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Kirk Lougheed
University of Pretoria
  1.  14
    The Epistemic Benefits of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2020 - Springer Verlag.
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  2. Indirect Epistemic Reasons and Religious Belief.Kirk Lougheed & Robert Mark Simpson - 2017 - Religious Studies 53 (2):151-169.
    If believing P will result in epistemically good outcomes, does this generate an epistemic reason to believe P, or just a pragmatic reason? Conceiving of such reasons as epistemic reasons seems to lead to absurdity, e.g. by allowing that someone can rationally hold beliefs that conflict with her assessment of her evidence’s probative force. We explain how this and other intuitively unwelcome results can be avoided. We also suggest a positive case for conceiving of such reasons as epistemic reasons, namely, (...)
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  3. Undermining the Axiological Solution to Divine Hiddenness.Perry Hendricks & Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 86 (1):3-15.
    Lougheed argues that a possible solution to the problem of divine hiddenness is that God hides in order to increase the axiological value of the world. In a world where God exists, the goods associated with theism necessarily obtain. But Lougheed also claims that in such a world it’s possible to experience the goods of atheism, even if they don’t actually obtain. This is what makes a world with a hidden God more valuable than a world where God is unhidden, (...)
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  4.  20
    Anti-Theism and the Objective Meaningful Life Argument.Kirk Lougheed - 2017 - Dialogue 56 (2).
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  5.  10
    Pro-Theism and the Added Value of Morally Good Agents.Myron A. Penner & Kirk Lougheed - 2015 - Philosophia Christi 17 (1):53-69.
    Pro-theism is the view that God’s existence would be good in that God’s existence increases the value of a world. Anti-theism is the view that God’s existence would decrease the value of a world. We develop and defend the morally good agent argument for pro-theism. The basic idea is that morally good agents tend to add value to states of affairs, and God, moral agent par excellence is no exception. Thus, we argue that the existence of God would be, on (...)
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  6.  27
    The Epistemic Value of Deep Disagreements.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Informal Logic 38 (2):263-292.
    In the epistemology of disagreement literature an underdeveloped argument defending the claim that an agent need not conciliate when she becomes aware of epistemic peer disagreement is based on the idea that there are epistemic benefits to be gained from disagreement. Such benefits are unobtainable if an agent conciliates in the face of peer disagreement. I argue that there are good reasons to embrace this line of argument at least in inquiry-related contexts. In argumentation theory a deep disagreement occurs when (...)
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  7.  36
    The Axiological Solution to Divine Hiddenness.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Ratio 31 (3):331-341.
    Philosophers have recently wondered whether the value impact of the existence of God on the world would be positive, negative, or neutral. Thus far discussions have distinguished between the value God's impact would have overall, in certain respects, and/or for particular individuals. A commonality amongst the various positions that have been taken up is to focus on the goods and drawbacks associated with both theism and atheism. Goods associated with atheism include things like privacy, independence, and autonomy. I argue that (...)
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  8.  7
    The Epistemic Benefits of Worldview Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - forthcoming - Social Epistemology:1-14.
    In my recent book, The Epistemic Benefits of Disagreement, I develop a defense of non-conciliationism, but one that only applies in research contexts: Epistemic benefits are more likely in the offi...
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  9.  40
    Religious Disagreement, Religious Experience, and the Evil God Hypothesis.Kirk Lougheed - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):173-190.
    Conciliationism is the view that says when an agent who believes P becomes aware of an epistemic peer who believes not-P, that she encounters a defeater for her belief that P. Strong versions of conciliationism pose a sceptical threat to many, if not most, religious beliefs since religion is rife with peer disagreement. Elsewhere I argue that one way for a religious believer to avoid sceptical challenges posed by strong conciliationism is by appealing to the evidential import of religious experience. (...)
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  10.  84
    On the Axiology of a Hidden God.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (4):79.
    The axiological question in the philosophy of religion is the question of what impact, if any, God’s existence does make to the axiological value of our world. It has recently been argued that we should prefer a theistic world where God is hidden to an atheistic world or a theistic world where God isn’t hidden. This is because in a hidden theistic world all of the theistic goods obtain in addition to the experience of atheistic goods. I complete this line (...)
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  11.  4
    Semantic Non-Doxastic Agnostic Religious Faith.Kirk Lougheed - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-15.
    The purpose of this article is to articulate the possibility of semantic non-doxastic agnostic religious faith. Robin Le Poidevin, who introduced the idea of semantic religious agnosticism, defines it as being agnostic about which parts of religion to treat in realist terms and which parts to treat in fictionalist terms. I take Le Poidevin’s view and argue that it is consistent with a non-doxastic attitude toward the object of faith such as acceptance. I then explore the similarities and differences between (...)
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  12.  7
    Recognition and Epistemic Injustice in the Epistemology of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Philosophical Forum 49 (3):363-377.
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  13.  44
    The Goals of Philosophy of Religion: A Reply to Ireneusz Zieminski.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (1):187-199.
    In a recent article, Ireneusz Zieminski argues that the main goals of philosophy of religion are to define religion; assess the truth value of religion and; assess the rationality of a religious way of life. Zieminski shows that each of these goals are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Hence, philosophy of religion leads to scepticism. He concludes that the conceptual tools philosophers of religion employ are best suited to study specific religious traditions, rather than religion more broadly construed. But (...)
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  14.  9
    The Role of Idealized Cases in the Epistemology of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2017 - Southwest Philosophy Review 33 (2):251-270.
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  15.  8
    Anti-Theism, Pro-Theism, and Gratuitous Evil.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):355-369.
    Ebrahim Azadegan recently argues that personal anti-theism, the view that it’s rational for a particular individual to prefer that God not exist, is a form of gratuitous evil. He justifies this evil by arguing that the anti-theist is uniquely positioned to bargain, implore, and plea to God. I argue that Azadegan faces a paradox. Once the anti-theist recognizes that God plus anti-theism makes the world better, she should convert to pro-theism. But then there can be no reflective anti-theists who could (...)
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  16.  14
    On the Will Not to Believe and Axiological Atheism: a Reply to Cockayne and Warman.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Sophia 58 (4):743-751.
    In a recent article in Sophia, Joshua Cockayne and Jack Warman defend a view they call supra-evidential atheistic fideism. This is the idea that considerations similar to William James’s defence of theistic belief can be used to justify atheistic belief. If an individual evaluates the evidence for atheism and theism as roughly the same, then she can rationally believe in atheism if her passions lean in that direction, provided the belief in atheism is forced, live and momentous. After outlining their (...)
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  17.  41
    Divine Creation, Modal Collapse, and the Theistic Multiverse.Kirk Lougheed - 2014 - Sophia 53 (4):435-446.
    Either a ‘best world’ scenario is true or a ‘no best world’ scenario is true. In a ‘best world’ scenario, God actualizes a world that is unsurpassable. In a ‘no best world’ scenario, for any possible world God actualizes, God could have actualized a better world. A ‘no best world’ scenario precludes theism, so the theist should endorse a ‘best world’ scenario. However, a ‘best world’ scenario leads to the highly counter-intuitive conclusion of modal collapse: the position that nothing could (...)
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  18.  19
    Disagreement, Deep Time, and Progress in Philosophy.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 9 (4):285-313.
    The epistemology of disagreement examines the question of how an agent ought to respond to awareness of epistemic peer disagreement about one of her beliefs. The literature on this topic, ironically enough, represents widespread disagreement about how we should respond to disagreement. I argue for the sceptical conclusion that the existence of widespread disagreement throughout the history of philosophy, and right up until the present day indicates that philosophers are highly unreliable at arriving at the truth. If truth convergence indicates (...)
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  19.  8
    The Axiology of Theism.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Axiology of Theism The existential question about God asks whether God exists, but the axiology of theism addresses the question of what value-impact, if any, God’s existence does have on our world and its inhabitants. There are two prominent answers to the axiological question about God. Pro-theism is the view that God’s … Continue reading The Axiology of Theism →.
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  20.  7
    Schellenberg’s Ultimism as the Proper Object of Non-Doxastic Religion.Kirk Lougheed - 2020 - Sophia 59 (2):273-284.
    Carl-Johan Palmqvist recently examines a well-known form of non-doxastic religiosity called ultimism, which comes to us from J. L Schellenberg. He contends that traditional forms of religion are better candidates for non-doxastic religion for two reasons. First, their specificity makes them more likely to put one into contact with transcendental reality than ultimism. Second, religious experience can only be on traditional forms of religion, not on ultimism. I argue that Palmqvist’s rejection of ultimism is wrong. It’s false that ultimism isn’t (...)
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  21.  9
    Catherine Elgin on Peerhood and the Epistemic Benefits of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - forthcoming - Synthese:1-20.
    Conciliationism is the view that an agent must revise her belief in a proposition when she becomes aware that there is an epistemic peer who disagrees with her about that proposition. If epistemic peers are anything less than strict cognitive and evidential equals, then even slight differences could explain away why the two parties disagree in the first place. But this strict notion of peerhood never obtains in many, if not most, of real-life cases disagreements between inquirers. One recent account (...)
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  22.  15
    On How to Argue for Preferring God’s Non-Existence.Kirk Lougheed - forthcoming - Dialogue:1-23.
    Consider two epistemically possible worlds that are as similar as can be, except that atheism is true in one world and theism is true in the other world. Which world is it rational to prefer? I explore the strongest defence of the somewhat counterintuitive claim that it is rational to prefer the atheistic world. I also discuss the opposite conclusion, namely, that it’s rational to prefer the theistic world. Surprisingly, my conclusion is that it’s difficult to tell whether to prefer (...)
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  23.  17
    Religious Commitment and the Benefits of Cognitive Diversity: A Reply to Trakakis.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Sophia 57 (3):501-513.
    Metaphilosophical discussions about the philosophy of religion are increasingly common. In a recent article in Sophia, N.N. Trakakis advances the view that Christian Philosophy is closer to ideology than philosophy. This is because philosophy conducted in the Socratic tradition tends to emphasize values antithetical to religious faith such as independence of thought, rationality, empiricism, and doubt. A philosopher must be able to follow the arguments wherever they lead, something that the religious believer cannot do. I argue that there are two (...)
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  24.  14
    Is Religious Experience a Solution to the Problem of Religious Disagreement?Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Logos and Episteme 9 (2):173-197.
    Many religious believers do not appear to take the existence of epistemic peer disagreement as a serious challenge to the rationality of their religious beliefs. They seem to think they have different evidence for their religious beliefs and hence aren’t really epistemic peers with their opponents. One underexplored potential evidential asymmetry in religious disagreements is based on investigations of religious experience attempting to offer relevant evidence for religious claims in objective and public terms. I conclude that private religious experience can (...)
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  25.  17
    Intuitive Knowing as Spiritual Experience PHILLIP H. WIEBE New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015; 226 Pp.; $100.00. [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2017 - Dialogue 56 (3):605-606.
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  26.  3
    On the Will Not to Believe and Axiological Atheism: a Reply to Cockayne and Warman.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Sophia 58 (4):743-751.
    In a recent article in Sophia, Joshua Cockayne and Jack Warman defend a view they call supra-evidential atheistic fideism. This is the idea that considerations similar to William James’s defence of theistic belief can be used to justify atheistic belief. If an individual evaluates the evidence for atheism and theism as roughly the same, then she can rationally believe in atheism if her passions lean in that direction, provided the belief in atheism is forced, live and momentous. After outlining their (...)
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  27.  9
    The Epistemic Significance of Disagreement.Kirk Lougheed - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (1):301-303.
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  28.  15
    Klaas J. Kraay, Ed.: God and the Multiverse: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives.Kirk Lougheed - 2015 - Faith and Philosophy 32 (4):480-484.
  29.  12
    Disagreement Bryan Frances Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014; 214 Pp,; $20.34. [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (3):563-564.
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  30.  12
    Leibniz, God and Necessity Griffin Michael V. Cambridge University Press, 2013; XI + 195 Pp.; $80.00 (Hardback). [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (3):607-608.
  31.  2
    Leibniz, God and NecessityMICHAEL V. GRIFFIN Cambridge University Press, 2013; Xi + 195 Pp.; $80.00. [REVIEW]Kirk Lougheed - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (3):607-608.
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  32.  1
    No Title Available: Dialogue.Kirk Lougheed - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (3):607-608.
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  33. Four Views on the Axiology of Theism: What Difference Does God Make?Kirk Lougheed (ed.) - 2020
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  34. Epistemic Autonomy.Jonathan Matheson & Kirk Lougheed (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
     
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