature on the unconscious and the logical argumentation in favour of the ethical conclusions.ResultsTwo conditions that are generally considered (...)
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  12.  26
    Large-Scale Brain Simulation and Disorders of Consciousness. Mapping Technical and Conceptual Issues.Michele Farisco, Jeanette H. Kotaleski & Kathinka Evers - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness, e.g. (...)
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  13.  49
    Perspectives on Memory Manipulation: Using Beta-Blockers to Cure Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.Kathinka Evers - 2007 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (2):138-146.
    The human mind strives to maintain equilibrium between memory and oblivion and rejects irrelevant or disruptive memories. However, extensive amounts of stress hormones released at the time of a traumatic event can give rise to such powerful memory formation that traumatic memories cannot be rejected and do not vanish or diminish with time: Post-traumatic stress disorder may then develop. Recent scientific studies suggest that beta-blockers stopping the action of these stress hormones may reduce the emotional impact of disturbing memories or (...)
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  14.  9
    Anthropomorphism in AI.Arleen Salles, Kathinka Evers & Michele Farisco - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (2):88-95.
    AI research is growing rapidly raising various ethical issues related to safety, risks, and other effects widely discussed in the literature. We believe that in order to adequately address those issues and engage in a productive normative discussion it is necessary to examine key concepts and categories. One such category is anthropomorphism. It is a well-known fact that AI’s functionalities and innovations are often anthropomorphized. The general public’s anthropomorphic attitudes and some of their ethical consequences have been widely discussed in (...)
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  15.  9
    The Need for a Conceptual Expansion of Neuroethics.Arleen Salles, Kathinka Evers & Michele Farisco - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):126-128.
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  16.  13
    Big Science, Brain Simulation, and Neuroethics.Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):28-30.
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  17.  66
    Neuroethics: A Philosophical Challenge.Kathinka Evers - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):31 – 33.
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  18.  27
    Ethics and the Responsibility of Science: Background Paper for the World Science Conference, Budapest June 26–July 1, 1999.Kathinka Evers - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):131-142.
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  19.  30
    The Identity of Clones.Kathinka Evers - 1999 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (1):67 – 76.
    A common concern with respect to cloning is based on the belief that cloning produces identical individuals. This is a fundamental misunderstanding of what type of identity-relation cloning involves. The concept "identity" is ambiguous, and the statement that cloning produces "identical" individuals is not meaningful unless the notion of identity is clarified. This paper distinguishes between numerical and qualitative; relational and intrinsic; logical and empirical identity, and discusses the empirical individuation of clones in terms of genetics, physiology, perception, cognition and (...)
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  20.  22
    Korsakoff Syndrome: The Amnesic Self.Kathinka Evers - 1999 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 13 (2):193-208.
    The belief that memory is essential to the self is common. Extreme amnesia, e.g., Korsakoff Syndrome, is held to dissolve the afflicted person’s self. This belief is a misconception that rests on a confusion of epistemic with ontological relevance. Epistemically, memory is relevant to the self: a subject’s self-knowledge partly depends on memories of past experiences. However, it is not by virtue of these memories that the subject is a self: ontologically, memory is irrelevant to that status. The fact that (...)
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  21.  7
    Korsakoff Syndrome: The Amnesic Self.Kathinka Evers - 1999 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 13 (2):193-208.
    The belief that memory is essential to the self is common. Extreme amnesia, e.g., Korsakoff Syndrome, is held to dissolve the afflicted person’s self. This belief is a misconception that rests on a confusion of epistemic with ontological relevance. Epistemically, memory is relevant to the self: a subject’s self-knowledge partly depends on memories of past experiences. However, it is not by virtue of these memories that the subject is a self: ontologically, memory is irrelevant to that status. The fact that (...)
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  22.  10
    Lectura de la mente Una perspectiva neurofilosófica.Kathinka Evers & Mariano Sigman - 2013 - Recerca.Revista de Pensament I Anàlisi 13:43-62.
    Hasta ahora, el acceso a otras mentes presuponía las expresiones y narraciones de los individuos. En la actualidad, se han desarrollado varios métodos que pueden medir los estados cerebrales relevantes para valorar las facultades mentales sin que se manifieste en 1ª persona habla o comportamiento externo alguno. La resonancia magnética funcional y el condicionamiento de huella se emplean fuera del ámbito clínico para acceder a la conciencia subjetiva; se utilizan clínicamente para identificar patrones de actividad en el cerebro que sugieran (...)
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  23.  12
    Lectura de la Mente Una Perspectiva Neurofilosófica.Kathinka Evers & Mariano Sigman - 2013 - Recerca.Revista de Pensament I Anàlisi 13:43-62.
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  24.  5
    The Culture‐Bound Brain: Epigenetic Proaction Revisited.Kathinka Evers - 2020 - Theoria 86 (6):783-800.
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  25.  41
    The Importance of Being a Self.Kathinka Evers - 2001 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (1):65-83.
    A traditional belief is that there is but one self to a body, and that each of us has a single biography and personality. Varieties of this monistic view have dominated most of mankind’s intellectual history in philosophy, science, religion, and psychology, as well as legal and social theory. It has been challenged by appeal to those people whom psychiatry labels “multiple,” or “dissociated” personalities who, some claim, are “multiple selves.” This may be adequate if the self is explained by (...)
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  26.  12
    The Utility- and Use–of Neurotechnology to Recover Consciousness: Technical and Neuroethical Considerations in Approaching the “Hard Question” of Neuroscience.Kathinka Evers & James J. Giordano - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  27.  9
    Understanding the Brain: Challenges for Neuroethics.Kathinka Evers - 2014 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 18 (1).
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  28.  6
    Understanding the brain: Challenges for neuroethics.Kathinka Evers - 2015 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 19 (1):239-250.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik Jahrgang: 19 Heft: 1 Seiten: 239-250.
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  29. The Ethics of Disseminating Dual-Use Knowledge.Frida Kuhlau, Anna T. Höglund, Stefan Eriksson & Kathinka Evers - 2013 - Research Ethics 9 (1):6-19.
    In 2011, for the first time ever, two scientific journals were asked not to publish research papers in full detail. The research in question was on the H5N1 influenza virus (bird flu), and the concern was that the expected public health benefits of disseminating the findings did not outweigh the potential harm should the knowledge be misused for malicious purposes. This constraint raises important ethical concerns as it collides with scientific freedom and openness. In this article, we argue that constraining (...)
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  30.  18
    Indicators and Criteria of Consciousness in Animals and Intelligent Machines : An Inside-Out Approach.Cyriel Pennartz, Michele Farisco & Kathinka Evers - 2019 - Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 13.
    In today’s society, it becomes increasingly important to assess which non-human and non-verbal beings possess consciousness. This review article aims to delineate criteria for consciousness especially in animals, while also taking into account intelligent artifacts. First, we circumscribe what we mean with “consciousness” and describe key features of subjective experience: qualitative richness, situatedness, intentionality and interpretation, integration and the combination of dynamic and stabilizing properties. We argue that consciousness has a biological function, which is to present the subject with a (...)
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