56 found
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  1. Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinelli (2008). Darwin's Mistake: Explaining the Discontinuity Between Human and Nonhuman Minds. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):109-130.
    Over the last quarter century, the dominant tendency in comparative cognitive psychology has been to emphasize the similarities between human and nonhuman minds and to downplay the differences as (Darwin 1871). In the present target article, we argue that Darwin was mistaken: the profound biological continuity between human and nonhuman animals masks an equally profound discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. To wit, there is a significant discontinuity in the degree to which human and nonhuman animals are able to approximate (...)
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  2.  56
    Keith J. Holyoak & Paul Thagard (1995). Mental Leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. MIT Press.
    Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard provide a unified, comprehensive account of the diverse operations and applications of analogy, including problem solving, ...
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  3.  11
    Keith J. Holyoak & Paul Thagard (1989). Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction. Cognitive Science 13 (3):295-355.
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  4.  1
    Patricia W. Cheng & Keith J. Holyoak (1989). On the Natural Selection of Reasoning Theories. Cognition 33 (3):285-313.
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  5.  41
    Barbara J. Knowlton, Robert G. Morrison, John E. Hummel & Keith J. Holyoak (2012). A Neurocomputational System for Relational Reasoning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (7):373-381.
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  6.  28
    Tage S. Rai & Keith J. Holyoak (2010). Moral Principles or Consumer Preferences? Alternative Framings of the Trolley Problem. Cognitive Science 34 (2):311-321.
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  7. Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel (2000). The Proper Treatment of Symbols in a Connectionist Architecture. In Eric Dietrich Art Markman (ed.), Cognitive Dynamics: Conceptual Change in Humans and Machines. Lawrence Erlbaum 229--263.
     
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  8.  7
    Michael R. Waldmann, Keith J. Holyoak & Angela Fratianne (1995). Causal Models and the Acquisition of Category Structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124 (2):181.
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  9.  8
    Amy M. Guthormsen, Kristie J. Fisher, Miriam Bassok, Lee Osterhout, Melissa DeWolf & Keith J. Holyoak (2016). Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations With Real‐World Knowledge: Evidence From Event‐Related Potentials. Cognitive Science 40 (3):723-757.
    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials —N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving task, when participants generated labeled answers to semantically aligned and misaligned arithmetic problems, the second object label in misaligned problems yielded an N400 effect for addition problems. In a verification task, when participants judged arithmetically (...)
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  10.  22
    Keith J. Holyoak & P. Thagard (1997). The Analogical Mind. American Psychologist 52:35-44.
    We examine the use of analogy in human thinking from the perspective of a multiconstraint theory, which postulates three basic types of constraints: similarity, structure and purpose. The operation of these constraints is apparent in both laboratory experiments on analogy and in naturalistic settings, including politics, psychotherapy, and scientific research. We sketch how the multiconstraint theory can be implemented in detailed computational simulations of the analogical human mind.
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  11.  11
    Keith J. Holyoak & Dan Simon (1999). Bidirectional Reasoning in Decision Making by Constraint Satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128 (1):3.
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  12. Keith J. Holyoak & Patricia W. Cheng (forthcoming). The Taming of Content: Some Thoughts About Domains and Modules. Thinking and Reasoning.
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  13.  18
    Tage S. Rai & Keith J. Holyoak (2014). Rational Hypocrisy: A Bayesian Analysis Based on Informal Argumentation and Slippery Slopes. Cognitive Science 38 (7):1456-1467.
    Moral hypocrisy is typically viewed as an ethical accusation: Someone is applying different moral standards to essentially identical cases, dishonestly claiming that one action is acceptable while otherwise equivalent actions are not. We suggest that in some instances the apparent logical inconsistency stems from different evaluations of a weak argument, rather than dishonesty per se. Extending Corner, Hahn, and Oaksford's (2006) analysis of slippery slope arguments, we develop a Bayesian framework in which accusations of hypocrisy depend on inferences of shared (...)
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  14. John E. Hummel & Keith J. Holyoak (1997). Distributed Representations of Structure: A Theory of Analogical Access and Mapping. Psychological Review 104 (3):427-466.
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  15.  45
    Keith J. Holyoak & Patricia W. Cheng (1995). Pragmatic Reasoning with a Point of View. Thinking and Reasoning 1 (4):289 – 313.
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  16.  43
    Daniel C. Krawczyk, Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel (2004). Structural Constraints and Object Similarity in Analogical Mapping and Inference. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (1):85 – 104.
    Theories of analogical reasoning have viewed relational structure as the dominant determinant of analogical mapping and inference, while assigning lesser importance to similarity between individual objects. An experiment is reported in which these two sources of constraints on analogy are placed in competition under conditions of high relational complexity. Results demonstrate equal importance for relational structure and object similarity, both in analogical mapping and in inference generation. The human data were successfully simulated using a computational analogy model (LISA) that treats (...)
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  17. John E. Hummel & Keith J. Holyoak (2003). A Symbolic-Connectionist Theory of Relational Inference and Generalization. Psychological Review 110 (2):220-264.
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  18.  1
    Michael R. Waldmann & Keith J. Holyoak (1992). Predictive and Diagnostic Learning Within Causal Models: Asymmetries in Cue Competition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121 (2):222-236.
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  19.  33
    Keith J. Holyoak & Patricia W. Cheng (1995). Pragmatic Reasoning From Multiple Points of View: A Response. Thinking and Reasoning 1 (4):373 – 389.
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  20.  4
    John E. Hummel & Keith J. Holyoak (1993). Distributing Structure Over Time. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):464.
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  21.  4
    Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel (2008). No Way to Start a Space Program: Associationism as a Launch Pad for Analogical Reasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):388-389.
    Humans, including preschool children, exhibit role-based relational reasoning, of which analogical reasoning is a canonical example. The connectionist model proposed in the target article is only capable of conditional paired-associate learning.
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  22.  3
    John E. Hummel & Keith J. Holyoak (1996). LISA: A Computational Model of Analogical Inference and Schema Induction. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum 352--357.
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  23. Hongjing Lu, Alan L. Yuille, Mimi Liljeholm, Patricia W. Cheng & Keith J. Holyoak (2008). Bayesian Generic Priors for Causal Learning. Psychological Review 115 (4):955-984.
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  24.  1
    Dawn Chen, Hongjing Lu & Keith J. Holyoak (2016). Generative Inferences Based on Learned Relations. Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    A key property of relational representations is their generativity: From partial descriptions of relations between entities, additional inferences can be drawn about other entities. A major theoretical challenge is to demonstrate how the capacity to make generative inferences could arise as a result of learning relations from non-relational inputs. In the present paper, we show that a bottom-up model of relation learning, initially developed to discriminate between positive and negative examples of comparative relations, can be extended to make generative inferences. (...)
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  25.  7
    Daniel C. Krawczyk, Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel (2005). The One‐to‐One Constraint in Analogical Mapping and Inference. Cognitive Science 29 (5):797-806.
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  26.  10
    Leonidas A. A. Doumas, Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel (2006). The Problem with Using Associations to Carry Binding Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1):74-75.
    van der Velde & de Kamps argue for the importance of considering the binding problem in accounts of human mental representation. However, their proposed solution fails as a complete account because it represents the bindings between roles and their fillers through associations (or connections). In addition, many criticisms leveled by the authors towards synchrony-based bindings models do not hold.
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  27.  36
    Jean M. Tohill & Keith J. Holyoak (2000). The Impact of Anxiety on Analogical Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 6 (1):27 – 40.
    The effect of state anxiety on analogical reasoning was investigated by examining qualitative differences in mapping performance between anxious and non-anxious individuals reasoning about pictorial analogies. The working-memory restriction theory of anxiety, coupled with theories of analogy that link complexity of mapping with working-memory capacity, predicts that high anxiety will impair the ability to find correspondences based on relations between multiple objects relative to correspondences based on overlap of attributes between individual objects. Anxiety was induced in one condition by a (...)
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  28.  64
    Derek C. Penn, Patricia W. Cheng, Keith J. Holyoak, John E. Hummel & Daniel J. Povinelli (2009). There is More to Thinking Than Propositions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):221-223.
    We are big fans of propositions. But we are not big fans of the proposed by Mitchell et al. The authors ignore the critical role played by implicit, non-inferential processes in biological cognition, overestimate the work that propositions alone can do, and gloss over substantial differences in how different kinds of animals and different kinds of cognitive processes approximate propositional representations.
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  29.  7
    Regina Vollmeyer, Bruce D. Burns & Keith J. Holyoak (1996). The Impact of Goal Specificity on Strategy Use and the Acquisition of Problem Structure. Cognitive Science 20 (1):75-100.
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  30.  9
    John H. Holland, Keith J. Holyoak, Richard E. Nisbett & Paul R. Thagard (1993). Deductive Reasoning. In Alvin Goldman (ed.), Readings in Philosophy and Cognitive Science. Cambridge: MIT Press
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  31.  18
    Risto Miikkulainen, Regina Vollmeyer, Bruce D. Burns, Keith J. Holyoak, Maartje E. J. Raijmakers, Sylvester van Koten, Peter C. M. Molenaar, Daniel Jurafsky, Gerhard Weber & Giuseppe Mantovani (1996). Catherine Pelachaud, Norman I. Badler, and Mark Steedman. Cognitive Science 20:618-619.
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  32.  11
    Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinellia (2009). Commentary/Evans & Levinson: The Myth of Language Universals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32:5.
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  33.  17
    John E. Hummel, Keith J. Holyoak, Collin Green, Leonidas Aa Doumas, Derek Devnich, Aniket Kittur & Donald J. Kalar (2004). A Solution to the Binding Problem for Compositional Connectionism. In Simon D. Levy & Ross Gayler (eds.), Compositional Connectionism in Cognitive Science. Aaai Press
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  34.  10
    Hee Seung Lee & Keith J. Holyoak (2008). Absence Makes the Thought Grow Stronger: Reducing Structural Overlap Can Increase Inductive Strength. In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society
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  35.  11
    Daniel R. Kimball & Keith J. Holyoak (2000). Transfer and Expertise. In Endel Tulving (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press 109--122.
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  36.  44
    Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinelli (2008). Darwin's Triumph: Explaining the Uniqueness of the Human Mind Without a Deus Ex Machina. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):153-178.
    In our target article, we argued that there is a profound functional discontinuity between the cognitive abilities of modern humans and those of all other extant species. Unsurprisingly, our hypothesis elicited a wide range of responses from commentators. After responding to the commentaries, we conclude that our hypothesis lies closer to Darwin's views on the matter than to those of many of our contemporaries.
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  37.  13
    Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinellib (2012). Commentary/Vaesen: The Cognitive Bases of Human Tool Use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35:4.
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  38.  9
    Keith J. Holyoak & Hongjing Lu (2011). What the Bayesian Framework has Contributed to Understanding Cognition: Causal Learning as a Case Study. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):203-204.
    The field of causal learning and reasoning (largely overlooked in the target article) provides an illuminating case study of how the modern Bayesian framework has deepened theoretical understanding, resolved long-standing controversies, and guided development of new and more principled algorithmic models. This progress was guided in large part by the systematic formulation and empirical comparison of multiple alternative Bayesian models.
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  39.  5
    Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinelli (2012). So, Are We the Massively Lucky Species? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):236-237.
    We are in vehement agreement with most of Vaesen's key claims. But Vaesen fails to consider or rebut the possibility that there are deep causal dependencies among the various cognitive traits he identifies as uniquely human. We argue that is one such linchpin trait in the evolution of human tool use, social intelligence, language, and culture.
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  40.  6
    Keith J. Holyoak & Merideth Gattis (1994). Implicit Assumptions About Implicit Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):406-407.
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  41.  1
    Arnold L. Glass & Keith J. Holyoak (1974). Alternative Conceptions of Semantic Theory. Cognition 3 (4):313-339.
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  42.  4
    James K. Kroger, Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel (2004). Varieties of Sameness: The Impact of Relational Complexity on Perceptual Comparisons. Cognitive Science 28 (3):335-358.
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  43.  16
    Indre V. Viskontas & Keith J. Holyoak (2006). Mechanisms of Fluid Cognition: Relational Integration and Inhibition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):141-142.
    Blair argues that fluid cognition is dissociable from general intelligence. We suggest that a more complete understanding of this dissociation requires development of specific process models of the mechanisms underlying fluid cognition. Recent evidence indicates that relational integration and inhibitory control, both dependent on prefrontal cortex, are key component processes in tasks that require fluid cognition. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  44.  14
    Indre V. Viskontas, Keith J. Holyoak & Barbara J. Knowlton (2005). Relational Integration in Older Adults. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (4):390 – 410.
    Reasoning requires making inferences based on information gleaned from a set of relations. The relational complexity of a problem increases with the number of relations that must be considered simultaneously to make a correct inference. Previous work (Viskontas, Morrison, Holyoak, Hummel, & Knowlton, 2004) has shown that older adults have difficulty integrating multiple relations during analogical reasoning, especially when required to inhibit irrelevant information. We report two experiments that examined the ability to integrate multiple relations in younger, middle-aged, and older (...)
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  45.  4
    Keith J. Holyoak (1991). Probing the “Achilles' Heel” of Rational Analysis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):498-499.
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  46.  9
    James A. Waltz, Barbara J. Knowlton & Keith J. Holyoak (1998). Relational Complexity, the Central Executive, and Prefrontal Cortex. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):846-847.
    Halford et al.'s analysis of relational complexity provides a possible framework for characterizing the symbolic functions of the prefrontal cortex. Studies of prefrontal patients have revealed that their performance is selectively impaired on tasks that require integration of two binary relations (i.e., tasks that Halford et al.'s analysis would identify as three-dimensional). Analyses of relational complexity show promise of helping to understand the neural substrate of thinking.
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  47.  2
    Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinelli (2009). Universal Grammar and Mental Continuity: Two Modern Myths. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):462-464.
    In our opinion, the discontinuity between extant human and nonhuman minds is much broader and deeper than most researchers admit. We are happy to report that Evans & Levinson's (E&L's) target article strongly corroborates our unpopular hypothesis, and that the comparative evidence, in turn, bolsters E&L's provocative argument. Both a Universal Grammar and the between human and nonhuman minds turn out to be modern myths.
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  48. Melissa DeWolf, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak (2015). Conceptual Structure and the Procedural Affordances of Rational Numbers: Relational Reasoning with Fractions and Decimals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (1):127-150.
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  49. Keith J. Holyoak, Hee Seung Lee & Hongjing Lu (2010). Analogical and Category-Based Inference: A Theoretical Integration with Bayesian Causal Models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (4):702-727.
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  50. Keith J. Holyoak, Kyunghee Koh & Richard E. Nisbett (1989). A Theory of Conditioning: Inductive Learning Within Rule-Based Default Hierarchies. Psychological Review 96 (2):315-340.
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