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  1.  44
    The Precautionary Principle and the Tolerability of Blood Transfusion Risks.Koen Kramer, Hans L. Zaaijer & Marcel F. Verweij - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (3):32-43.
    Tolerance for blood transfusion risks is very low, as evidenced by the implementation of expensive blood tests and the rejection of gay men as blood donors. Is this low risk tolerance supported by the precautionary principle, as defenders of such policies claim? We discuss three constraints on applying the precautionary principle and show that respecting these implies tolerating certain risks. Consistency means that the precautionary principle cannot prescribe precautions that it must simultaneously forbid taking, considering the harms they might cause. (...)
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  2.  58
    Donor Blood Screening and Moral Responsibility: How Safe Should Blood Be?Marcel Verweij & Koen Kramer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):187-191.
    Some screening tests for donor blood that are used by blood services to prevent transfusion-transmission of infectious diseases offer relatively few health benefits for the resources spent on them. Can good ethical arguments be provided for employing these tests nonetheless? This paper discusses—and ultimately rejects—three such arguments. According to the ‘rule of rescue’ argument, general standards for cost-effectiveness in healthcare may be ignored when rescuing identifiable individuals. The argument fails in this context, however, because we cannot identify beforehand who will (...)
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  3.  37
    An Inventory of Concerns Behind Blood Safety Policies in Five Western Countries.Koen Kramer, Marcel F. Verweij & Hans L. Zaaijer - unknown
    BACKGROUND: The availability of costly safety measures against transfusion-transmissible infections forces Western countries to confront difficult ethical questions. How to decide about implementing such measures? When are such decisions justified? As a preliminary to addressing these questions, we assessed which concerns shape actual donor blood safety policymaking in five Western countries. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Our qualitative study involved determining which issues had been discussed in advisory committee meetings and capturing these issues in general categories. Appropriate documents were identified in (...)
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  4.  11
    Interpreting and Applying the Precautionary Principle: A Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “The Precautionary Principle and the Tolerability of Blood Transfusion Risks”.Koen Kramer, Hans L. Zaaijer & Marcel F. Verweij - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (4):4-6.
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