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  1. Antti Revonsuo & Katja Valli (2000). Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. Psyche 6 (8).
    We tested the new threat simulation theory of the biological function of dreaming by analysing 592 dreams from 52 subjects with a rating scale developed for quantifying threatening events in dreams. The main predictions were that dreams contain more frequent and more severe threats than waking life does; that dream threats are realistic; and that they primarily threaten the Dream Self who tends to behave in a relevant defensive manner in response to them. These predictions were confirmed and the theory (...)
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  2. Katja Valli & Antti Revonsuo (2006). Recurrent Dreams: Recurring Threat Simulations? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):464-469.
  3.  9
    Katja Valli, Thea Strandholm, Lauri Sillanmäki & Antti Revonsuo (2008). Dreams Are More Negative Than Real Life: Implications for the Function of Dreaming. Cognition and Emotion 22 (5):833-861.
  4.  4
    Pilleriin Sikka, Katja Valli, Tiina Virta & Antti Revonsuo (2014). I Know How You Felt Last Night, or Do I? Self- and External Ratings of Emotions in REM Sleep Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 25 (1):51-66.
    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiences in dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated. Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratory and awakened from every rapid eye movement sleep stage 5 min after the onset of the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dream emotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated the participants’ emotions expressed in the dream reports, using (...)
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    Katja Valli (2011). Dreaming in the Multilevel Framework. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1084-1090.
    Biological realism (Revonsuo, 2001, 2006) states that dreaming is a biological phenomenon and therefore explainable in naturalistic terms, similar to the explanation of other biological phenomena. In the biological sciences, the structure of explanations can be described with the help of a framework called 'multilevel explanation'. The multilevel model provides a context that assists to clarify what needs to be explained and how, and how to place different theories into the same model. Here, I will argue that the multilevel framework (...)
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