Zadaniem przedstawiciela handlowego firmy farmaceutycznej jest promocja produktów tej firmy w bezpośrednich kontaktach z lekarzami. Przedstawiciel medyczny pełni funkcję zbliżoną do funkcji przedstawiciela handlowego: reprezentuje firmę farmaceutyczną, jednak reprezentuje w sposób szczególny, bo w bezpośrednich kontaktach z lekarzami. Jego zadaniem jest polecanie" lekarzowi produktów danej firmy. Owo „polecanie" w praktyce nie sprowadza się do udzielenia prostych informacji na temat skuteczności leku, jego skutków ubocznych, zalet i wad w porównaniu z innymi lekami itd., gdyż taką wiedzę lekarz czerpie z fachowych pism. (...) Zadaniem przedstawiciela medycznego jest także nawiązanie możliwie najszerszej sieci kontaktów z lekarzami i podtrzymywanie tych kontaktów. Przedstawiciel medyczny jest zobowiązany do wypełniania poleceń wydawanych przez pracodawcę, co jednak nie zwalnia go z osobistej odpowiedzialności, jeżeli polecenia te są sprzeczne z zasadami etyki. W dyskusji dotyczącej pracy przedstawiciela medycznego można wyróżnić dwa stanowiska. Pierwsze z nich głosi, iż przedstawiciel medyczny powinien poprzestać na udzieleniu możliwie pełnej informacji o danym produkcie. Według zwolenników drugiego stanowiska, etycznie akceptowalne są również inne sposoby zachęcania lekarzy do stosowania określonych produktów, z wyłączeniem jedynie tych, które w oczywisty sposób szkodzą zdrowiu pacjentów. Dyskusja toczy się więc wokół następującego problemu: czy przedstawiciel medyczny ma prawo nie tylko informować o istnieniu danego leku, lecz także uprawiać pewien rodzaj reklamy, a więc nakłaniać lekarza do przepisywania pacjentom tego konkretnego leku, nie zaś leku produkowanego przez konkurencję? Przedstawiciel medyczny działa w interesie zatrudniającej go firmy, a rozdawane przez niego próbki leków, materiały dydaktyczne, nowoczesne oprogramowanie diagnostyczne, słowem - wszystko to, co nie jest,,znaczącą gratyfikacją" w rozumieniu kodeksów etycznych i prawa farmaceutycznego, służy promocji określonych produktów. Ograniczenie sposobów promowania produktów leczniczych może więc doprowadzić do sytuacji, w której firmy farmaceutyczne za pośrednictwem swoich przedstawicieli będą się starały wzmocnić skuteczność dopuszczalnych sposobów reklamy oraz poszukiwać nowych, np. poprzez stosowanie różnych metod manipulacji. Dlatego wydaje się, że formułowanie zbyt szczegółowych norm regulujących działalność przedstawicieli medycznych mija się z celem. Zawsze możliwe będzie wymyślenie nowych metod wywierania presji na lekarzy, a fakt, iż któraś nie została uwzględniona w szczegółowym rejestrze norm etycznych, może wywoływać wrażenie, że jest ona etycznie akceptowalna. Oznacza to także, iż ani kodeksyetyczne, ani panująca w koncernach farmaceutycznych kultura korporacyjna nie są w stanie zwolnić przedstawiciela medycznego od konieczności samodzielnej oceny etycznej podejmowanych przez siebie działań. (shrink)
Etyka jako obszar i kontekst standaryzacji działalności organizacji pozarz¸adowych Andrzej Klimczuk In Katarzyna Sztop-Rutkowska (ed.), Poradnik Standardów Normatywnych Dla Organizacji Pozarz¸Adowych Z Powiatu Oleckiego. Fundacja Rozwoju Ziemi Oleckiej. pp. 74--92 (2012) .
The article provides a critical overview of the Polish bioethics literature concerning the shortage of organs for transplantation. Problems related to this issue bear, to a considerable degree, on the attempt to answer the question how to increase the number of organs available in ethically acceptable ways. Polish authors have focused, in this respect, on the analysis and assessment of two solutions: an opt out system of acquiring organs and a system that allows the aquisition of organs on a “free (...) market”. Both solutions have been almost unanimously negatively assessed. Apart from the presentation and critique of the positions of Polish bioethicists on this matter, an important part of the text is constituted by a report from a debate, held at the national level, on the criteria and definition of death: for it is only from the deceased donors that unpaired bodily organs, such as heart, can be taken. (shrink)
The expression “moral experience”, along with the concomitant notion of experience itself, seems to have been understood in divergent ways. Taking as a background three views currently operative in our culture - emotivism, the ethics of duty, and the notion of an ethics “beyond good and evil” - a conception of ethical experience will be presented based on the findings of Edith Stein as elaborated in her work "Philosophy of Psychology and the Humanities".
Tematem artykułu jest etyczny problem klonowania ludzi. Zaprezentowane zostają w nim najważniejsze argumenty przeciwko klonowaniu obecne w powieści Kazuo Ishiguro Nie opuszczaj mnie. Wśród argumentów moralnych przeciwko klonowaniu ludzi przeanalizowane zostają: argument z instrumentalizacji oraz wewnętrznego życia klonów; z ograniczenia wolności jednostki oraz z jej unieszczęśliwienia; z prawa do posiadania wyjątkowej tożsamości i otwartej przyszłości; ze szkód psychicznych i rozchwiania tożsamości; z naturalnego prawa jednostki do relacji rodzinnych. Na koniec autor przeformułuje argument z mądrości odrazy na argument z mądrości współczucia.
Father Marian Morawski was born on the fifteenth of August 1845 in Gräfenberg. He joined the order of the Jesuits in 1863 in Stara Wieś. He began his philosophical studies there in 1866, which he finished in Cracow in 1868. Next he studied theology there during the years 1868-1872. In 1870 he was ordained in Śrem. So educated, he lectured philosophy to young Jesuits at Stara Wieś College. It was at that time, that he prepared and published the work by (...) the titile: Filozofia i jej zadanie [Philosophy and its task]. When, at the request of the editor Edward Podolski, the Jesuits took over the periodical "Przegląd Lwowski" and from 1884 began to publish it by the new title of "Przegląd Powszechny", Morawski became its first editor and published many of his own articles in it concerning science and religion. In this way he created a new breed of theological literature, known as „world-view literature". As a typical example, Wieczory nad Lemanem [Evenings on Leman] as well as the thesis Celowość w przyrodzie. Studium przyrodniczo-filozoficzne [Finality in the nature. A natural-philosophical study] were published multiple times and in many languages. From 1887 to 1899 Morawski was a professor at the Jagiellonian University, and during the years 1894-1895 he was the Dean of the Theology Department. He died in Cracow on the sixth of May 1901. (shrink)
Whereas traditional ethical discussions of suicide have primarily dealt with questions relating to the moral rightness or wrongness of suicidal acts, the problem of which moral criteria should govern acts of preventing, admitting and aiding suicide has rarely been discussed systematically. In the present paper it is argued that suicide is morally neutral in all cases in which it does not constitute grave damage, material or psychological, to others, that this does not imply that non-prevention, in the same range of (...) cases, is morally neutral as well. Moral criteria for suicide prevention are formulated by making use of the Rawlsian device of a fictitious “veil of ignorance” behind which moral rules are decided on from merely self-regarding motives. It is argued that decision behind the veil would be of a principle of “restricted paternalism” that minimizes both the risk of not being prevented from committing suicide in cases in which this is clearly irrational in view of the enduring preferences of the suicidal person himself, as well as the complementary risk of being subjected to compulsory detention or treatment in cases in which suicide is the option conforming most, on a realistic view of the case, to the enduring preferences of the person. The practical rules translating the principle into concrete practice comprise a rule demanding compulsory prevention of all imminent suicides by persons not intimately known to the potential preventer, a prohibition of pre-emptive compulsory measures, and a general temporal limitation on detention. Finally, a similar, if more tentative, derivation of practical rules is attempted for cases in which aiding a suicide might seem to another person to be in the best interest of the suicidal person concerned. (shrink)
The author discusses some ethical problems connected with taking human organs for transplantation from living and dead people. First of all, he asks whether being an organ giver should be taken as our moral duty. It seems to be the duty of heart in Kantian terms. Various possibilities in the legal regulation of taking organs are considered here as well as the criteria and forms of their distribution. None of them, however, can be satisfying because of the inescapable conflict between (...) the principle of utility and that of autonomy. (shrink)
Henryk Elzenberg is one of the most prominent Polish philosophers of this century. His main publications are: the brilliant Foundations of Leibniz’s Metaphysics of 1917; a philosophical diary published in 1963 as Trouble with Being; and a collection of papers Man and Value. Elzenberg’s principal field of inquiry was axiology, in which he put forward a deep and original conception of his own. That, however, remains still mostly in the form of manuscripts and lecture notes, of which we publish two (...) pieces above: a critique of the utilitarian concept of value, and an analysis of Meinong’s position on the same topic. (shrink)
The author draws a distinction between active and passive resistance. The latter is defined as a mental protest against some events in public life that is not followed by additional action. The former, or active resistance, is further divided by the author into resistance with the use of violence and resistance which renounced violence. She concentrates on the concept of violence and puts the question if, and in what circumstances, a recourse to violence is justified. She quotes various opinions on (...) that matter. The problem of using violence is the problem of the admissibility of various modes of action, or means of action, she says. As every method of protest in every society can be adopted in defence of either good or bad ends, the author focuses on the question, what criteria of evaluation of the objectives defended by resistance can be relied upon. She ends her paper by pointing out that resistance is the most important form of non-violent resistance. (shrink)
The purpose of this paper is to examine some beliefs about the ethical justification of negative eugenics, i.e. a policy of limiting the frequency of childbearing by women prone to give birth to children with genetic defects. The main thrust of the paper is to define and defend of a particular duty v i s – á – v i s the future generations, viz. the duty to provide the future persons with healthy genetic endowment. In the first part of (...) the paper the concept of the ‘obligation to future generation’ is considered. In the second part the putative right of children to acquire healthy genetic endowment is critically assessed from the moral point of view. The author focuses on important reservations concerning moral rights of not even potentially existing persona and the subsequent difficulty in establishing when such rights are infringed. The last part of the paper deals with the possibility of justifying our moral obligations to the future generations by consulting our direct moral duties, and bypassing the controversial issues of the rights of non-existent persons. The author concludes: one of the most credible methods of justifying the objectives of negative eugenics is the acceptance of the depersonalized version of the utilitarian principle which stipulates that the sum of pain in the world be minimized and the sum of happiness be maximized. In the same vein the traditional concept of the ‘sanctity’ of human life should be revised in the light of the principle that human life presupposes consciousness and dignity. When these two assumptions are made, it can be shown that due to the application of genetic control the future generations will live a happier life and suffer from fewer diseases than they would if we decided to ban genetic control. (shrink)
The author analyses the problematic of historical necessity and ethical regularity of socialism, taking the marxist philosophy as a point of departure. He criticizes opinions represented in philosophical and ideological discussions of this problem in the period of the Second International and argues that the above problematic, which results from a confrontation of marxism with a new historical situation and with the current of the neo-Kantian philosophy, was an axis which has brought into focus the theoretical decisions both of revisionists (...) and critics of marxism on one hand and of orthodox marxists on the other hand. (shrink)
Said Paracelsus – “All substances are poisonous; there is none that is not a poison. The right dose distinguishes a poison and a remedy.” Most clinical problems can be boiled down to the following practical syllogism: “If a patient has a condition p, then he should be treated with q, r, or t or whatever combination of them. The patient X has the condition p. Therefore, the patient X should be treated with q, or r, or t, or whatever combination (...) of them.” It is evident that the conclusion of this syllogism is a result of two different kinds of knowledge: first, medical knowledge understood as general and universal knowledge of health, disease and treatment which is contained in standard medical textbooks and which, according to the present fashion, is called evidence based medicine; and second, clinical knowledge which is specific knowledge of a particular patient in terms of his unique narrative identity.. Acquisition and application of medical and clinical knowledge are governed by ethical rules. The basic rules of human subjects research ethics are presented and discussed. I conclude that even a perfect evidence based medical knowledge is not enough to make a correct clinical judgment. Because every individual may have a specific reaction to a drug, each treatment is always experimentation on human. One of those rules is respect for moral autonomy of the patient which is reflected in the moral, legal, and clinical doctrine of informed consent; another, the principle of an acceptable risk-benefit balance. Both these principles are examined in the context of psychiatric treatment. (shrink)
Between 1983 and 1990, at least 163 Western drugs were tested in the GDR. On the basis of archival documentation, relevant literature, and interviews we examined the clinical trials of five drugs more thoroughly; two of these individual case studies are introduced in this article. In the case of the clinical trials of the synthetic human growth hormone Saizen we found extensive trial and patient documentation, which allows for a detailed analysis of ethical aspects such as parent information and informed (...) patient consent. In the case of the clinical trials of the „abortion pill“ Mifepristone for the World Health Organization we uncovered irregularities with regard to the ethical evaluation. However, taken together, we could not find any serious violation of ethical norms in connection with our cases studies. (shrink)
The aim of the paper here presented is to reconstruct the ethical views of Camus and to provide an account of their evolution. Wherever Camus’s axiological convictions closely correspond to his philosophical cogitations, and where the latter appear to present evidence of Camus’s efforts to find theoretical ground for the former the article also supplies information concerning the philosophical ideas of the author of ‚Le Mythe de Sisyphe’.
The article presents the ethical conceptions of Czesław Znamierowski, a prominent Polish moral philosopher, professor of general theory of law of University of Poznań. The task of reconstructing Znamierowski’s ideas is rather difficult: his works concerning ethical problems are written with a looseness much unlike thee cautious and priggish style of works presenting the philosophical systems. Moreover, in the course of time his opinions changed in several points.
The aim of the article is to illustrate the ethical foundations of psychoanalysis and to outline the ethical origins of Freudian theory. To this end, Jürgen Habermas' conception of knowledge-constitutive interests is discussed, which draws on psychoanalysis as an example of science justified in its form through an underlying emancipatory interest. The analysis of the position of the German philosopher is complemented by Charles Taylor's reflections on the sources of the contemporary conceptions of subjectivity and related ethical conceptions considered in (...) their relation to the history of the discourse on madness - including psychoanalysis. The research results in showing the continuing validity of the conception proposed by Freud in the context of the development of the philosophical theories of subjectivity, as well as more detailed, conceptual problems concerning mental disorders. (shrink)
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