In this paper, I address the interdisciplinary character of development studies and ethics by discussing the relationship between Christian theology and development studies in general and development ethics in particular. I begin by presenting development theology, a kind of theology that critically reflects on the meaning and implications of the Christian faith with regard to improving the lives of people living in material poverty. This kind of theology is related to the better-known liberation theology, and I discuss the role of (...) this kind of theology in the works of Denis Goulet, the founder of development ethics as an academic discipline. I argue there is a fruitful, critical and constructive relationship between liberation theology and development ethics in the writings of Goulet. I then turn to how development issues are addressed in contemporary theology, with an emphasis on documents produced by two faith-based development organizations, Christian Aid UK and Norwegian Church Aid. I argue that development issues have been readdressed in Christian theology, relying less on the notion of liberation, but more on the concepts of reconstruction, ?diakonia?, human dignity and human relationships. I argue that there is a need to revisit the critical and constructive connections between Christian theology and development ethics and, more broadly, the related challenges of interdisciplinary inquiries, and I conclude by showing some of the ways of undertaking this task. (shrink)
We have arrived at a situation in which policymakers and ethicists are considering abandoning informed consent in the governance of certain new technologies, many of which are related to large-scale information systems. A paradigm case is the problem with using individuals’ informed consent to regulate biobanks. As sometimes suggested, there is a need for “new ethical frameworks.”.
Philosophical anthropologies that emphasise the role of the emotions can be used to expand existing notions of moral agency and learning in situations of great moral complexity. In this article we tell the story of one patient facing the tough decision of whether to be tested for Huntington’s disease or not. We then interpret her story from two different but compatible philosophical entry points: Aristotle’s conception of Greek tragedy and Karl Jaspers’ notion of Grenzsituationen (boundary situations). We continue by indicating (...) some ways in which these two positions may be used for reflecting upon different perspectives involved in clinical decision-making, those of patients, clinicians and bioethicists. We conclude that the ideas we introduce can be used as hermeneutic tools for situating learning and dialogue within a broader cultural field in which literature and art may also play important roles. (shrink)
This article investigates the communication of professional ethos, the ethical standards of a profession in training, from passing on ideas of patients’ welfare in medical schools to communicating values in military academies. The article examines this through a consideration of the consequences of Wittgenstein’s discussions on the nature of language: how words and sentences acquire meaning. Wittgenstein’s rule-following paradox, the paradox that any act can be brought into correspondence with a rule and thereby that any “meaning” might be applicable to (...) what is being taught, must make us re-evaluate assumptions about a professional ethos as a guide for professionals in their future practice. If, as Wittgenstein asserts, the meaning of a word is its use, we must abandon ideas of an essence of professional ethos encapsulated in words. Ethical standards of the professions are not reducible to a set of rules. Instead teachers must seek to expand the learner’s repertoire of responses and invite different answers rather than a pre-established correct answer. (shrink)
ZUSAMMENFASSUNGDer Artikel präsentiert den Versuch, Luthers berühmte Behauptung, dass der rechtfertigende Glaube den Menschen definiere, in der Perspektive der Gegenwart zu lesen. Die jüngste Entwicklung in den Gesellschaftswissenschaften und der Gender-Forschung bietet eine Reihe neuer Anhaltspunkte zum Verständnis von Identitätsbildung und Identitätserfahrung. Der Gedanke dessen, dass die Rechtfertigung die Identität definiere, muss folglich an dem anknüpfen, was wir sonst noch über die durch die menschliche Wechselwirkung konstruierte Identität wissen. Der Artikel erörtert dieses Thema und diskutiert die Frage, ob dies nicht (...) – theologisch verstanden – homosexuelle und lesbische Paare heterosexuellen Paaren gleichstellt.SUMMARYIn the thesis De homine from 1536, Luther famously stated that justification by faith alone gives a short definition of the human being. This article tries to defend such a definition under contemporary conditions, taking into account what we now know of the construction and inhabitation of human identity. Summing up seminal insights into the development of identity from the social sciences and from gender studies, the article discusses possible consequences for the theological understanding of homosexual cohabitation. A range of insights are brought into play, including the phenomenology of Knud Ejler Løgstrup, to understand the emergence of identity through human interaction, and its implications for the centre of evangelical belief and ethics. (shrink)
This article is an analytic register of recent European efforts in the making of ‘autonomous’ robots to address what is imagined as Europe’s societal challenges. The paper describes how an emerging techno-epistemic network stretches across industry, science, policy and law to legitimize and enact a robotics innovation agenda. Roadmap is the main metaphor and organizing tool in working across the disciplines and sectors, and in aligning these heterogeneous actors with a machine-centric vision along a path to make way for ‘new (...) kinds’ of robots. We describe what happens as this industry-dominated project docks in a public–private partnership with pan-European institutions and a legislative initiative on robolaw. Emphasizing the co-production of robotics and European innovation politics, we observe how well-known uncertainties and scholarly debates about machine capabilities and human–machine configurations, are unexpectedly played out in legal scholarship and institutions as a controversy and a significant problem for human-centered legal frameworks. European robotics are indeed driving an increase in speculative ethics and a new-found weight of possible futures in legislative practice. (shrink)
In this article I consider some central aspects of the naturalist philosophy of science and science and technology studies in dealing with the contested status of technoscience in medicine. Focusing on the concepts of realism and representation, I argue that theories of science-as-practice in naturalist philosophy of science should expand their scope so as to reflect more thoroughly on the social and political context of technoscience. I develop a hermeneutic of technomedical objects in order to highlight the internal connectedness between (...) social action, material agency, and the actions of scientific communities. The framework thus developed is used to re-consider the genomic turn in medicine. Pointing to the discrepancies between socially dominant representations of genomic technology and the actual interventions brought about through those technologies, I raise the question of how and where to address problems of theory and policy. (shrink)
The lens through which one may view the entire Book of Exodus is the speech God utters in 19:3–6. Indeed, it has been said that in the whole tradition of Moses, this is very likely the most programmatic speech we have for Israelite faith.
A biblical understanding of God's relationship with Israel and the world helps us interpret passages in the prophetic literature that link God and violence. With tears, lament, and regret, God takes into the divine self the violent effects of sinful human activities and thereby makes possible a non-violent future for God's people.
Whereas in modern times Genesis has been read in the light of Exodus, and creation has been understood in the light of redemption and the giving of the law at Mount Sinai, it now seems clear that one must reverse the order Exodus is to be understood in the light of Genesis and redemption and law in the light of creation.
Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder are early- onset neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive deficits. The current study represents the first attempt to compare these groups on a comprehensive cognitive test battery in a longitudinal design over 25 years in order to enhance our knowledge of particular patterns resulting from the interaction between normal maturational processes and different illness processes of these disorders. In the baseline study, 19 adolescents with schizophrenia were compared to 20 adolescents with ADHD and 30 healthy (...) controls, all between 12 and 18 years of age. After 13 years and after 25 years they were re-evaluated with the cognitive test battery. A cognitive Composite Score was used in a linear mixed model. The EOS group had a significant cognitive stagnation or deterioration from T1 to T2 compared to HC. However, the EOS group had the most positive change from T2 to T3, supporting a stable level of cognitive performance over the 25 year span. The ADHD group improved or had similar development as the HC group from T1 to T2. They continued to improve significantly compared to the HC group from T2 to T3. Individuals in the EOS group performed more impaired on the cognitive composite score compared to the HC group and the ADHD group at all three time points. Results might indicate a neurodevelopmental pathway of EOS with subnormal cognitive development specific in adolescence. In comparison, the ADHD group had a more consistent cognitive maturation supporting a maturational delay hypothesis of ADHD. (shrink)
Reducing velocity inaccuracy in complex settings is of paramount importance for limiting structural uncertainties, therefore helping the geologic interpretation and reservoir characterization. Shallow velocity variations due, for instance, to gas accumulations or carbonate reefs, are a common issue offshore Malaysia. These velocity variations are difficult to image through standard reflection-based velocity model building. We have applied full-waveform inversion to better characterize the upper part of the earth model for a shallow-water field, located in the Central Luconia Basin offshore Sarawak. We (...) have inverted a narrow-azimuth data set with a maximum inline offset of 4.4 km. Thanks to dedicated broadband preprocessing of the data set, we could enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in the 2.5–10 Hz frequency band. We then applied a multiparameter FWI to estimate the background normal moveout velocity and the [Formula: see text]-parameter. Full-waveform inversion together with broadband data processing has helped to better define the faults and resolve the thin layers in the shallow clastic section. The improvements in the velocity model brought by FWI lead to an improved image of the structural closure and flanks. Moreover, the increased velocity resolution helps in distinguishing between two different geologic interpretations. (shrink)