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Kathryn B. Francis [12]Kathryn Francis [2]
  1. A Corpus Study of "Know": On the Verification of Philosophers' Frequency Claims about Language.Nat Hansen, J. D. Porter & Kathryn Francis - 2021 - Episteme 18 (2):242-268.
    We investigate claims about the frequency of "know" made by philosophers. Our investigation has several overlapping aims. First, we aim to show what is required to confirm or disconfirm philosophers’ claims about the comparative frequency of different uses of philosophically interesting expressions. Second, we aim to show how using linguistic corpora as tools for investigating meaning is a productive methodology, in the sense that it yields discoveries about the use of language that philosophers would have overlooked if they remained in (...)
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  2. Stakes, Scales, and Skepticism.Kathryn Francis, Philip Beaman & Nat Hansen - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6:427--487.
    There is conflicting experimental evidence about whether the “stakes” or importance of being wrong affect judgments about whether a subject knows a proposition. To date, judgments about stakes effects on knowledge have been investigated using binary paradigms: responses to “low” stakes cases are compared with responses to “high stakes” cases. However, stakes or importance are not binary properties—they are scalar: whether a situation is “high” or “low” stakes is a matter of degree. So far, no experimental work has investigated the (...)
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  3.  50
    Virtual morality: transitioning from moral judgment to moral action?Kathryn B. Francis, Charles Howard, Ian S. Howard, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Grace Anderson & Sylvia Terbeck - unknown
    The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses–killing one in order to save many others–when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts. Heart rate in virtual moral dilemmas was significantly increased when compared (...)
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  4. Socratic Questionnaires.Nat Hansen, Kathryn B. Francis & Hamish Greening - 2022 - Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy.
    When experimental participants are given the chance to reflect and revise their initial judgments in a dynamic conversational context, do their responses to philosophical scenarios differ from responses to those same scenarios presented in a traditional static survey? In three experiments comparing responses given in conversational contexts with responses to traditional static surveys, we find no consistent evidence that responses differ in these different formats. This aligns with recent findings that various manipulations of reflectiveness have no effect on participants’ judgments (...)
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  5.  40
    Virtual morality in the helping professions: simulated action and resilience.Kathryn B. Francis, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Ian S. Howard & Sylvia Terbeck - 2018 - British Journal of Psychology 109 (3):442-465.
    Recent advances in virtual technologies have allowed the investigation of simulated moral actions in aversive moral dilemmas. Previous studies have employed diverse populations in order to explore these actions, with little research considering the significance of occupation on moral decision-making. For the first time, in this study we have investigated simulated moral actions in Virtual Reality made by professionally trained paramedics and fire service incident commanders who are frequently faced with and must respond to moral dilemmas. We found that specially (...)
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  6.  92
    Moral Decision-Making During COVID-19: Moral Judgements, Moralisation, and Everyday Behaviour.Kathryn B. Francis & Carolyn B. McNabb - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose significant health, economic, and social challenges. Given that many of these challenges have moral relevance, the present studies investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic is influencing moral decision-making and whether moralisation of behaviours specific to the crisis predict adherence to government-recommended behaviours. Whilst we find no evidence that utilitarian endorsements have changed during the pandemic at two separate timepoints, individuals have moralised non-compliant behaviours associated with the pandemic such as failing to physically distance themselves from (...)
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  7.  62
    Empathy training through virtual reality: moral enhancement with the freedom to fall?Anda Zahiu, Emilian Mihailov, Brian D. Earp, Kathryn B. Francis & Julian Savulescu - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-14.
    We propose to expand the conversation around moral enhancement from direct brain-altering methods to include technological means of modifying the environments and media through which agents can achieve moral improvement. Virtual Reality (VR) based enhancement would not bypass a person’s agency, much less their capacity for reasoned reflection. It would allow agents to critically engage with moral insights occasioned by a technologically mediated intervention. Users would gain access to a vivid ‘experience machine’ that allows for embodied presence and immersion in (...)
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  8.  34
    An empirical investigation of intuitions about uptake.Sarah A. Fisher, Kathryn B. Francis & Leo Townsend - 2023 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Since Austin’s introduction of the locutionary-illocutionary-perlocutionary distinction, it has been a matter of debate within speech act theory whether illocutionary acts like promising, warning, refusing and telling require audience ‘uptake’ in order to be performed. Philosophers on different sides of this debate have tried to support their positions by appealing to hypothetical scenarios, designed to elicit intuitive judgements about the role of uptake. However, philosophers’ intuitions appeared to remain deadlocked, while laypeople’s intuitions have not yet been probed. To begin rectifying (...)
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  9.  35
    The role of confidence in knowledge ascriptions: an evidence-seeking approach.C. Philip Beaman & Kathryn B. Francis - 2023 - Synthese 202 (2):1-15.
    Two methods have been used in the investigation of the stakes-sensitivity of knowledge as it occurs in ordinary language: (a) asking participants about the truth or acceptability of knowledge ascriptions and (b) asking participants how much evidence someone needs to gather before they know that something is the case. This second, “evidence-seeking”, method has reliably found effects of stakes-sensitivity while the method of asking about knowledge ascriptions has not. Consistent with this pattern, in Francis et al. (Ergo, 2019), we found (...)
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  10.  9
    Thinkering through Experiments: Nurturing Transdisciplinary Approaches to the Design of Testing Tools.Kathryn B. Francis, Agi Haines & Raluca A. Briazu - 2017 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 8 (T):107-115.
    In order to assess and understand human behavior, traditional approaches to experimental design incorporate testing tools that are often artificial and devoid of corporeal features. Whilst these offer experimental control in situations in which, methodologically, real behaviors cannot be examined, there is increasing evidence that responses given in these contextually deprived experiments fail to trigger genuine responses. This may result from a lack of consideration regarding the material makeup and associations connected with the fabric of experimental tools. In a two-year (...)
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  11.  18
    Our GIFT to All of Us: GA(Y)AM: Preface.Frank Loesche, Klara Łucznik, Susan L. Denham, Hannah Drayson, Kathryn B. Francis, Diego S. Maranan & Michael Punt - 2017 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 8 (T):13-16.
    This special issue of AVANT is all about Cognitive Innovation. It is not about CogNovo, the interdisciplinary and international doctoral training programme that produced three different Off the Lip events. It is not about Off the Lip 2017, the novel symposium format we developed to collaboratively create a publication resulting in this special issue of AVANT. It is not about the seemingly heterogeneous collection of papers that follow this preface. Collaborative Approaches to Cognitive Innovation required something else, something we are (...)
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  12.  14
    (Not So) Dangerous Liaisons: A Framework for Evaluating Collaborative Research Projects.Pinar Oztop, Frank Loesche, Diego S. Maranan, Kathryn B. Francis, Vaibhav Tyagi & Ilaria Torre - 2017 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 8 (T):167-179.
    With advances in research environments and the accompanying increase in the complexity of research projects, the range of skills required to carry out research calls for an increase in interdisciplinary and collaborative work. CogNovo, a doctoral training program for 25 PhD students, provided a unique opportunity to observe and analyze collaborative processes. We propose a process-oriented framework for understanding research collaborations along two dimensions: interpersonal and project-related. To illustrate the utility of this process-oriented framework, we apply the framework matrix to (...)
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  13.  30
    The Experimental Psychology of Moral Enhancement: We Should If We Could, But We Can't.Sylvia Terbeck & Kathryn B. Francis - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:313-328.
    In this chapter we will review experimental evidence related to pharmacological moral enhancement. Firstly, we will present our recent study in which we found that a drug called propranolol could change moral judgements. Further research, which also investigated this, found similar results. Secondly, we will discuss the limitations of such approaches, when it comes to the idea of general “human enhancement”. Whilst promising effects on certain moral concepts might be beneficial to the development of theoretical moral psychology, enhancement of human (...)
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  14. The Experimental Psychology of Moral Enhancement : We Should If We Could, But We Can't.Sylvia Terbeck & Kathryn B. Francis - 2018 - In Michael Hauskeller & Lewis Coyne (eds.), Moral Enhancement: Critical Perspectives. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
     
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