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Kenneth Boyd [48]Kenneth M. Boyd [11]
  1. The Reliability of Epistemic Intuitions.Kenneth Boyd & Jennifer Nagel - 2014 - In Edouard Machery & O'Neill Elizabeth (eds.), Current Controversies in Experimental Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 109-127.
  2. Testifying understanding.Kenneth Boyd - 2017 - Episteme 14 (1):103-127.
    While it is widely acknowledged that knowledge can be acquired via testimony, it has been argued that understanding cannot. While there is no consensus about what the epistemic relationship of understanding consists in, I argue here that regardless of how understanding is conceived there are kinds of understanding that can be acquired through testimony: easy understanding and easy-s understanding. I address a number of aspects of understanding that might stand in the way of being able to acquire understanding through testimony, (...)
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  3. Group Epistemology and Structural Factors in Online Group Polarization.Kenneth Boyd - 2023 - Episteme 20 (1):57-72.
    There have been many discussions recently from philosophers, cognitive scientists, and psychologists about group polarization, with online and social media environments in particular receiving a lot of attention, both because of people's increasing reliance on such environments for receiving and exchanging information and because such environments often allow individuals to selectively interact with those who are like-minded. My goal here is to argue that the group epistemologist can facilitate understanding the kinds of factors that drive group polarization in a way (...)
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  4. Epistemically Pernicious Groups and the Groupstrapping Problem.Kenneth Boyd - 2018 - Social Epistemology 33 (1):61-73.
    Recently, there has been growing concern that increased partisanship in news sources, as well as new ways in which people acquire information, has led to a proliferation of epistemic bubbles and echo chambers: in the former, one tends to acquire information from a limited range of sources, ones that generally support the kinds of beliefs that one already has, while the latter function in the same way, but possess the additional characteristic that certain beliefs are actively reinforced. Here I argue, (...)
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  5. Trusting scientific experts in an online world.Kenneth Boyd - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-31.
    A perennial problem in social epistemology is the problem of expert testimony, specifically expert testimony regarding scientific issues: for example, while it is important for me to know information pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, vaccine safety, Covid-19, etc., I may lack the scientific background required to determine whether the information I come across is, in fact, true. Without being able to evaluate the science itself, then, I need to find trustworthy expert testifiers to listen to. A major project in social (...)
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  6. Environmental luck and the structure of understanding.Kenneth Boyd - 2020 - Episteme 17 (1):73-87.
    ABSTRACTConventional wisdom holds that there is no lucky knowledge: if it is a matter of luck, in some relevant sense, that one's belief that p is true, then one does not know that p. Here I will argue that there is similarly no lucky understanding, at least in the case of one type of luck, namely environmental luck. This argument has three parts. First, we need to determine how we evaluate whether one has understanding, which requires determining what I will (...)
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  7. Group understanding.Kenneth Boyd - 2019 - Synthese 198 (7):6837-6858.
    While social epistemologists have recently begun addressing questions about whether groups can possess beliefs or knowledge, little has yet been said about whether groups can properly be said to possess understanding. Here I want to make some progress on this question by considering two possible accounts of group understanding, modeled on accounts of group belief and knowledge: a deflationary account, according to which a group understands just in case most or all of its members understand, and an inflationary account, according (...)
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  8. Peirce on Assertion, Speech Acts, and Taking Responsibility.Kenneth Boyd - 2016 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 52 (1):21.
    C.S. Peirce held what is nowadays called a “commitment view” of assertion. According to this type of view, assertion is a kind of act that is determined by its “normative effects”: by asserting a proposition one undertakes certain commitments, typically to be able to provide reason to believe what one is asserting, or, in Peirce’s words, one “takes responsibility” for the truth of the proposition one asserts. Despite being an early adopter of the view, if Peirce’s commitment view of assertion (...)
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  9. Moral Understanding and Cooperative Testimony.Kenneth Boyd - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):18-33.
    It is has been argued that there is a problem with moral testimony: testimony is deferential, and basing judgments and actions on deferentially acquired knowledge prevents them from having moral worth. What morality perhaps requires of us, then, is that we understand why a proposition is true, but this is something that cannot be acquired through testimony. I argue here that testimony can be both deferential as well as cooperative, and that one can acquire moral understanding through cooperative testimony. The (...)
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  10.  59
    Pandemic medical ethics.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Kenneth Boyd, Brian D. Earp, Lucy Frith, Rosalind J. McDougall, John McMillan & Jesse Wall - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):353-354.
    The COVID-19 pandemic will generate vexing ethical issues for the foreseeable future and many journals will be open to content that is relevant to our collective effort to meet this challenge. While the pandemic is clearly the critical issue of the moment, it’s important that other issues in medical ethics continue to be addressed as well. As can be seen in this issue, the Journal of Medical Ethics will uphold its commitment to publishing high quality papers on the full array (...)
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  11. Assertion, practical reasoning, and epistemic separabilism.Kenneth Boyd - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (7):1907-1927.
    I argue here for a view I call epistemic separabilism , which states that there are two different ways we can be evaluated epistemically when we assert a proposition or treat a proposition as a reason for acting: one in terms of whether we have adhered to or violated the relevant epistemic norm, and another in terms of how epistemically well-positioned we are towards the fact that we have either adhered to or violated said norm. ES has been appealed to (...)
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  12.  26
    Medical ethics and the climate change emergency.Cressida Auckland, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Kenneth Boyd, Brian D. Earp, Lucy Frith, Zoë Fritz, John McMillan, Arianne Shahvisi & Mehrunisha Suleman - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (12):939-940.
    The editors of the _Journal of Medical Ethics_ support the call of the UK Health Alliance on Climate for urgent action to ensure that the current Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ‘finally delivers climate justice for Africa and vulnerable countries’. 1 As they note ‘Africa has suffered disproportionately although it has done little to cause the crisis’. The burden of climate change has thus far fallen disproportionately on Global South countries. The monsoon (...)
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  13.  40
    The impossibility of informed consent?Kenneth Boyd - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (1):44-47.
  14. Nursing ethics.Ian E. Thompson, Kath M. Melia & Kenneth M. Boyd (eds.) - 1983 - New York: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
    Ethics in nursing: continuity and change -- Cultural issues, methods and approaches to nursing ethics -- Nursing ethics: what do we mean by 'ethics'? -- Becoming a nurse and member of the profession -- Power and responsibility in nursing practice and management -- Professional responsibility and accountability in nursing -- Classical areas of controversy in nursing and biomedical ethics -- Direct responsibility in nurse/patient relationships -- Conflicting demands in nursing groups of patients -- Ethics in healthcare management: research, evaluation and (...)
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  15. Rascals, Triflers, and Pragmatists: Developing a Peircean Account of Assertion.Kenneth Boyd & Diana Heney - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (2):1-22.
    While the topic of assertion has recently received a fresh wave of interest from Peirce scholars, to this point no systematic account of Peirce’s view of assertion has been attempted. We think that this is a lacuna that ought to be filled. Doing so will help make better sense of Peirce’s pragmatism; further, what is hidden amongst various fragments is a robust pragmatist theory of assertion with unique characteristics that may have significant contemporary value. Here we aim to uncover this (...)
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  16. Levi's Challenge and Peirce's Theory/Practice Distinction.Kenneth Boyd - 2012 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (1):51.
    Isaac Levi targets an implicit tension in C.S. Peirce’s epistemology, one that exists between the need to always be open-minded and aware of our propensity to make mistakes so that we do not “block the road of inquiry,” and the need to treat certain beliefs as infallible and to doubt only in a genuine way so that inquiry can proceed in the first place. Attempts at alleviating this tension have typically involved interpreting Peirce as ascribing different normative standards to different (...)
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  17. Pragmatic Encroachment and Epistemically Responsible Action.Kenneth Boyd - 2016 - Synthese 193 (9).
    One prominent argument for pragmatic encroachment (PE) is that PE is entailed by a combination of a principle that states that knowledge warrants proper practical reasoning, and judgments that it is more difficult to reason well when the stakes go up. I argue here that this argument is unsuccessful. One problem is that empirical tests concerning knowledge judgments in high-stakes situations only sometimes exhibit the result predicted by PE. I argue here that those judgments that appear to support PE are (...)
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  18. Christine Ladd-Franklin on the nature and unity of the proposition.Kenneth Boyd - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 30 (2):231-249.
    ABSTRACT Although in recent years Christine Ladd-Franklin has received recognition for her contributions to logic and psychology, her role in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century philosophy, as well as her relationship with American pragmatism, has yet to be fully appreciated. My goal here is to attempt to better understand Ladd-Franklin’s place in the pragmatist tradition by drawing attention to her work on the nature and unity of the proposition. The question concerning the unity of the proposition – namely, the problem (...)
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  19. Peirce on Intuition, Instinct, and Common Sense.Kenneth Boyd & Diana Heney - 2017 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy (2).
    In addition to being a founder of American pragmatism, Charles Sanders Peirce was a scientist and an empiricist. A core aspect of his thoroughgoing empiricism was a mindset that treats all attitudes as revisable. His fallibilism seems to require us to constantly seek out new information, and to not be content holding any beliefs uncritically. At the same time, Peirce often states that common sense has an important role to play in both scientific and vital inquiry, and that there cannot (...)
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  20. Lives in the balance: the ethics of using animals in biomedical research: the report of a Working Party of the Institute of Medical Ethics.Jane A. Smith & Kenneth M. Boyd (eds.) - 1991 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This book is the result of a three-year study undertaken by a multidisciplinary working party of the Institute of Medical Ethic (UK). The group was chaired by a moral theologian, and its members included biological and ethological scientists, toxicologists, physicians, veterinary surgeons, an expert in alternatives to animal use, officers of animal welfare organizations, a Home Office Inspector, philosophers, and a lawyer. Coming from these different backgrounds, and holding a diversity of moral views, the members produced the agreed report as (...)
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  21.  36
    Beyond politics: additional factors underlying skepticism of a COVID-19 vaccine.Kenneth Boyd - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-4.
    Even before it had been developed there had already been skepticism among the general public concerning a vaccine for COVID-19. What are the factors that drive this skepticism? While much has been said about how political differences are at play, in this article I draw attention to two additional factors that have not received as much attention: witnessing the fallibility of the scientific process play out in real time, and a perceived breakdown of the distinction between experts and non-experts.
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  22.  40
    Fifty years of medical ethics: from the London Medical Group to the Institute of Medical Ethics.Edward Shotter, Margaret Lloyd, Roger Higgs & Kenneth Boyd - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):662-666.
    The history of the Institute of Medical Ethics has been well recorded. Accounts of its origins in the London Medical Group were published in an academic paper of 2003,1 in the transcript of a Wellcome Witnesses to Twentieth Century Medicine Seminar in 20072 and in a chapter of the 2009 Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics.3 In 2013, 50 years since the inauguration of its first series of lectures and symposia, the LMG as an organisation no longer exists, but its (...)
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  23.  8
    Black-Box Expertise and AI Discourse.Kenneth Boyd - 2023 - The Prindle Post.
  24.  16
    New Dictionary of Medical Ethics.Kenneth M. Boyd, Roger Higgs & Anthony Pinching - 1997 - BMJ Books.
    A practical and thought provoking introduction to the most important ethical issues in medicine today. Over 700 entries, from short essays to brief definitions of key terms and concepts, have been contributed by leading clinicians and medical ethicists.
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  25. Testimonial Epistemic Rights in Online Spaces.Kenneth Boyd - 2022 - Philosophical Topics 50 (2):105-126.
    According to many theories of testimony, acts of testimony confer certain epistemic rights upon recipients, e.g., the right for the recipient to complain or otherwise hold the testifier responsible should the content of that testimony turn out to be false, and the right to “pass the epistemic buck”, such that the recipient can redirect relevant challenges they may encounter back to the testifier. While these discussions do not explicitly exclude testimonial acts that occur online, they do not specifically address them, (...)
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  26. Pragmatic Encroachment and Political Ignorance.Kenneth Boyd - 2021 - In Michael Hannon & Jeroen de Ridder (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology. New York: Routledge.
    Take pragmatic encroachment to be the view that whether one knows that p is determined at least in part by the practical consequences surrounding the truth of p. This view represents a significant departure from the purist orthodoxy, which holds that only truth-relevant factors determine whether one knows. In this chapter I consider some consequences of accepting pragmatic encroachment when applied to problems of political knowledge and political ignorance: first, that there will be cases in which it will not be (...)
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  27. Developing a Model of Groupstrapping: A Response to Baumgaertner and Nguyen.Kenneth Boyd - 2019 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 8 (8):32-39.
    In their responses to my article “Epistemically Pernicious Groups and the Groupstrapping Problem” (Boyd, 2018), Bert Baumgaertner (“Groupstrapping, Boostrapping, and Oops-strapping: A Reply to Boyd”) and C. Thi Nguyen (“Group-strapping, Bubble, or Echo Chamber?”) have raised interesting questions and opened lines of inquiry regarding my discussion of what I hope to be a way to help make sense of how members of groups can continue to hold beliefs that are greatly outweighed by countervailing evidence (e.g. antivaxxers, climate-change deniers, etc.). Here (...)
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  28.  18
    Global health justice: epistemic theory and pandemic practice.Kenneth Boyd - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (5):303-304.
    What does justice in global health bioethics require, and how might we achieve it? Two important contributions to this issue of the Journal address theoretical and practical aspects of these questions in different but complementary ways. From their careful analysis of ‘epistemic injustice’ in global health ethics (‘injustice as it applies to knowledge’ which in one way or another puts a person at a disadvantage), Pratt and de Vries1 conclude that to achieve justice, much depends on what is meant by (...)
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  29. Giving New Functions to Old Forms: The Aesthetics of Reassigned Architecture.Kenneth Boyd - 2006 - Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 3 (2):66-75.
    In modern cities, many old or abandoned buildings occupy valuable land without providing a comparably valuable service. In the past they have often met with the fate of being demolished and replaced, but modern day sentiment, be it foolhardy nostalgia or legitimate concern for architectural heritage, often leads to a building’s refurbishment. As a result, buildings save themselves from the wrecking ball by providing a service that satiates modern day demand.
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  30.  6
    The Ethics of Resource Allocation in Health Care.Kenneth M. Boyd - 1979
    Health care services today lack the resources to meet everybody's exspectations. Patients, professional workers and trade unions have legitimate but frequently conflicting claims, and so too have the different interest groups and specialties within medicine. This book provides an account of how resource allocation dilemmas appear to those confronted by them, in the hospital, on health boards and in the community, and it offers a critique of the moral and political arguments most commonly employed in discussing them.
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  31.  35
    Deciding about resuscitation.Kenneth Boyd - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (5):291-294.
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  32.  14
    Institute of Medical Ethics: working party report. HIV infection: the ethics of anonymised testing and of testing pregnant women.Kenneth M. Boyd - 1990 - Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (4):173-178.
    An Institute of Medical Ethics working party supports the view that explicit permission should normally be sought in the case of testing for HIV antibody. It discusses this in relation to anonymised HIV testing for epidemiological purposes, concluding that this is to be welcomed, given certain safeguards. It next argues that pregnant women may have a greater and more immediate need than others to know their HIV status. It concludes that this need does not justify testing them without their permission, (...)
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  33.  3
    Should You Outsource Important Life Decisions to Algorithms?Kenneth Boyd - 2022 - The Prindle Post.
  34.  19
    Explanatory frameworks and managing randomness.Kenneth Boyd - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (8):493-494.
    Epidemics, the medical historian Charles Rosenberg argued, typically have four Acts, as in a play. In Act I, which he termed ‘Progressive revelation’, ‘merchants’, ‘municipal authorities’ and ‘the complacency of ordinary men and women’, alike are reluctant to acknowledge an epidemic because of its threat to their ‘economic and institutional interests’ and to ‘their accustomed way of doing things’: gradually however, ‘inexorably accumulating deaths and sicknesses’ bring ‘ultimate, if unwilling, recognition’. In Act II, ‘Managing randomness’, ‘collective agreement’ is sought on (...)
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  35.  25
    Ethics in a time of coronavirus.Kenneth Boyd - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (5):285-286.
    By the time this issue of the Journal is published, the world will have moved on. More will be known, than at the time of writing this, about how medicine and societies are responding to the ethical challenges presented by the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. In his guest editorial,, Dominic Wilkinson writes from the perspective of a UK clinician and ethicist facing the then still impending likelihood that ‘the number of critically ill patients will overwhelm the capacity of intensive care units’ (...)
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  36.  17
    Matters of interest to medical professionals.Kenneth Boyd - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (2):75-76.
    What should readers expect of a journal, not primarily of ethics nor of bioethics, but of medical ethics? The ‘Disclaimer’ on this journal’s inside front cover states that it is ‘intended for medical professionals’. That perhaps narrows the field: but what interests ‘medical professionals’? Writing in 1796, the young Samuel Taylor Coleridge, poet, polymath and professional patient, declared that ‘Physicians… are shallow animals: having always employed their minds about Body and Gut, they imagine that in the whole system of things (...)
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  37.  26
    Science, politics, ethics and the pandemic.Kenneth Boyd - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):529-530.
    That they are ‘following the science’ has become the watchword of many politicians during the present pandemic, especially when imposing or prolonging lockdowns or other liberty-restricting regulations. The scientists who advise politicians however are usually careful to add that the decision what to restrict and when is ultimately a political one. In science, as in medical practice, there is a delicate balance to be maintained between confidence in the best available information, and the necessary caveat that the assumptions and calculations (...)
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  38.  21
    The concise argument: consistency and moral uncertainty.Kenneth Boyd - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):423-424.
    Although in certain contexts judged to be over-rated,1 consistency is generally held to be a virtue in arguments about medical ethics. In everyday life, to be told that you are acting hypocritically, in a manner that is inconsistent with values you profess, is at least embarrassing, and depending on the circumstances can have more serious consequences, not least for politicians. How far complete consistency in thought and action is humanly possible or even desirable is a more doubtful however. In terms (...)
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  39.  58
    The making of medical ethics.Kenneth Boyd - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):661-661.
    When the first issue of this journal was published in April 1975 its inaugural editorial stated: "The aim of the Journal of Medical Ethics is to provide a forum for the reasoned discussion of moral issues arising from the provision of medical care. It will hold no brief for one particular professional, political, or religious viewpoint. The articles it publishes will identify current problems, present factual information, and clarify different moral assumptions. To fulfil these aims the Editors can call on (...)
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  40.  9
    Consent in Medicine: Convergence and Divergence in Tradition.Kenneth M. Boyd - 1984 - Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (1):50-51.
  41.  9
    Expensive Medical Techniques. Report of a Working Party.Kenneth M. Boyd - 1984 - Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (1):50-50.
  42.  20
    Editorial note on 'Abortion and regret'.Kenneth Boyd - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (12):712-712.
  43. Epistemically Responsible Action.Kenneth Boyd - 2014 - Dissertation,
    We are often, as agents, responsible for the things we do and say. This responsibility can come in a number of different forms: here I propose and defend a view of how we are epistemically responsible for our actions and assertions. In other normative areas, we can be responsible for our actions when those actions violate a norm (for example, we can be morally responsible when we violate some moral norm). I argue that we can similarly be epistemically responsible when (...)
     
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  44. Ethical Review of Research Involving Animals a Role for Instiutional Ethics Committees?Kenneth M. Boyd - 1995 - Boyd Group.
     
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  45.  26
    Highlights from this issue.Kenneth Boyd - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):643-644.
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  46.  20
    Medical involvement in torture today?Kenneth Boyd - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (7):411-412.
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  47.  26
    Questioning previously accepted principles.Kenneth Boyd - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):583-584.
    In the late 1980s, an Institute of Medical Ethics working party on the teaching of medical ethics defined the subject as follows.1 Medical Ethics, it stated, has ‘two meanings’: ‘traditionally’ it ‘has referred to the standards of professional competence and conduct which the medical profession requires of its members’; ‘increasingly’, it ‘refers to the study of ethical or moral problems raised by the practice of medicine’. Thirty years on, teaching, learning and research in medical ethics retains this dual emphasis on (...)
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  48.  26
    Religion, reason, controversies and perspectives in clinical and research ethics.Kenneth Boyd - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (11):863-864.
  49.  5
    Responding to complexity.Kenneth Boyd - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (3):143-144.
    The papers in this issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics address various aspects of five familiar areas of bioethical enquiry: transplantation, genetics, euthanasia, research ethics and professional practice. That these areas, despite all that has been written about them, continue to provoke productive scholarly attention, testifies not only to their existential relevance but also to their moral complexity. Countless human lives will be affected, for better or worse, by how moral decisions in these areas are taken, communicated and implemented. (...)
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  50.  22
    Sir Patrick Nairne.Kenneth Boyd - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (10):660-660.
    Sir Patrick Nairne, who has died aged 91 years, was a distinguished senior civil servant and academic, who among many other accomplishments and achievements, made a significant contribution to the development of medical ethics in the UK. Sir Patrick is perhaps best known in this context as the founding chairman, from 1991 to 1996, of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, the independent ethics advisory body cofunded by the Nuffield Foundation, the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council, which is deservedly (...)
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