The idea that Heidegger's thinking is essentially anti-sociological is very widespread and seems to be commonly accepted. Nevertheless, a closer examination of Heidegger's reading of Aristotle, particularly in his early Freiburg and Marburg lectures, provides a quite different picture. In his attempt to overcome the shortcomings of Husserl's phenomenology, by studying Aristotle Heidegger makes an important discovery. Being sociological is an existential feature of human being. Here, the lecture of the summer term 1924, Grundbegriffe der aristotelischen Philosophie (Fundamental concepts of (...) Aristotelian Philosophy), which mainly deals with Aristotle's Rhetoric, is of special importance. In analyzing the phenomenon of speaking within the polis as some kind of apophantic language, Heidegger hits upon the fact that the political is grounded in social communication. The idea of human being as existing within a context of communication developed in this lecture is an important starting point of Heidegger's later philosophy of language. (shrink)
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG›Reinheit‹ ist ein Grundbegriff der Religionswissenschaft. Kaum eine Religion kommt ohne ein Konzept von Reinheit aus. Lange Zeit hindurch war dieser Begriff auch in der Philosophie angesehen, bis Johann Georg Hamann das bekannteste Buch, welches Reinheit im Titel führt, nämlich die Kritik der reinen Vernunft Immanuel Kants, einer Metakritik unterzog. In seiner Metakritik führt Hamann den Nachweis, dass eine sich mit Emphase auf die Reinheit des Denkens berufende Philosophie sich wie eine Religion mit entsprechendem normativem Anspruch verhält. Gegen die kritische (...) Philosophie Kants setzt Hamann ein bewusst unreines, auf Sinnlichkeit, Leidenschaft und Geschichte basierendes Denken, welches sich im Gegensatz zum sich selbst sterilisierenden reinen Denken als fruchtbar und zukunftsfähig erweist. So mobilisiert er die Würde des Schmutzes gegen die kryptoreligiöse Selbstkorrumpierung der Vernunft.SUMMARY‘Purity’ is a key term of religious studies. Very few religions get along without some concept of purity. For a long time this concept had some reputation in philosophy as well until Johann Georg Hamann launched his meta-critique against the most famous book with contains purity in its title: Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. In his critique Hamann shows that philosophical thinking which emphatically insists on purity behaves like a religion with a strong normative attitude. Hamann opposes Kant's critical philosophy with a deliberately impure thinking, which is based upon senses, emotion and history. In contrast to the self-sterilizing pure thinking, this way of philosophizing proves to be fertile and future-compliant. In this way he mobilizes the dignity of filth against the crypto-religious self-corruption of reason. (shrink)
ZusammenfassungDie philosophische Frage 〉Was ist Wahrheit?〈 beantwortet Johann Georg Hamann mit einer Phänomenologie des philosophischen Begriffs. Philosophische Begriffsbestimmungen bleiben ihm unbefriedigend und abstrakt, denn der philosophische Begriff als sprachliche Handlung ist nicht definierbar, sondern vielmehr Anzeige eines Geschehens, in dem der Mensch sich etwas sagen lässt. Die Antwort auf die Frage nach der Wahrheit ist die Ankunft des den Einzelnen erschließenden Wortes. Ausgehend von dieser ontologisch-soziologischen Basis wendet sich Hamann gegen den Ideenhimmel der selbstgenügsamen reinen Vernunft im Philosophieren und beschreibt (...) das Wahrheitsgeschehen als einen dynamischen Prozess aus sprachlicher Geologie, erfahrener Ästhetik und tradiertem Formular.Für diese dynamische Wahrheitskonzeption betont Hamann in seiner Geologie die Gebundenheit des Menschen an das Konkrete als Feld seines Wirkens, in dessen Fruchtbarkeit sich sein Tun bewährt, in seiner Ästhetik die sinnliche Wahrnehmung Gottes als Grundlage der menschlichen Existenz und die Bewahrung des menschlichen Lebens im biblischen Text in seinem Formularismus. Ein solches triadisches Wahrheitsgeschehen ist in konkreter Individualität Dichtung des göttlichen Autors.SummaryJohann Georg Hamann responds to the philosophical question ‘What is truth?’ with a phenomenology of philosophical concepts. For him, philosophical definitions remain abstract and insufficient because philosophical concepts as speech-acts are not definable but indications of events where man allows that something is said to him. The answer to the question of truth is the arrival of the Word which reveals the individual. Starting from this ontological and sociological assumption Hamann rejects the realm of self-sufficient reason in philosophizing and describes a dynamic process of truth consisting of linguistic geology, experienced aesthetics and traditional formula instead. His geology therefore emphasizes the confinement of man to concrete things as the field of his work, whose fertility proves his actions. His aesthetics stresses the sensual perception of God as the basis of human existence and his use of formula the safekeeping of human life in biblical texts. This threefold event of truth is in its concrete individuality poetry of God as author. (shrink)
Many classic philosophical debates converge on the twin questions ‘What is man?’ and ‘What is his place in nature?’, in the sense that taking up a position in those debates normally commits one to a certain range of answers to these questions. Such answers typically lie near the centre of one's web of belief, deeply entrenched in the structure of one's concepts, and thus remain remarkably resistant to the standard techniques of confirmation and refutation.
Bioethicists, like many other academics, have a tendency to try to make things general and simpler by eliminating context. Particulars, such as race, economic class, and gender, often seem to be lost in this ocean of generality and abstraction. But in losing them, we are neglecting the analysis of serious moral problems and, with it, the possibility of offering some kind of solution to such problems. This article argues that particulars do matter very much. We will focus ourattention here on (...) gender. We will argue that ignoring questions of gender when evaluating genetic technologies is seriously problematic because it might lead to further injustices against women. Proceeding with a noncontextual understanding of genetic technologies will likely disregard the unjust ways in which the health care system treats women, as well as the ways in which genetic technologies impose extra burdens on them. (shrink)
In his epistles, St. Paul sounded a universalism that has recently been taken up by secular philosophers who do not share his belief in Christ, but who regard his project as centrally important for contemporary political life. The Pauline project—as they see it—is the universality of truth, the conviction that what is true is true for everyone, and that the truth should be known by everyone. In this volume, eminent New Testament scholars, historians, and philosophers debate whether Paul's promise can (...) be fulfilled. Is the proper work of reading Paul to reconstruct what he said to his audiences? Is it crucial to retrieve the sense of history from the text? What are the philosophical undercurrents of Paul's message? This scholarly dialogue ushers in a new generation of Pauline studies. (shrink)
We examine the Spiritual Exercises developed by St. Ignatius Loyola for the purpose of informing the structure of reflection as a tool in business ethics. At present, reflection in business is used to clarify moods, expectations, theories of use, and defining moments. We suggest here that Ignatius' Exercises, which focus on ends, engage the emotions and imagination, use role modeling, and require a response, might be useful as a model for reflection in business.
Alasdair MacIntyre criticises the ethics of modernity as fallacious, and wants it replaced by Aristotelian virtue ethics. He is particularly critical concerning modernity’s non-contextual understanding of reason, and wants to renew the ethical significance of concepts like tradition and context.
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‘There is a kind of eloquence’, maintained St Augustine, which is manifestly inspired by God. Biblical writers have spoken with this kind of eloquence. … ‘On the other hand’ they have uttered some passages with a beneficial and salutary obscurity, to exercise and, in a sense, to polish the minds of their readers, to break down aversions and spur on the zeal of those who are anxious to learn, as well as to conceal the meaning from the minds of the (...) impious. (shrink)