Motivated by results on interactive proof systems we investigate an ∃-∀hierarchy over P using word quantifiers as well as two types of set quantifiers. This hierarchy, which extends the polynomial-time hierarchy, is called the analytic polynomial-time hierarchy. It is shown that every class of this hierarchy coincides with one of the following Classes: ∑math image, Πmath image , PSPACE, ∑math image or Πmath image . This improves previous results by Orponen  and allows interesting comparisons with the above mentioned results (...) on inter-active proof systems. (shrink)
Zwei phänomenologische Betrachtungen zum Realismusproblem, von O. Becker.--Über den Weg zur Begründung des Realismus, von H. Wagner.--Die Bedeutung des Realismus in der Erkenntnislehre des 19. Jahrhundredts, von F. Schneider.--Marxismus und Realismus, von J. Barion.--Das Realitätsproblem, von K. Hartmann.--Grenzen, von G. Funke.--Das Problem des Metasprachlichen in Platons "Kratylos," von J. Derbolav.--Der sprachliche Ausdruck des Seins, von V. Rüfner.--Asozial, Antisozial: Recht und Grenzen des Schuldprinzips in der Strafrechtsreform, von W. Schöllgen.--Bibliographie, zusammengestellt von E. Gerresheim (p. -257).
The results of two experiments are analyzed to find out how artistic expertise influences visual search. Experiment I comprised survey data of 1,065 students on self-reported visual memory skills and their ability to find three targets in four images of artwork. Experiment II comprised eye movement data of 50 Visual Literacy experts and non-experts whose eye movements during visual search were analyzed for nine images of artwork as an external validation of the assessment tasks performed in Sample I. No time (...) constraint was set for completion of the visual search task. A latent profile analysis revealed four typical solution patterns for the students in Sample I, including a mainstream group, a group that completes easy images fast and difficult images slowly, a fast and erroneous group, and a slow working student group, depending on task completion time and on the probability of finding all three targets. Eidetic memory, performance in art education and visual imagination as self-reported visual skills have significant impact on latent class membership probability. We present a hidden Markov model approach to uncover underlying regions of attraction that result from visual search eye-movement behavior in Experiment II. VL experts and non-experts did not significantly differ in task time and number of targets found but they did differ in their visual search process: compared to non-experts, experts showed greater precision in fixating specific prime and target regions, assessed through hidden state fixation overlap. Exploratory analysis of HMMs revealed differences between experts and non-experts in image locations of attraction. Experts seem to focus their attention on smaller image parts whereas non-experts used wider parts of the image during their search. Differences between experts and non-experts depend on the relative saliency of targets embedded in images. HMMs can determine the effect of expertise on exploratory eye movements executed during visual search tasks. Further research on HMMs and art expertise is required to confirm exploratory results. (shrink)
Diese komparatistische Monographie stellt zentrale Kategorien und Theorien der Literaturwissenschaft dar. Sie synthetisiert und bewertet den Stand der Forschung und unterwirft viele Dogmen der neueren Forschung einer kritischen Analyse. Resultat ist eine Reformulierung des theoretischen Kernbestandes der Literaturwissenschaft für die zentralen Kategorien Interpretation, Fiktion, Performativität, Intertextualität, Gattung, Epoche. Der Band richtet sich an alle Wissenschaften, die mit Texten als Erkenntnisobjekten umgehen; neben der Literaturwissenschaft sind also auch die Theaterwissenschaft, die Sprachwissenschaft, die Sprachphilosophie, die Kunstwissenschaft, die Geschichtswissenschaft sowie Theologie und Jurisprudenz (...) angesprochen. (shrink)
Das »Performative« ist in den vergangenen Jahren zu einer festen Größe im Theorierepertoire der Geisteswissenschaften geworden. Seine nachgerade ubiquitäre Verwendung verdankt sich dabei vielfach einem wenig präzisen Verständnis, das – teilweise gegenstrebige – Aspekte von Performanz, Wirklichkeitskonstitution, Emergenz und Präsenzeffekten verbindet. Dieser Band zieht eine kritische Bilanz, ohne dabei ein bestimmtes Verständnis zu verabsolutieren. Die Beiträge bereiten das aktuelle Theoriefeld erstmals so auf, dass es einem breiteren, interdisziplinären Leserkreis zugänglich wird.
Differences in the ability of students to judge images can be assessed by analyzing the individual preference order of images. To gain insights into potential heterogeneity in judgement of visual abstraction among students, we combine Bradley–Terry preference modeling and model-based recursive partitioning. In an experiment a sample of 1,020 high-school students ranked five sets of images, three of which with respect to their level of visual abstraction. Additionally, 24 art experts and 25 novices were given the same task, while their (...) eye movements were recorded. Results show that time spent on the task, the students’ age, and self-reported interest in visual puzzles had significant influence on rankings. Fixation time of experts and novices revealed that both groups paid more attention to ambiguous images. The presented approach makes the underlying latent scale of visual judgments quantifiable. (shrink)
The article aims to analyse the development of the concept of totalitarianism in political sciences. The author puts an emphasis on international debates on totalitarianism. He also tracks the history of this concept, beginning with the nineteen twenties, in the context of Benito Mussolini’s rule in Italy and continuing with the legal perception of the term in Germany and Poland throughout the nineteen thirties, when the discourse moved to the US. It was in the last of those countries where the (...) first conference on totalitarianism was organised. Pointing to the manner in which the concept of totalitarianism is used with regard to communism and Nazism also constitutes an important thread in the article. (shrink)
We are living through a new phase in human development where much of everyday life – at least in the most technologically developed parts of the world – has come to depend upon our interaction with “smart” artefacts. Alongside this increasing adoption and ever-deepening reliance on intelligent machines, important changes have been taking place, often in the background, as to how we think of ourselves and how we conceptualize our relationship with technology. As we design, create and learn to live (...) with a new order of artefacts which exhibit behavior that, were it to be carried out by human beings would be seen as intelligent, the ways in which we conceptualize intelligence, minds, reasoning and related notions such as self and agency are undergoing profound shifts. We argue that the basic background assumptions informing our concepts of mind, and the underlying conceptual scheme structuring our reasoning about minds has recently been transformed in the process. This shift has changed the nature and quality of both our folk understanding of mind, our scientific psychology, and the philosophical problems that the interaction of these realms produce. Many of the traditional problems in the philosophy of mind have become reconfigured in the process. This introduction sets the scene for our book that treats this reconfiguration of our concepts of mind and of technology, and the new casting of philosophical problems this reconfiguration engenders. (shrink)
In recent years we have seen the rise of a new framework within the study of the mind, namely Predictive Processing. This framework essentially holds that the brain is a prediction machine constantly postulating perceptual models which are tested against incoming information. At the same time, the notion of the minimal or core self has become very influential as a way of explaining, or explaining away, pre-reflective self-awareness. The four most widely discussed alternatives for thinking through the metaphysical implications the (...) pre-reflective sense of self are the standard phenomenological view, the substance view, the no-self view and by now the relational view. In this paper, it is our objective to rethink the notion of the sense of self in the context of PP. Now, PP is often held to be a unifying framework that offers a new integrated account of perception, cognition, imagination, and indeed the pre-reflective sense of self. We will show, however, that PP has been taken to endorse rather too many different metaphysical accounts of self: that is, views about how we should regard the ultimate nature of self. What we need to do, if possible, is to use PP to constrain the theories on offer. Here we focus upon two central constraints that we think PP implies. These are, the mutability constraint and the multi-layereredness constraint. We argue that self-views laid out in terms of the PP framework are usually – to some degree – located within the four standard metaphysical accounts of self. However, we think that realist versions of self-accounts seem to have more trouble in respecting the PP constraints or requirements. The reason, or so we believe, is PP’s mutability constraint. This does not have to be the case and we, therefore, propose an alternative realist view – namely the pre-reflective situational self view – which is more adequate to fit the PP framework. (shrink)
It is often held that to have a conscious experience presupposes having some form of implicit self-awareness. The most dominant phenomenological view usually claims that we essentially perceive experiences as our own. This is the so called “mineness” character, or dimension of experience. According to this view, mineness is not only essential to conscious experience, it also grounds the idea that pre-reflective self-awareness constitutes a minimal self. In this paper, we show that there are reasons to doubt this constituting role (...) of mineness. We argue that there are alternative possibilities and that the necessity for an adequate theory of the self within psychopathology gives us good reasons to believe that we need a thicker notion of the pre-reflective self. To this end, we develop such a notion: the Pre-Reflective Situational Self. To do so, we will first show how alternative conceptions of pre-reflective self-awareness point to philosophical problems with the standard phenomenological view. We claim that this is mainly due to fact that within the phenomenological account the mineness aspect is implicitly playing several roles. Consequently, we argue that a thin interpretation of pre-reflective self-awareness—based on a thin notion of mineness—cannot do its needed job within, at least within psychopathology. This leads us to believe that a thicker conception of pre-reflective self is needed. We, therefore, develop the notion of the pre-reflective situational self by analyzing the dynamical nature of the relation between self-awareness and the world, specifically through our interactive inhabitation of the social world. (shrink)
According to Enactivism, cognition should be understood in terms of a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. Further, this view holds that organisms do not passively receive information from this environment, they rather selectively create this environment by engaging in interaction with the world. Radical Enactivism adds that basic cognition does so without entertaining representations and hence that representations are not an essential constituent of cognition. Some proponents think that getting rid of representations amounts to a revolutionary (...) alternative to standard views about cognition. To emphasize the impact, they claim that this ‘radicalization’ should be applied to all enactivist friendly views, including, another current and potentially revolutionary approach to cognition: predictive processing. In this paper, we will show that this is not the case. After introducing the problem, we will argue that ‘radicalizing’ predictive processing does not add any value to this approach. After this, we will analyze whether or not radical Enactivism can count as a revolution within cognitive science at all and conclude that it cannot. Finally, in section 5 we will claim that cognitive science is better off when embracing heterogeneity. (shrink)
Hans Wagner (1917-2000) hat Mitte des vorigen Jahrhunderts eine systematische Erneuerung der Transzendentalphilosophie in Angriff genommen: eine an Kants subjektheoretischem Geltungsbegriff orientierte und Problementwicklungen des deutschen Idealismus, des Neukantianismus und der Phanomenologie integrierende Transzendentalphilosophie. Diese Gedenkschrift zu seinem hundertsten Geburtstag enthalt Beitrage von Reinhold Aschenberg, Reinhold Breil, Martin Bunte, Werner Flach, Klaus Ganglbauer, Bernward Grunewald, Reinhard Hiltscher, Christian Krijnen, Peter Michael Lippitz, Steinar Mathisen, Gerhard Seel, Manfred Wetzel und Kurt Walter Zeidler, welche die Philosophie Wagners in ihrem historischen (...) und systematischen Gehalt erkunden. (shrink)