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Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh
Westfälische Wilhelms-Uiversität Münster
  1.  48
    Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2015 - Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer.
    Medical practice is practiced morality, and clinical research belongs to normative ethics. The present book elucidates and advances this thesis by: 1. analyzing the structure of medical language, knowledge, and theories; 2. inquiring into the foundations of the clinical encounter; 3. introducing the logic and methodology of clinical decision-making, including artificial intelligence in medicine; 4. suggesting comprehensive theories of organism, life, and psyche; of health, illness, and disease; of etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and therapy; and 5. investigating the moral and (...)
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  2. Fuzzy Health, Illness, and Disease.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (5):605 – 638.
    The notions of health, illness, and disease are fuzzy-theoretically analyzed. They present themselves as non-Aristotelian concepts violating basic principles of classical logic. A recursive scheme for defining the controversial notion of disease is proposed that also supports a concept of fuzzy disease. A sketch is given of the prototype resemblance theory of disease.
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  3.  6
    Normative Systems and Medical Metaethics Part I: Value Kinematics, Health, and Disease.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1981 - Metamedicine 2 (1):75-119.
  4.  51
    Normative Systems and Medical Metaethics Part I: Value Kinematics, Health, and Disease.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1981 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (1):75-119.
    On the basis of a ten-place comparative value relation, artificially reduced to a binary relation, some human value structures are studied and a concept of value kinematics is proposed. A miniature value logic is outlined, making it possible with precision to handle several explicated value notions and to analyze interrelations between them. Finally, the question is discussed whether health can be said to be an absolute and an intrinsic value.
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  5.  21
    World 5 and Medical Knowledge.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1981 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (3):263-270.
    What follows is a brief comment on Ludwik Fleck's paper on the foundations of medical knowledge translated by Thaddeus J. Trenn in this issue. Since the original is much older than I am, I have some scruples in presenting the critical thoughts which occurred to me when I read it a few years ago. Despite the criticism, I am very sympathetic to most of what Fleck has told us in his tragically neglected work. Two facts make Fleck's tragedy even more (...)
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  6.  31
    The Logic of Diagnosis.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier. pp. 16--357.
  7.  47
    Foundations of Clinical Praxiology Part I: The Relativity of Medical Diagnosis.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1987 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (2):183-196.
    The question is raised whether it would be beneficial to establish a clinical praxiology for the sake of a multi-focused inquiry into the foundations of clinical pratice. Beginning with the concept of medical diagnosis, a framework is presented which makes it possible to view diagnosis as an element of a complex structure whose adequate analysis requires at least comparative diagnostic methodology and epistemology.
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  8.  65
    Glauben, Wissen Und Wahrscheinlichkeit. Systeme der Epistemischen Logik.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1982 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 3 (2):297-307.
  9.  49
    Toward Metamedicine.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1980 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (1):3-10.
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  10.  4
    Foundations of Clinical Praxiology Part I: The Relativity of Medical Diagnosis.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1981 - Metamedicine 2 (2):183-196.
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  11.  11
    Foundations of Clinical Praxiology Part II: Categorical and Conjectural Diagnoses.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1982 - Metamedicine 3 (1):101-114.
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  12.  79
    Perception, Illusion, and Hallucination.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1982 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 3 (2):159-191.
    Patrick Suppes'' set-theoretical approach to the analysis of theories, and Joseph D. Sneed''s metatheory are briefly outlined. The notions of observation, illusion and hallucination are reconstructed according to these approaches. It is argued that the terms perception and truth are theoretical with respect to observation but nontheoretical with respect to illusion and hallucination. Hallucination is construed as a special kind of illusion.
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  13.  7
    The Three Paradoxes Lost a Response to Moore and Hutchins.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1981 - Metamedicine 2 (2):217-233.
  14.  31
    On the Limits of the Statistical-Causal Analysis as a Diagnostic Procedure.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1978 - Theory and Decision 9 (1):93-107.
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  15.  5
    Toward metamedicine.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1980 - Metamedicine 1 (1):3-10.
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  16.  10
    Perception, Illusion, and Hallucination.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1982 - Metamedicine 3 (2):159-191.
  17.  6
    Bayesian Diagnostics: A Bibliography Part 1.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1980 - Metamedicine 1 (1):107-124.
  18.  49
    Foundations of Clinical Praxiology Part II: Categorical and Conjectural Diagnoses.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1982 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 3 (1):101-114.
    The concepts of categorical diagnosis and conjectural diagnosis are introduced. It is argued that in diagnostic reasoning conjectural diagnosis plays a more important role than categorical diagnosis. Attention is called to the inevitable vagueness of clinical language and to the suitability of epistemic logic and fuzzy logic for diagnostic reasoning.
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  19.  48
    Normative Systems and Medical Metaethics Part II: Health-Maximizing and Persons.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1981 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (3):343-359.
    Two common medical-ethical axions, the health-maximizing axiom and the personhood-respecting axiom, are discussed. On the basis of a philosophical analysis of personhood and freedom of the will it is shown that these two axioms are incompatible. The rejection of the first axiom is suggested.
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  20.  11
    Normative Systems and Medical Metaethics Part II: Health-Maximizing and Persons.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1981 - Metamedicine 2 (3):343-359.
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  21.  8
    Therapeuticum and Therapy: A Commentary on Lindahl and Lindwall's Skepticism.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1982 - Metamedicine 3 (2):261-262.
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  22.  7
    Comments on Engelhardt's 'Clinical Problems and the Concept of Disease'.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1984 - In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel. pp. 43--45.
  23.  6
    Glauben, Wissen und Wahrscheinlichkeit. Systeme der epistemischen Logik.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1982 - Metamedicine 3 (2):297-307.
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  24. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine?Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
  25.  14
    A Pragmatic Concept of Causal Explanation.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1984 - In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel. pp. 201--209.
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  26.  49
    Bayesian Diagnostics: A Bibliography Part.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1980 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (1):107-124.
  27. Clinical Decision Support Systems.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
     
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  28. Classical Logic.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Western (deductive) logic originated in Greek antiquity. It found its first expression in those works of the great philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BC) which have come to be known as the Organon, i.e., ‘instrument’. Aristotle’s logic, also known as syllogistics, was unsystematically concerned with patterns of reasoning and argumentation. It remained in this rudimentary state relatively unchanged and unchallenged until the second half of the nineteenth century. At that time, logic underwent a period of unprecedented reform and modernization, due in large (...)
     
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  29. Clinical Practice.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Clinical practice is where the clinical encounter and decision-making occur. Thus, it constitutes the focus of medicine. Since the time of Hippocrates, it has been composed of five activities that have come to be known as anamnesis, i.e., history taking or clinical interview, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, and prevention. These five activities are fundamental features of the healing relationship. The present chapter is devoted to the analysis and discussion of their logical, methodological, and philosophical problems. Usually, the patient expects the physician (...)
     
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  30. Classical Sets.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
     
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  31. Disease as a Deontic Construct.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
  32. Fuzzy Logic.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Medical knowledge as well as clinical practice are characterized by inescapable uncertainty. There are many reasons this is the case, but foremost among them is that almost everything in medicine is inevitably vague, be it something linguistic such as the term “illness”, or something extra-linguistic such as the condition referred to as illness. If we ask ourselves, then, what the term “illness” means exactly, on the one hand; and how we may precisely delimit the condition illness, on the other; we (...)
     
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  33. Fundamentals of Medical Concept Formation.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    The language of medicine is an extension of everyday language by adding technical terms such as "appendicitis", "angina pectoris", "blood pressure" and the like. It is therefore characterized by semantic chaos. Most of its terms are either not defined or ill-defined. The chaos would not deserve any attention, however, if it were not practically detrimental in research and practice. The best way to prevent the damage it causes is to learn in medicine something about methods of scientific concept formation. The (...)
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  34. Logic in Medicine.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
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  35. Lenzen, "Wolfgang, Glauben, Wissen und Wahrscheinlichkeit. Systeme der epistemischen Logik".Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1985 - Erkenntnis 23 (1):97.
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  36. Medical Decision-Making.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Clinical judgment, also called clinical reasoning, clinical decision-making, and diagnostic-therapeutic decision-making, lies at the heart of clinical practice and thus medicine. In thepast, clinical judgment was considered the expert task of the physician. But the advent of computers in the 1940s and their use in medicine as of the late 1950s gradually changed this situation. In the 1960s, a new discipline emerged that has come to be termed medical computer science or medical informatics, including clinical informatics. Clinical informatics is concerned (...)
     
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  37. Morality, Ethics, and Deontics.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
     
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  38. Modal Extensions of Classical Logic.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
     
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  39. Medicine Is a Deontic Discipline.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
     
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  40. Medical Linguistics.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Linguistics, in general, is the basic science of all language studies. It is concerned with the nature and structure of language and with the role it plays in human communication. Medical linguistics uses some methods of general linguistics and also creates additional ones. This is motivated by the following practical needs: Computer-aided data record, storage, and retrieval in medical practice and research require that medical data be stored in such a manner that enables their computational processing. However, databases written in (...)
     
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  41.  10
    Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  42. Non-Classical Logics.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
     
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  43. On Medical Truth.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Since the advent of the natural sciences, natural scientists have spread the idea that the pursuit of truth about the facts of the world is the main drive of scientific research. The aim, they say, is to acquire knowledge and to provide explanations and predictions of phenomena and events. Surprisingly, even in our contemporary world in which scientific research is strongly involved in seeking solutions to practical problems pertaining to the pursuit of food, water, energy, health, labor, peace, war, nuclear (...)
     
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  44. On the Nature of Medicine.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
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  45. On What There Are.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
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  46. Perspectivism.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
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  47. Probability Logic.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
  48.  18
    Review Article.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 1985 - Erkenntnis 23 (1):97-112.
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  49. Science, Medicine, and Rationality.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
     
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  50. Technoconstructivism.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
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