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Kirk Lougheed
University of Pretoria
  1.  36
    The Epistemic Benefits of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    This book presents an original discussion and analysis of epistemic peer disagreement. It reviews a wide range of cases from the literature, and extends the definition of epistemic peerhood with respect to the current one, to account for the actual variability found in real-world examples. The book offers a number of arguments supporting the variability in the nature and in the range of disagreements, and outlines the main benefits of disagreement among peers i.e. what the author calls the benefits to (...)
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  2.  8
    The Axiological Status of Theism and Other Worldviews.Kirk Lougheed - 2020 - Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book explores the value impact that theist and other worldviews have on our world and its inhabitants. Providing an extended defense of anti-theism - the view that God’s existence would (or does) actually make the world worse in certain respects - Lougheed explores God’s impact on a broad range of concepts including privacy, understanding, dignity, and sacrifice. The second half of the book is dedicated to the expansion of the current debate beyond monotheism and naturalism, providing an analysis of (...)
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  3.  36
    Anti-Theism and the Objective Meaningful Life Argument.Kirk Lougheed - 2017 - Dialogue 56 (2).
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  4.  6
    Ubuntu and Western Monotheism: An Axiological Investigation.Kirk Lougheed - 2021 - Routledge.
    This book offers a unique comparative study of ubuntu, a dominant ethical theory in African philosophy, and western monotheism. It is the first book to bring ubuntu to bear on the axiology of theism debate in contemporary analytic philosophy of religion. A large motivating force behind this book is to explore the extent to which there is intersubjective ethical agreement and disagreement between ubuntu and Western worldviews like monotheism and naturalism. First, the author assesses the various arguments for anti-theism and (...)
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  5.  26
    The Axiology of Theism: Problems and Prospects.Kirk Lougheed - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (5):e12826.
    Philosophy Compass, Volume 17, Issue 5, May 2022.
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  6.  58
    The Axiological Solution to Divine Hiddenness.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Ratio 31 (3):331-341.
    Philosophers have recently wondered whether the value impact of the existence of God on the world would be positive, negative, or neutral. Thus far discussions have distinguished between the value God's impact would have overall, in certain respects, and/or for particular individuals. A commonality amongst the various positions that have been taken up is to focus on the goods and drawbacks associated with both theism and atheism. Goods associated with atheism include things like privacy, independence, and autonomy. I argue that (...)
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  7.  79
    Religious Disagreement, Religious Experience, and the Evil God Hypothesis.Kirk Lougheed - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):173-190.
    Conciliationism is the view that says when an agent who believes P becomes aware of an epistemic peer who believes not-P, that she encounters a defeater for her belief that P. Strong versions of conciliationism pose a sceptical threat to many, if not most, religious beliefs since religion is rife with peer disagreement. Elsewhere I argue that one way for a religious believer to avoid sceptical challenges posed by strong conciliationism is by appealing to the evidential import of religious experience. (...)
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  8. Undermining the Axiological Solution to Divine Hiddenness.Perry Hendricks & Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 86 (1):3-15.
    Lougheed argues that a possible solution to the problem of divine hiddenness is that God hides in order to increase the axiological value of the world. In a world where God exists, the goods associated with theism necessarily obtain. But Lougheed also claims that in such a world it’s possible to experience the goods of atheism, even if they don’t actually obtain. This is what makes a world with a hidden God more valuable than a world where God is unhidden, (...)
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  9.  37
    The Epistemic Value of Deep Disagreements.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Informal Logic 38 (2):263-292.
    In the epistemology of disagreement literature an underdeveloped argument defending the claim that an agent need not conciliate when she becomes aware of epistemic peer disagreement is based on the idea that there are epistemic benefits to be gained from disagreement. Such benefits are unobtainable if an agent conciliates in the face of peer disagreement. I argue that there are good reasons to embrace this line of argument at least in inquiry-related contexts. In argumentation theory a deep disagreement occurs when (...)
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  10.  15
    The Epistemic Benefits of Worldview Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2021 - Social Epistemology 35 (1):85-98.
    In my recent book, The Epistemic Benefits of Disagreement, I develop a defense of non-conciliationism, but one that only applies in research contexts: Epistemic benefits are more likely in the offi...
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  11.  19
    Pro-Theism and the Added Value of Morally Good Agents.Myron A. Penner & Kirk Lougheed - 2015 - Philosophia Christi 17 (1):53-69.
    Pro-theism is the view that God’s existence would be good in that God’s existence increases the value of a world. Anti-theism is the view that God’s existence would decrease the value of a world. We develop and defend the morally good agent argument for pro-theism. The basic idea is that morally good agents tend to add value to states of affairs, and God, moral agent par excellence is no exception. Thus, we argue that the existence of God would be, on (...)
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  12.  6
    Four Views on the Axiology of Theism: What Difference Does God Make?Kirk Lougheed (ed.) - 2020 - Bloomsbury Publishing.
    For centuries, philosophers have addressed the ontological question of whether God exists. Most recently, philosophers have begun to explore the axiological question of what value impact, if any, God's existence has on our world. This book brings together four prestigious philosophers, Michael Almeida, Travis Dumsday, Perry Hendricks and Graham Oppy, to present different views on the axiological question about God. Each contributor expresses a position on axiology, which is then met with responses from the remaining contributors. This structure makes for (...)
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  13.  18
    Catherine Elgin on Peerhood and the Epistemic Benefits of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Synthese 198 (4):3183-3202.
    Conciliationism is the view that an agent must revise her belief in a proposition when she becomes aware that there is an epistemic peer who disagrees with her about that proposition. If epistemic peers are anything less than strict cognitive and evidential equals, then even slight differences could explain away why the two parties disagree in the first place. But this strict notion of peerhood never obtains in many, if not most, of real-life cases disagreements between inquirers. One recent account (...)
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  14.  16
    Epistemic Paternalism, Open Group Inquiry, and Religious Knowledge.Kirk Lougheed - 2021 - Res Philosophica 98 (2):261-281.
    Epistemic paternalism occurs when a decision is made for an agent which helps them arrive at the truth, though they didn’t consent to that decision. Common defenses of epistemic paternalism claim that it can help promote positive veritistic results. In other words, epistemic paternalism is often good for inquiry. I argue that there is often a better alternative available to epistemic paternalism in the form of what I call Open Group Inquiry. I then examine how Open Group Inquiry can be (...)
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  15.  16
    The Role of Idealized Cases in the Epistemology of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2017 - Southwest Philosophy Review 33 (2):251-270.
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  16.  79
    The Epistemic Benefits of Diversifying the Philosophy of Religion.Kirk Lougheed - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (1):77-94.
    There have been recent calls to expand contemporary analytic philosophy of religion beyond the oft implicitly assumed Christian tradition. Instead of exploring moral reasons to expand the discipline, I argue that there are strong epistemic reasons to favour diversifying the philosophy of religion. Increasing diversity is likely to increase disagreement, and there are epistemic benefits to be gained from the existence of disagreement. I argue that such considerations quite clearly apply to the philosophy of religion, and as such that there (...)
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  17.  17
    Schellenberg’s Ultimism as the Proper Object of Non-Doxastic Religion.Kirk Lougheed - 2020 - Sophia 59 (2):273-284.
    Carl-Johan Palmqvist recently examines a well-known form of non-doxastic religiosity called ultimism, which comes to us from J. L Schellenberg. He contends that traditional forms of religion are better candidates for non-doxastic religion for two reasons. First, their specificity makes them more likely to put one into contact with transcendental reality than ultimism. Second, religious experience can only be on traditional forms of religion, not on ultimism. I argue that Palmqvist’s rejection of ultimism is wrong. It’s false that ultimism isn’t (...)
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  18. On the Axiology of a Hidden God.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (4):79-95.
    The axiological question in the philosophy of religion is the question of what impact, if any, God’s existence does make to the axiological value of our world. It has recently been argued that we should prefer a theistic world where God is hidden to an atheistic world or a theistic world where God isn’t hidden. This is because in a hidden theistic world all of the theistic goods obtain in addition to the experience of atheistic goods. I complete this line (...)
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  19.  26
    The Axiology of Theism.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Axiology of Theism The existential question about God asks whether God exists, but the axiology of theism addresses the question of what value-impact, if any, God’s existence does have on our world and its inhabitants. There are two prominent answers to the axiological question about God. Pro-theism is the view that God’s … Continue reading The Axiology of Theism →.
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  20.  22
    On the Will Not to Believe and Axiological Atheism: a Reply to Cockayne and Warman.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Sophia 58 (4):743-751.
    In a recent article in Sophia, Joshua Cockayne and Jack Warman defend a view they call supra-evidential atheistic fideism. This is the idea that considerations similar to William James’s defence of theistic belief can be used to justify atheistic belief. If an individual evaluates the evidence for atheism and theism as roughly the same, then she can rationally believe in atheism if her passions lean in that direction, provided the belief in atheism is forced, live and momentous. After outlining their (...)
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  21.  26
    On How (Not) to Argue for Preferring God’s Non-Existence.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Dialogue 58 (4):677-699.
    Considérons deux mondes épistémiquement possibles qui sont aussi similaires que possible, sauf que l’athéisme est vrai dans un monde et que le théisme est vrai dans l’autre monde. Quel monde est-il rationnel de préférer? J’examine la défense la plus forte de l’affirmation quelque peu contre-intuitive selon laquelle il est rationnel de préférer le monde athée. Je discute également de la conclusion opposée, à savoir qu’il est rationnel de préférer le monde théiste. Étonnamment, ma conclusion est qu’il est difficile de dire (...)
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  22.  57
    Anti-Natalism.Kirk Lougheed & and - 2022 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Anti-Natalism Anti-natalism is the extremely provocative view that it is either always or usually impermissible to procreate. Some find the view so offensive that they do not think it should be discussed. Others think their strongly intuitive disagreement with it is enough in itself to reject all arguments for anti-natalism. In the first twenty years … Continue reading Anti-Natalism →.
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  23.  5
    On the Will Not to Believe and Axiological Atheism: a Reply to Cockayne and Warman.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Sophia 58 (4):743-751.
    In a recent article in Sophia, Joshua Cockayne and Jack Warman defend a view they call supra-evidential atheistic fideism. This is the idea that considerations similar to William James’s defence of theistic belief can be used to justify atheistic belief. If an individual evaluates the evidence for atheism and theism as roughly the same, then she can rationally believe in atheism if her passions lean in that direction, provided the belief in atheism is forced, live and momentous. After outlining their (...)
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  24.  46
    Divine Creation, Modal Collapse, and the Theistic Multiverse.Kirk Lougheed - 2014 - Sophia 53 (4):435-446.
    Either a ‘best world’ scenario is true or a ‘no best world’ scenario is true. In a ‘best world’ scenario, God actualizes a world that is unsurpassable. In a ‘no best world’ scenario, for any possible world God actualizes, God could have actualized a better world. A ‘no best world’ scenario precludes theism, so the theist should endorse a ‘best world’ scenario. However, a ‘best world’ scenario leads to the highly counter-intuitive conclusion of modal collapse: the position that nothing could (...)
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  25.  7
    Teaching & Learning Guide For: The Axiology of Theism: Problems and Prospects.Kirk Lougheed - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (9).
    Philosophy Compass, Volume 17, Issue 9, September 2022.
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  26.  76
    Introduction: Puzzles Concerning Epistemic Autonomy.Jonathan Matheson & Kirk Lougheed - 2021 - In Jonathan Matheson & Kirk Lougheed (eds.), Epistemic Autonomy. Routledge. pp. 1-17.
    In this introduction we explore a number of puzzles that arise concerning epistemic autonomy, and introduce the sections and chapters of the book. There are four broad types of puzzles to be explored, corresponding to the four sections of the book. The first set of puzzles concerns the nature of epistemic autonomy. Here, questions arise such as what is epistemic autonomy? Is epistemic autonomy valuable? What are we epistemically autonomous about? The second set of puzzles concern epistemic paternalism. Paternalistic acts (...)
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  27.  13
    Recognition and Epistemic Injustice in the Epistemology of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Philosophical Forum 49 (3):363-377.
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  28.  4
    Future Minds Are Not a Challenge to Anti‐Natalism: A Reply to Gould.Kirk Lougheed - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  29. The Goals of Philosophy of Religion: A Reply to Ireneusz Zieminski.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (1):187-199.
    In a recent article, Ireneusz Zieminski argues that the main goals of philosophy of religion are to define religion; assess the truth value of religion and; assess the rationality of a religious way of life. Zieminski shows that each of these goals are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Hence, philosophy of religion leads to scepticism. He concludes that the conceptual tools philosophers of religion employ are best suited to study specific religious traditions, rather than religion more broadly construed. But (...)
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  30.  39
    Anti-Theism, Pro-Theism, and Gratuitous Evil.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):355-369.
    Ebrahim Azadegan recently argues that personal anti-theism, the view that it’s rational for a particular individual to prefer that God not exist, is a form of gratuitous evil. He justifies this evil by arguing that the anti-theist is uniquely positioned to bargain, implore, and plea to God. I argue that Azadegan faces a paradox. Once the anti-theist recognizes that God plus anti-theism makes the world better, she should convert to pro-theism. But then there can be no reflective anti-theists who could (...)
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  31.  11
    No-fault Unbelief Defended: a Reply to Roberto Di Ceglie.Kirk Lougheed - 2021 - Sophia 60 (2):473-479.
    In the philosophy of religion, ‘no-fault unbelief’ represents the view that a person can fail to believe that God exists through no fault of their own. On the other hand, ‘flawed unbelief’ says a person is always culpable for failing to believe that God exists. In a recent article in Sophia, Roberto Di Ceglie argues that some might find the usual reasons for rejecting ‘no-fault unbelief’ to be offensive. In light of this, he proposes an alternative rejection of ‘no-fault unbelief’ (...)
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  32.  25
    Disagreement, Deep Time, and Progress in Philosophy.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 9 (4):285-313.
    The epistemology of disagreement examines the question of how an agent ought to respond to awareness of epistemic peer disagreement about one of her beliefs. The literature on this topic, ironically enough, represents widespread disagreement about how we should respond to disagreement. I argue for the sceptical conclusion that the existence of widespread disagreement throughout the history of philosophy, and right up until the present day indicates that philosophers are highly unreliable at arriving at the truth. If truth convergence indicates (...)
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  33.  23
    Is Religious Experience a Solution to the Problem of Religious Disagreement?Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Logos and Episteme 9 (2):173-197.
    Many religious believers do not appear to take the existence of epistemic peer disagreement as a serious challenge to the rationality of their religious beliefs. They seem to think they have different evidence for their religious beliefs and hence aren’t really epistemic peers with their opponents. One underexplored potential evidential asymmetry in religious disagreements is based on investigations of religious experience attempting to offer relevant evidence for religious claims in objective and public terms. I conclude that private religious experience can (...)
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  34. Completing the Complete Understanding Argument: A Rejoinder to Roberto Di Ceglie.Kirk Lougheed - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-9.
    In The Axiological Status of Theism and Other Worldviews, I defend the Complete Understanding Argument for anti-theism, which says that God’s existence makes the world worse with respect to our ability to understand it. In a recent article, Roberto Di Ceglie offers three objections to my argument. I seek to rescue my argument by showing that understanding can come in degrees; that I’m not a consequentialist about the value of understanding; and that my argument is consistent with God providing us (...)
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  35. Value Beyond Monotheism: The Axiology of the Divine.Kirk Lougheed (ed.) - 2022 - New York: Routledge..
    This book expands the current axiology of theism literature by assessing the axiological status of alternative conceptions of God and the divine. To date, most of the literature on the axiology of theism focuses almost exclusively on the axiological status of theism and atheism. Specifically, it focuses almost entirely on monotheism, typically Judeo-Christian conceptions of God, and atheism, usually construed as ontological naturalism. This volume features essays from prominent philosophers of religion, ethicists, and metaphysicians addressing the value impact of alternative (...)
     
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  36.  57
    Epistemic Autonomy.Jonathan Matheson & Kirk Lougheed (eds.) - 2021 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This is the first book dedicated to the topic of epistemic autonomy. It features original essays from leading scholars that promise to significantly shape future debates in this emerging area of epistemology. -/- While the nature of and value of autonomy has long been discussed in ethics and social and political philosophy, it remains an underexplored area of epistemology. The essays in this collection take up several interesting questions and approaches related to epistemic autonomy. Topics include the nature of epistemic (...)
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  37.  20
    Religious Commitment and the Benefits of Cognitive Diversity: A Reply to Trakakis.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Sophia 57 (3):501-513.
    Metaphilosophical discussions about the philosophy of religion are increasingly common. In a recent article in Sophia, N.N. Trakakis advances the view that Christian Philosophy is closer to ideology than philosophy. This is because philosophy conducted in the Socratic tradition tends to emphasize values antithetical to religious faith such as independence of thought, rationality, empiricism, and doubt. A philosopher must be able to follow the arguments wherever they lead, something that the religious believer cannot do. I argue that there are two (...)
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  38.  20
    Intuitive Knowing as Spiritual Experience PHILLIP H. WIEBE New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015; 226 Pp.; $100.00. [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2017 - Dialogue 56 (3):605-606.
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  39.  9
    Semantic Non-Doxastic Agnostic Religious Faith.Kirk Lougheed - 2021 - Philosophia 49 (3):1067-1081.
    The purpose of this article is to articulate the possibility of semantic non-doxastic agnostic religious faith. Robin Le Poidevin, who introduced the idea of semantic religious agnosticism, defines it as being agnostic about which parts of religion to treat in realist terms and which parts to treat in fictionalist terms. I take Le Poidevin’s view and argue that it is consistent with a non-doxastic attitude toward the object of faith such as acceptance. I then explore the similarities and differences between (...)
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  40.  21
    Klaas J. Kraay, Ed.: God and the Multiverse: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives.Kirk Lougheed - 2015 - Faith and Philosophy 32 (4):480-484.
  41.  12
    The Epistemic Significance of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (1):301-303.
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  42.  1
    Toward an African Theory of the Atonement.Kirk Lougheed - 2022 - Journal of Analytic Theology 10:200-209.
    Contemporary philosophy of religion and analytic theology has recently experienced a revival regarding the nature of the Christian Atonement. The Kaleidoscope theory of the atonement says that the major theories such as Christus Victor, Satisfaction, Penal Substitution, and Moral Exemplar each capture an important aspect of the significance of the atonement. When taken together, they offer a fuller picture of the atonement than they do as individual theories. My goal is to add to the Kaleidoscope theory by drawing on insights (...)
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  43.  4
    John Pittard, Disagreement, Deference, and Religious Commitment. [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (3):384-389.
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  44.  15
    Leibniz, God and Necessity Griffin Michael V. Cambridge University Press, 2013; XI + 195 Pp.; $80.00 (Hardback). [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (3):607-608.
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  45.  12
    Disagreementbryan Frances Cambridge: Polity Press,2014; 214 Pp,; $20.34. [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (3):563-564.
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  46.  2
    Molefe on the Value of Community for Personhood.Kirk Lougheed - 2022 - South African Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):28-36.
  47.  2
    Leibniz, God and NecessityMICHAEL V. GRIFFIN Cambridge University Press, 2013; Xi + 195 Pp.; $80.00. [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (3):607-608.
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  48.  1
    On Whether There Are Grounds for Worship.Kirk Lougheed - 2021 - Philosophia Christi 23 (2):313-327.
    I explore a novel defense of the duty to worship God based on the idea that it is what’s best for us. I argue that this should be understood as the claim that humans are required to do what’s best when there is a best option available; the best option is identifiable; and the best option is feasible. One virtue of this account is that it can explain how a duty to worship God is defeasible. I show this by appealing (...)
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  49.  1
    No Title Available: Dialogue.Kirk Lougheed - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (3):607-608.
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