23 found
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  1. Computational Generation of Referring Expressions: A Survey.Emiel Krahmer & Kees van Deemter - unknown
    This article offers a survey of computational research on referring expressions generation (REG). It introduces the REG problem and describes early work in this area, discussing what basic assumptions lie behind it, and showing how its remit has widened in recent years. We discuss computational frameworks underlying REG, and demonstrate a recent trend that seeks to link up REG algorithms with well-established Knowledge Representation traditions. Considerable attention is given to recent efforts at evaluating REG algorithms and the lessons that they (...)
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  2. Toward a Computational Psycholinguistics of Reference Production.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Roger P. G. van Gompel & Emiel Krahmer - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):166-183.
    This article introduces the topic ‘‘Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference’’ of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at (...)
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  3.  29
    Not Exactly: In Praise of Vagueness.Kees van Deemter - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
  4.  86
    Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of ‘‘one-shot’’ referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We test this hypothesis by eliciting referring expressions from human subjects and computing the similarity between the expressions elicited and the ones generated by algorithms. It turns out that (...)
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  5.  8
    Conceptualization in Reference Production: Probabilistic Modeling and Experimental Testing.Roger P. G. van Gompel, Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Rick Snoeren & Emiel J. Krahmer - 2019 - Psychological Review 126 (3):345-373.
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  6.  62
    Utility and Language Generation: The Case of Vagueness.Kees van Deemter - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):607 - 632.
    This paper asks why information should ever be expressed vaguely, re-assessing some previously proposed answers to this question and suggesting some new ones. Particular attention is paid to the benefits that vague expressions can have in situations where agreement over the meaning of an expression cannot be taken for granted. A distinction between two different versions of the above-mentioned question is advocated. The first asks why human languages contain vague expressions, the second question asks when and why a speaker should (...)
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  7.  52
    What Game Theory Can Do for NLG: The Case of Vague Language.Kees van Deemter - unknown
    This informal position paper brings together some recent developments in formal semantics and pragmatics to argue that the discipline of Game Theory is well placed to become the theoretical backbone of Natural Language Generation. To demonstrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of the Game-Theoretical approach, we focus on the utility of vague expressions. More specifically, we ask what light Game Theory can shed on the question when an NLG system should generate vague language.
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  8. Domains of Discourse and the Semantics of Ambiguous Utterances: A Reply to Gauker.Kees Van Deemter - 1998 - Mind 107 (426):433-445.
  9.  17
    The Sorites Fallacy and the Context-Dependence of Vague Predicates.Kees Van Deemter - 1996 - In Makoto Kanazawa, Christopher Pinon & Henriette de Swart (eds.), Quantifiers, Deduction, and Context. CSLI Publications.
  10.  34
    What's New? A Semantic Perspective on Sentence Accent.Kees Van Deemter - 1994 - Journal of Semantics 11 (1-2):1-32.
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  11.  32
    Towards a Generalization of Anaphora.van Deemter Kees - 1992 - Journal of Semantics 9 (1):27-51.
    This paper deals with anaphoric properties of both pronominal and nonpronominal Noun Phrases within the framework of Discourse Representation Theory (DRT). A generalized notion of anaphora is advocated, in which the notion of anaphora is extended to cover relations between anaphor and antecedent other than referential identity. This paper tries to make insights gained in DRT, as well as in other theories of anaphora, applicable to a wide range of ‘new’ phenomena in the area of context dependent interpretation.
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  12.  65
    Managing Ambiguity in Reference Generation: The Role of Surface Structure.Imtiaz H. Khan, Kees van Deemter & Graeme Ritchie - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):211-231.
    This article explores the role of surface ambiguities in referring expressions, and how the risk of such ambiguities should be taken into account by an algorithm that generates referring expressions, if these expressions are to be optimally effective for a hearer. We focus on the ambiguities that arise when adjectives occur in coordinated structures. The central idea is to use statistical information about lexical co-occurrence to estimate which interpretation of a phrase is most likely for human readers, and to avoid (...)
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  13.  31
    Forward References in Natural Language.Kees Van Deemter - 1990 - Journal of Semantics 7 (3):281-300.
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  14.  80
    Lexical Choice and Conceptual Perspective in the Generation of Plural Referring Expressions.Albert Gatt & Kees van Deemter - 2007 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (4):423-443.
    A fundamental part of the process of referring to an entity is to categorise it (for instance, as the woman). Where multiple categorisations exist, this implicitly involves the adoption of a conceptual perspective. A challenge for the automatic Generation of Referring Expressions is to identify a set of referents coherently, adopting the same conceptual perspective. We describe and evaluate an algorithm to achieve this. The design of the algorithm is motivated by the results of psycholinguistic experiments.
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  15. The Elusive Benefits of Vagueness: Evidence From Experiments.Matthew James Green & Kees van Deemter - 2019 - In Richard Dietz (ed.), Vagueness and Rationality in Language Use and Cognition. Springer Verlag. pp. 63-86.
    Much of everyday language is vague, even in situations where vagueness could have been avoided. Yet the benefits of vagueness for hearers and readers are proving to be elusive. We discuss a range of earlier controlled experiments with human participants, and we report on a new series of experiments that we ourselves have conducted in recent years. These experiments, which focus on vague expressions that are part of referential noun phrases, aim to separate the utility of vagueness from the utility (...)
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  16.  28
    Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground.Roman Kutlak, Kees van Deemter & Chris Mellish - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  17.  37
    Editorial: Models of Reference.Kees van Deemter, Emiel Krahmer, Albert Gatt & Roger P. G. van Gompel - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  18. Fully Generated Scripted Dialogue for Embodied Conversational Agents'.Kees van Deemter, Brigitte Krenn, Paul Piwek, Marc Schroeder, Martin Klesen & Stefan Baumann - manuscript
    (Near-final version.) Accepted for publication in Artificial Intelligence Journal.
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  19. Fully Generated Scripted Dialogue for Embodied Agents.Kees van Deemter, Brigitte Krenn, Paul Piwek, Martin Klesen, Marc Schröder & Stefan Baumann - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (10):1219-1244.
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  20. Finetuning NLG Through Experiments with Human Subjects: The Case of Vague Descriptions.Kees van Deemter - unknown
    This discussion paper describes a sequence of experiments with human subjects aimed at finding out how an nlg system should choose between the different forms of a gradable adjective. This case study highlights some general questions that one faces when trying to base nlg systems on empirical evidence: one question is what task to set a subject so as to obtain the most useful information about that subject, another question has to do with differences between subjects.
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  21. Generalized Quantifiers: Finite Versus Infinite.Kees van Deemter - 1984 - In Johan Van Benthem & Alice Ter Meulen (eds.), Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language. Foris Publications.
     
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  22.  36
    Game Theory and Language Generation.Kees van Deemter - unknown
    This informal position paper brings together some recent developments in formal semantics and pragmatics to argue that the discipline of Game Theory is well placed to become the theoretical backbone of Natural Language Generation. To demonstrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of the Game-Theoretical approach, we focus on the utility of vague expressions. More specifically, we ask what light Game Theory can shed on the question when an NLG system should generate vague language.
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  23.  40
    Vagueness Facilitates Search.Kees van Deemter - unknown
    Two questions dominate theoretical research on vagueness. The first is of a logical-semantic nature: What formal models offer the best understanding of vagueness? Many answers to this question have been proposed (e.g. [1], [2] for an overview), but none of these has found general acceptance so far. The second question is of a pragmatic nature and asks Why is language vague? This question has been asked forcefully by the economist Barton Lipman, who has shown that some seemingly plausible answers resist (...)
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