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  1.  4
    Seeing Reason: Image and Language in Learning to Think.Keith Stenning - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    In an age of information glut, knowledge can be hard to come by. Education must equip us to transform information for our own individual requirements. Full citizenship of the world requires that we learn to reason and communicate. So how do we do it? This book shares new insights into how people process information, and how we use that information to reason, make decisions, and develop theories about the world in which we live.
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  2.  5
    A Cognitive Theory of Graphical and Linguistic Reasoning: Logic and Implementation.Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander - 1995 - Cognitive Science 19 (1):97-140.
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  3.  11
    Semantic Interpretation as Computation in Nonmonotonic Logic: The Real Meaning of the Suppression Task.Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (6):919-960.
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  4.  56
    To Naturalize or Not to Naturalize? An Issue for Cognitive Science as Well as Anthropology.Keith Stenning - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (3):413-419.
    Several of Beller, Bender, and Medin’s (2012) issues are as relevant within cognitive science as between it and anthropology. Knowledge-rich human mental processes impose hermeneutic tasks, both on subjects and researchers. Psychology's current philosophy of science is ill suited to analyzing these: Its demand for ‘‘stimulus control’’ needs to give way to ‘‘negotiation of mutual interpretation.’’ Cognitive science has ways to address these issues, as does anthropology. An example from my own work is about how defeasible logics are mathematical models (...)
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  5.  91
    Semantics as a Foundation for Psychology: A Case Study of Wason's Selection Task. [REVIEW]Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (3):273-317.
    We review the various explanations that have been offered toaccount for subjects'' behaviour in Wason ''s famous selection task. Weargue that one element that is lacking is a good understanding ofsubjects'' semantics for the key expressions involved, and anunderstanding of how this semantics is affected by the demands the taskputs upon the subject''s cognitive system. We make novel proposals inthese terms for explaining the major content effects of deonticmaterials. Throughout we illustrate with excerpts from tutorialdialogues which motivate the kinds of (...)
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  6.  5
    A Little Logic Goes a Long Way: Basing Experiment on Semantic Theory in the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning.Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.
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  7.  55
    Logic in the Study of Psychiatric Disorders: Executive Function and Rule-Following.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):97-114.
    Executive function has become an important concept in explanations of psychiatric disorders, but we currently lack comprehensive models of normal executive function and of its malfunctions. Here we illustrate how defeasible logical analysis can aid progress in this area. We illustrate using autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as example disorders, and show how logical analysis reveals commonalities between linguistic and non-linguistic behaviours within each disorder, and how contrasting sub-components of executive function are involved across disorders. This analysis reveals (...)
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  8.  12
    Image and Language in Human Reasoning: A Syllogistic Illustration.Keith Stenning & Peter Yule - 1997 - Philosophical Explorations.
    Existing accounts of syllogistic reasoning oppose rule-based and model-based methods. Stenning \& Oberlander show that the latter are isomorphic to well-known graphical methods, when these are correctly interpreted. We here extend these results by showing that equivalent sentential implementations exist, thus revealing that all these theories are members of a family of abstract {\it individual identification algorithms} variously implemented in diagrams or sentences. This abstract logical analysis suggests a novel {\it individual identification task} for observing syllogistic reasoning processes. Comparison of (...)
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  9.  6
    A Little Logic Goes a Long Way: Basing Experiment on Semantic Theory in the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.
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  10.  15
    Throwing the Normative Baby Out with the Prescriptivist Bathwater.Theodora Achourioti, Andrew Fugard & Keith Stenning - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):249-249.
    It is neither desirable nor possible to eliminate normative concerns from the psychology of reasoning. Norms define the most fundamental psychological questions: What are people trying to do, and how? Even if no one system of reasoning can be the norm, pure descriptivism is as undesirable and unobtainable in the psychology of reasoning as elsewhere in science.
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  11.  33
    “Nonmonotonic” Does Not Mean “Probabilistic”.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):102-103.
    Oaksford & Chater (O&C) advocate Bayesian probability as a way to deal formally with the pervasive nonmonotonicity of common sense reasoning. We show that some forms of nonmonotonicity cannot be treated by Bayesian methods.
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  12.  3
    Reasoning in Non-Probabilistic Uncertainty: Logic Programming and Neural-Symbolic Computing as Examples.Tarek R. Besold, Artur D’Avila Garcez, Keith Stenning, Leendert van der Torre & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (1):37-77.
    This article aims to achieve two goals: to show that probability is not the only way of dealing with uncertainty ; and to provide evidence that logic-based methods can well support reasoning with uncertainty. For the latter claim, two paradigmatic examples are presented: logic programming with Kleene semantics for modelling reasoning from information in a discourse, to an interpretation of the state of affairs of the intended model, and a neural-symbolic implementation of input/output logic for dealing with uncertainty in dynamic (...)
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  13.  54
    Connectionism, Classical Cognitive Science and Experimental Psychology.Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater & Keith Stenning - 1990 - AI and Society 4 (1):73-90.
    Classical symbolic computational models of cognition are at variance with the empirical findings in the cognitive psychology of memory and inference. Standard symbolic computers are well suited to remembering arbitrary lists of symbols and performing logical inferences. In contrast, human performance on such tasks is extremely limited. Standard models donot easily capture content addressable memory or context sensitive defeasible inference, which are natural and effortless for people. We argue that Connectionism provides a more natural framework in which to model this (...)
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  14.  25
    Aligning Logical and Psychological Perspectives on Diagrammatic Reasoning.Keith Stenning & Oliver Lemon - 1999 - Philosophical Explorations.
    We advance a theoretical framework which combines recent insights of research in logic, psychology, and formal semantics, on the nature of diagrammatic representation and reasoning. In particular, we wish to explain the varied efficacy of reasoning and representing with diagrams. In general we consider diagrammatic representations to be restricted in expressive power, and we wish to explain efficacy of reasoning with diagrams via the semantical and computational properties of such restricted `languages'. Connecting these foundational insights (from semantics and complexity theory) (...)
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  15.  11
    Logic Programming, Probability, and Two-System Accounts of Reasoning: A Rejoinder to Oaksford and Chater.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2016 - Thinking and Reasoning 22 (3):355-368.
    This reply to Oaksford and Chater’s ’s critical discussion of our use of logic programming to model and predict patterns of conditional reasoning will frame the dispute in terms of the semantics of the conditional. We begin by outlining some common features of LP and probabilistic conditionals in knowledge-rich reasoning over long-term memory knowledge bases. For both, context determines causal strength; there are inferences from the absence of certain evidence; and both have analogues of the Ramsey test. Some current work (...)
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  16.  30
    Theories of Diagrammatic Reasoning: Distinguishing Component Problems. [REVIEW]Corin Gurr, John Lee & Keith Stenning - 1998 - Minds and Machines 8 (4):533-557.
    Theories of diagrams and diagrammatic reasoning typically seek to account for either the formal semantics of diagrams, or for the advantages which diagrammatic representations hold for the reasoner over other forms of representation. Regrettably, almost no theory exists which accounts for both of these issues together, nor how they affect one another. We do not attempt to provide such an account here. We do, however, seek to lay out larger context than is generally used for examining the processes of using (...)
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  17. Effects of Representational Modality and Thinking Style on Learning to Solve Reasoning Problems.Padraic Monaghan & Keith Stenning - 1998 - In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawerence Erlbaum. pp. 716--721.
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  18.  4
    Applying Marr to Memory.Keith Stenning - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):494.
  19.  11
    Interpretation, Representation, and Deductive Reasoning.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2008 - In Jonathan Eric Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.), Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations. Cambridge University Press.
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  20.  15
    Statistical Models as Cognitive Models of Individual Differences in Reasoning.Andrew J. B. Fugard & Keith Stenning - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):89 - 102.
    (2013). Statistical models as cognitive models of individual differences in reasoning. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 89-102. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.674061.
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  21.  22
    A Cognitive Theory of Graphical and Linguistic Reasoning: Logic and Implementation. Cognitive Science.Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander - 1997 - Philosophical Explorations.
    We discuss external and internal graphical and linguistic representational systems. We argue that a cognitive theory of peoples' reasoning performance must account for (a) the logical equivalence of inferences expressed in graphical and linguistic form; and (b) the implementational differences that affect facility of inference. Our theory proposes that graphical representations limit abstraction and thereby aid processibility. We discuss the ideas of specificity and abstraction, and their cognitive relevance. Empirical support comes from tasks (i) involving and (ii) not involving the (...)
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  22.  11
    Terry Regier, the Human Semantic Potential: Spatial Language and Constrained Connectionism. [REVIEW]Keith Stenning - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):266-269.
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  23. Embedding Logic in Communication: Lessons From the Logic Classroom.Keith Stenning - 1996 - In J. F. A. K. van Benthem (ed.), Logic and Argumentation. North-Holland. pp. 227--240.
     
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  24.  4
    Nonsentential Representation and Nonformality.Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):365.
  25.  3
    Language Evolution: Enlarging the Picture.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2012 - In David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.), The Complex Mind. Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  26.  7
    Applying Semantic Concepts to the Media Assigment Problem in Multi-Media Communication.Keith Stenning & Robert Inder - 1995 - In [Book Chapter].
    Our long term goal is an understanding of human communication in terms which would provide the basis for rational design. The kernel would be a theory of the cognitive consequences of allocating the same information to different media and modalities, based on the user's information processing characterised in computational terms. Our theory of the cognitive consequences of media/modality allocation starts from an analysis of differences in logical expressiveness of graphical and linguistic representations (Stenning \& Oberlander (1994, 1995)). This semantic approach (...)
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  27.  7
    Cooperative Versus Adversarial Communication; Contextual Embedding Versus Disengagement.Keith Stenning & Padraic Monaghan - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):696-697.
    Subjects exhibiting logical competence choices, for example, in Wason's selection task, are exhibiting an important skill. We take issue with the idea that this skill is individualistic and must be selected for at some different level than System 1 skills. Our case redraws System 1/2 boundaries, and reconsiders the relationship of competence model to skill.
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  28.  1
    Episodic is What Apes Are Not.Keith Stenning - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):158.
  29.  1
    The Cognitive Impact of Diagrams.Keith Stenning - 1996 - In J. Ezquerro A. Clark (ed.), Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Categories, Consciousness, and Reasoning. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 181--196.
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  30.  1
    Carroll Lewis (Pseudonym), Das Spiel der Logik, Germam Translation by Micheal Zöllner of 671, Edited and with an Afterword by Good Paul. Tropen Verlag, Cologne, and Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart, 1998, 199 Pp. Good Paul, Logik—Ein Spiel, Therein, Pp. 103–119. [REVIEW]Keith Stenning - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (3):1368-1370.
  31.  1
    Review: Lewis Carroll, Michael Zollner, Paul Good, Das Spiel der Logik. [REVIEW]Keith Stenning - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (3):1368-1370.
  32.  8
    The Complex Mind.David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.) - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Machine generated contents note: -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Notes on Contributors -- PART I: COMPLEXITY IN ANIMAL MINDS -- Introduction: M.McGonigle-Chalmers -- Relational and Absolute Discrimination Learning by Squirrel Monkeys: Establishing a Common Ground with Human Cognition; B.T.Jones -- Serial List Retention by Non-Human Primates: Complexity and Cognitive Continuity; F.R.Treichler -- The Use of Spatial Structure in Working Memory: A Comparative Standpoint; C.De Lillo -- The Emergence of Linear Sequencing in Children: A Continuity Account and a Formal Model; M.McGonigle-Chalmers&I.Kusel (...)
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  33. An Extension of the Temporal Synchrony Solution to Dynamic Variable Bindings in a Connectionist System.Nam Seog Park, Dave Robertson & Keith Stenning - 1993 - Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Edinburgh.
     
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  34. Assigning Information to Modalities Comparing Graphical Treatments of the Syllogism.Keith Stenning & Richard Tobin - 1995 - Hcrc Publications, University of Edinburgh.
  35.  2
    [Book Chapter].Keith Stenning & Robert Inder - 1995 - Springer Verlag.
  36.  52
    Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2008 - Boston, USA: MIT Press.
    In the late summer of 1998, the authors, a cognitive scientist and a logician, started talking about the relevance of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning, and we have been talking ever since. This book is an interim report of that conversation. It argues that results such as those on the Wason selection task, purportedly showing the irrelevance of formal logic to actual human reasoning, have been widely misinterpreted, mainly because the picture of logic current in psychology (...)
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