In his dialogue the Timaeus, Plato recognized two aspects of time, the past and the future, but not the present. In contrast, Aristotle's analysis of time in the Physics took its orientation from the 'now'. It is the latter path that Husserl follows with his conception of the 'original impression' (Urimpression). However, in certain parts of Husserl's Bernau Manuscripts, the present loses significance because of a novel interpretation of protention. This development, which revitalizes Plato's understanding of time, is furthered in (...) Heidegger's late lecture Time and Being: the present can be understood on the basis of the 'withdrawal' which determines the mutual relation between the arrival as authentic future and the having-been as authentic past. (shrink)
This chapter describes the phenomenology of the political world. Phenomenology must get underway with an analysis of the political world. The chapter evaluates more precisely the relation between the concept of world or worldliness and the openness of the political. Using the term ‘political world’ is preferred to utilising the traditional terms because it is less burdened by prejudice. The guiding impulse towards the clarification of the Sache of political philosophy as political world stems from Hannah Arendt, who does not (...) make use of the phenomenological conception of ‘horizon’. Science's confidence that it can attain a knowledge free of all horizonal plurality is among the most fundamental prejudices that phenomenology endeavours to overcome. Phenomenology is the decided present renewal of the most ancient idea of epistêmê. (shrink)
Following Heidegger’s lead, I first undertake a description of philosophical wonder. A second task emerges out of this, the task of describing the manner of experiencing time upon which this wonder is based. Here I attend specifically to Plato’s discussion thereof. In the third and final section of my considerations, I illustrate how “idealization” follows from wonder and the accordant experience of time, “idealization” being that mental operation which, according to Husserl, has determined the consequent development of European culture in (...) its scientific character from Plato and Aristotle up to the contemporary crisis. (shrink)
The following considerations have their origin in the recent debate on inter-cultural understanding. In one respect one might characterize the opposing positions in this debate as anthropological universalism and anthropological relativism. Each party, however, imputes to the other a hidden Eurocentrism. The intention of my paper is to show that a third way between these opposing positions is possible, a way that becomes evident when one reflects explicitly on the bearing of European culture on this debate.
Little attention has been paid to the dimension of the political world in the phenomenological project of Husserl and Heidegger. However, this is not due to phenomenology as such, as has been proven by the discovery of the political occurring in the work of Hannah Arendt. The author therefore takes the phenomenological ideal of openness to the world in authentic existence as his starting point in an attempt to provide a systematic phenomenological determination of the political world. A preparatory first (...) part elucidates the phenomenological significance of the distinction between the inauthentic existence of everyday life and authentic existence. He argues that it is not a volitional intellectual act but a fundamental mood which makes possible the transition to authentic openness for the world. A second part develops this thesis by analysing the rise of divergence of opinion concerning possible action as a 'public matter', which can not be resolved by expertise. This divergence serves as a focus in which the life-world comes to the fore as the domain of possibility for action, which asks for the reflective power of judgment in the Kantian sense. The third part characterises the political world as in between ethos and kairos. The political is thus conditioned by the temporal finitude of human existence between past and future. Part four briefly sketches the totalitarian seduction as a revolt against this finitude. (shrink)
A problemática da intersubjetividadedesempenha um papel central nos atuaisdebates filosóficos em fenomenologia. O fenômenoda religião tem recentemente tambémvolttado a chamar a atenção com vigor. Aofalar nesta comunicação sobre o que os gregosdenominaram de ethos, refiro-me ao ãmbito deproblemas da intersubjetividade, sobretudo àrelação das diferentes culturas. que se diferenciamfundamentalmente por seu ethos. A problemáticada interculturalidade constitui, semdúvida, atualmente, uma das mais crescentespreocupações da humanidade de especialsignificação. O ethos está em todas as culturastradicionais estreitamente entrelaçado à experiênciado divino. Correspondentemente, aminha própria origem (...) será ressaltada nasreflexões seguintes, enfocando a nossa tradiçãoocidental de dois mil anos. (shrink)