44 found
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  1.  5
    Revising Cognitive and Evolutionary Science of Religion : Religion as an Adaptation.Konrad Szocik & Hans Van Eyghen - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
    This unique and pioneering book critically appraises current work from both the cognitive science of religion and the evolutionary study of religion. It addresses the question: Why does the believer possess supernatural or religious beliefs in the combined context of his cognitive biases, their adaptive usefulness measured in terms of survival and reproduction, and the impact of social learning and cultural traits? The authors outlines a pluralistic approach to the study of religion that does not treat religion as an accidental (...)
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  2.  35
    Ethical Challenges in Human Space Missions: A Space Refuge, Scientific Value, and Human Gene Editing for Space.Konrad Szocik, Ziba Norman & Michael J. Reiss - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1209-1227.
    This article examines some selected ethical issues in human space missions including human missions to Mars, particularly the idea of a space refuge, the scientific value of space exploration, and the possibility of human gene editing for deep-space travel. Each of these issues may be used either to support or to criticize human space missions. We conclude that while these issues are complex and context-dependent, there appear to be no overwhelming obstacles such as cost effectiveness, threats to human life or (...)
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  3.  9
    Adaptationist Accounts Can Tell Us More About Religion Than Cognitive Accounts Can.Konrad Szocik - 2018 - In Hans van Eyghen, Rik Peels & Gijsbert van den Brink (eds.), New Developments in the Cognitive Science of Religion - the Rationality of Religious Belief. Springer. pp. 93-108.
    Religious beliefs can be explained in two different ways, cognitive and adaptationist. Each of them is another kind of explanation, one is proximate and the other ultimate. Each of them provides the other with a specific status for religious beliefs, such as by-product or adaptation. However, there is no clarity of how cognition itself could be religiously biased and how the religious/theistic approach could work as a default cognitive mode, as Cognitive Science of Religion suggests. I would like to criticize (...)
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  4. Visions of a Martian Future.Konrad Szocik, Steven Abood, Chris Impey, Mark Shelhamer, Jacob Haqq-Misra, Erik Persson, Lluis Oviedo, Klara Anna Capova, Martin Braddock, Margaret Boone Rappaport & Christopher Corbally - 2020 - Futures 117.
    As we look beyond our terrestrial boundary to a multi-planetary future for humankind, it becomes paramount to anticipate the challenges of various human factors on the most likely scenario for this future: permanent human settlement of Mars. Even if technical hurdles are circumvented to provide adequate resources for basic physiological and psychological needs, Homo sapiens will not survive on an alien planet if a dysfunctional psyche prohibits the utilization of these resources. No matter how far we soar into the stars, (...)
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  5.  27
    Space bioethics: Why we need it and why it should be a feminist space bioethics.Konrad Szocik - 2020 - Bioethics 35 (2):187-191.
    Space philosophy offers rich insights in the future and is already well‐developed new branch of philosophy. However, space philosophers still do not pay much attention to a number of bioethical issues that may occur in space. This paper aims to introduce space bioethics, as a new branch in space philosophy, space ethics and space policy, to the philosophical and bioethical discourse. The basic issues discussed in space bioethics include—but are not limited to—human reproduction in space and human enhancement for space. (...)
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  6.  12
    The Human Factor in a Mission to Mars: An Interdisciplinary Approach.Konrad Szocik (ed.) - 2019 - Springer.
    A manned mission to Mars is faced with challenges and topics that may not be obvious but of great importance and challenging for such a mission. This is the first book that collects contributions from scholars in various fields, from astronomy and medicine, to theology and philosophy, addressing such topics. The discussion goes beyond medical and technological challenges of such a deep-space mission. The focus is on human nature, human emotions and biases in such a new environment. The primary audience (...)
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  7.  26
    Why Human Enhancement is Necessary for Successful Human Deep-space Missions.Konrad Szocik & Martin Braddock - 2019 - The New Bioethics 25 (4):295-317.
    While humans have made enormous progress in the exploration and exploitation of Earth, exploration of outer space remains beyond current human capabilities. The principal challenges lie in current space technology and engineering which includes the protection of astronauts from the hazards of working and living in the space environment. These challenges may lead to a paradoxical situation where progress in space technology and the ability to ensure acceptable risk/benefit for human space exploration becomes dissociated and the rate of scientific discovery (...)
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  8.  14
    Is Human Enhancement in Space a Moral Duty? Missions to Mars, Advanced AI and Genome Editing in Space.Konrad Szocik - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):122-130.
    :Any space program involving long-term human missions will have to cope with serious risks to human health and life. Because currently available countermeasures are insufficient in the long term, there is a need for new, more radical solutions. One possibility is a program of human enhancement for future deep space mission astronauts. This paper discusses the challenges for long-term human missions of a space environment, opening the possibility of serious consideration of human enhancement and a fully automated space exploration, based (...)
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  9.  5
    The final frontier: what is distinctive about the bioethics of space missions? The cases of human enhancement and human reproduction.Konrad Szocik & Michael J. Reiss - 2022 - Monash Bioethics Review 41 (2):87-102.
    We examine the bioethical issues that arise from long-duration space missions, asking what there is that is distinctive about such issues. We pay particular attention to the possibility that such space missions, certainly if they lead to self-sustaining space settlements, may require human enhancement, and examine the significance of reproduction in space for bioethics. We conclude that while space bioethics raises important issues to do with human survival and reproduction in very hazardous environments, it raises no issues that are distinct (...)
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  10.  11
    Sexual selection and religion: Can the evolution of religion be explained in terms of mating strategies?James A. Van Slyke & Konrad Szocik - 2020 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 42 (1):123-141.
    This article considers the application of sexual selection theory to the study of religion by discussing the basic concepts and theories in sexual selection and then outlines possibilities of its application to the study of the evolution of religion. The first section outlines basic principles in the sexual selection account, including the evolution of human mating strategies based on dimorphism, gender differences in human mating strategies, and the role of different cultural activities in mating dynamics. Such an overview may be (...)
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  11.  35
    Religion and religious beliefs as evolutionary adaptations.Konrad Szocik - 2017 - Zygon 52 (1):24-52.
    Scholars employing an evolutionary approach to the study of religion and religious beliefs search for ultimate explanations of the origin, propagation, and persistence of religious beliefs. This quest often pairs in debate two opposing perspectives: the adaptationist and “by-product” explanations of religion and religious beliefs. The majority of scholars prefer the by-product approach, which is agnostic and even doubtful of the usefulness of religious beliefs. Despite this pervasive negativity, it seems unwarranted to deny the great usefulness of religious beliefs—particularly concerning (...)
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  12.  24
    Critical remarks on the cognitive science of religion.Konrad Szocik - 2020 - Zygon 55 (1):157-184.
    Cognitive explanations of religious beliefs propose an evolutionary past in which humans had to possess certain cognitive adaptations to survive. The aim of this article is to show that some cognitive accounts may overvalue the putative role of cognition. One such cognitive idea is an assumption that cognition has been evolutionarily shaped only, or most importantly, in the Pleistocene. This idea seems common among writers on the cognitive science of religion (CSR), but is mistaken. Cognition has been shaped throughout evolution. (...)
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  13.  12
    Cognitive Enhancement Inevitably Leads to Discrimination against Women.Konrad Szocik - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):357-359.
    The paper titled “Cognitive Enhancement and Social Mobility: Skepticism from India,” written by Jayashree Dasgupta and colleagues (2023) is a very valuable addition to the Western discourse on huma...
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  14.  24
    Evolutionary Roots of Property Rights; The Natural and Cultural Nature of Human Cooperation.Konrad Szocik & Robert Herian - 2016 - Heythrop Journal 60 (6):821-831.
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  15.  3
    Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy.Konrad Szocik & Aneta Szyja - 2015 - Studia Humana 4 (4):13-22.
    The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland (...)
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  16.  7
    Research Approaches in the Study of Religion.Konrad Szocik - 2015 - Studia Humana 4 (1):26-35.
    Despite development of secular ideas and concepts in the Western world, we can observe increasing interest in the study of religion. However, this popularity of the study of religion and different research approaches has caused that in some sense scholars that were studying religion came to a dead point. Here I show that the most optimal research approach in the study of religion is pluralistic, integral paradigm which connects old traditional methods with naturalistic, cognitive and sometimes experimental approach.
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  17.  1
    Bioethics Interested in Environmental Justice Should First and Foremost Criticize Capitalism.Konrad Szocik - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):57-59.
    Environmental issues are rarely present in mainstream bioethics; the situation is somewhat better with feminist bioethics. The problem, then, is allowing a feminist perspective into mainstream bioe...
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  18. Ateistyczne nurty filozofii Oświecenia. Wpływ skrajnego materializmu i racjonalizmu.Konrad Szocik - 2013 - Rocznik Filozoficzny Ignatianum 19 (1).
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  19. The Human Factor in the Settlement of the Moon: An Interdisciplinary Approach.Margaret Boone Rappaport & Konrad Szocik (eds.) - 2021 - New York, NY: Springer.
    Approaching the settlement of our Moon from a practical perspective, this book is well suited for space program planners. It addresses a variety of human factor topics involved in colonizing Earth's Moon, including: history, philosophy, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine, politics & policy, sociology, and anthropology. Each chapter identifies the complex, interdisciplinary issues of the human factor that arise in the early phases of settlement on the Moon. Besides practical issues, there is some emphasis placed on preserving, protecting, and experiencing the (...)
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  20. Awangarda a zaangażowanie Petera Burgera.Konrad Szocik - 2010 - Estetyka I Krytyka 19 (2):267-270.
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  21.  1
    Ateistyczne implikacje anglojęzycznego sensualizmu, empiryzmu i deizmu.Konrad Szocik - 2013 - Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Philosophica. Ethica-Aesthetica-Practica 26:79-93.
    This paper shows one of the important philosophical current of modern "resolution of the mind". Philosophical ideas of Locke, Hume and Hobbes were caused modern and contemporary change of paradigm from theistic to atheistic and agnostic.Theistic claims, even if were affirmed by these thinkers, were not consequences of their pfilosophical thesis. Sensualism and materialism, idnicated as natural starting point for philosophy, became ideological basis for period of radical critique of religion and atheism.
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  22.  8
    Biomedical Moral Enhancement for Human Space Missions.Konrad Szocik - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (4):1-9.
    Biomedical moral enhancement is an idea which states that human moral intuitions and patterns may be artificially improved by biomedical means. The rationale which lies behind moral bioenhancement is rooted in the idea that humans – in a moral and behavioral sense – are not evolutionally adapted to current ecological challenges. This idea is discussed in the paper in relation to human space missions to Mars and beyond. Because the space environment is a hazardous environment, there are some reasons to (...)
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  23.  3
    Conceptual Issues in COVID-19 Pandemic: An Example of Global Catastrophic Risk.Konrad Szocik - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (1):199-202.
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  24. Estetyka poza estetyką Wolfganga welscha.Konrad Szocik - forthcoming - Estetyka I Krytyka 15 (15/16):331-334.
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  25. Fichteańskie „Wissenschaftslehre” i filozofia wiary jako czynniki generujące ateistyczny charakter idealizmu.Konrad Szocik - 2013 - Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia 8 (3).
     
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  26. HEGEL JAKO OŚWIECENIOWY KRYTYK RELIGII POZYTYWNYCH. POZYTYWNOŚĆ RELIGII CHRZEŚCIJAŃSKIEJ A ZAKWESTIONOWANIE WARTOŚCI RELIGII OBJAWIONEJ.Konrad Szocik - 2013 - Hybris, Revista de Filosofí­A (23):001-012.
    HEGEL AS THE CRITIC OF POSITIVE RELIGIONS. THE POSITIVITY OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION AND CONTESTATION OF VALUE OF REVEALED RELIGION Hegel had radically criticized positive religion. Its comparison with natural religions showed abstract and transcendent understanding Divinity and its concentration on rites and rituals. Hegel underlined ethical implications of positive religion, searching for negative influence of religion on individual and social life. Hegel’s critique is important moment of progress of critical, modern philosophical thought.
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  27.  10
    Human Place in the Outer Space: Skeptical Remarks.Konrad Szocik - 2019 - In The Human Factor in a Mission to Mars: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Springer.
    The most skeptical contribution to this volume enumerates and discusses a broad set of challenges connected with the so-called human factor in a mission to Mars. Discussed issues include rationales for a human versus uncrewed mission, financial challenges affected mostly by unclear and weak rationales for human mission, challenges of sustainable development, complex hazardous impacts of space environment for human mental, and physiological health. The last of the discussed challenges, the idea of human enhancement applied for the purpose of human (...)
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  28.  18
    Krytyka epistemicznej funkcji przekonań religijnych w świetle kognitywnych nauk o religii.Konrad Szocik - 2016 - Diametros 50:63-80.
    Religious beliefs and religion are usually interpreted in terms of their social functionality and motivating social cooperation, as well as in terms of their alleged truthfulness. Here I suggest interpreting religious beliefs and religion with regard to their psychological function. I claim that their pro-social function is an accidental property, reducible to some mechanisms of tribal psychology, rather than a feature of religion itself. I emphasize that the epistemic function is not the main function of religious beliefs and religion. These (...)
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  29. Krytyka instytucji kościoła i relacji państwo–kościół w filozofii Kierkegaarda.Konrad Szocik - 2008 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 65.
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  30.  5
    Krytyka religii pozytywnej w filozofii Hegla.Konrad Szocik - 2014 - Studia Z Historii Filozofii 5 (1):111-123.
    This paper recalls a less known aspect of Hegelian philosophy of religion consisting in the radical critique of Christendom. Hegel criticized first of all Roman Catholic Church unlike Protestantism. Hegel underlined no biblical legitimization of church institution and therefore interpreted Christianity as a voluntary association but not as a mass institution. He also indicated negative implications of positive religion’s ethics. His views were characteristic for critical philosophy of religion developer since the 17th till the 19th century. Today Hegel’s views may (...)
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  31. Ludwig Feuerbach – twórca nowoczesnego ateizmu.Konrad Szocik - 2010 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 74.
     
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  32.  11
    Reliability and Adaptability of Religious Beliefs in the Light of Cognitive Science of Religion.Konrad Szocik - 2016 - Studia Humana 5 (4):64-73.
    Cognitive approach towards the study of religion is a good and promising way. However, I think that this approach is too narrow and it would be better to use some basic concepts of CSR as a starting point for further, not cognitive explanation of religious. I suppose that religious beliefs should be explained also by their pragmatic functions because they were probably always associated with some pragmatic purposes at the group or at the individual levels. To develop further this last (...)
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  33. Religia i ateizm w filozofii średniowiecznej.Konrad Szocik - 2010 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 46 (2):208-218.
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  34. Radykalna krytyka Kościoła w filozofii Hegla jako wyraz obrony etycznej i intelektualnej autonomii jednostki.Konrad Szocik - 2013 - Nowa Krytyka 29.
     
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  35.  7
    Selfishness and Cooperation: Challenge for Social Life.Konrad Szocik & Stig Lindberg - 2017 - Studia Humana 6 (3):15-23.
    Cooperation is a great challenge for natural selection. Some scholars assume that cooperation could not evolve within the framework of natural selection. It is undeniable that natural selection, at least at the individual level, favors selfishness and defectors. Nonetheless, this selfish tendency does not necessarily imply that cooperation could not evolve by means of natural selection. In this paper, we specifically acknowledge certain basic challenges for the evolution of the human ability to cooperate at the level of large groups. In (...)
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  36.  2
    The evolution of puritanical morality has not always served to strengthen cooperation, but to reinforce male dominance and exclude women.Konrad Szocik - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e316.
    Puritanical morality regulates a range of seemingly insignificant behaviors, including those involving human sexuality. A sizable portion of the latter particularly burdens women, who are held responsible for the moral conduct of men. In my paper, I show that these norms have not necessarily served to evolve cooperation, but to subjugate and eliminate women from public life.
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  37.  6
    The Ethical Status of Germline Gene Editing in Future Space Missions: The Special Case of Positive Selection on Earth for Future Space Missions.Konrad Szocik - 2023 - NanoEthics 17 (1):1-10.
    There are good theoretical rationales for considering germline gene editing (GGE) as a recommended and perhaps even necessary procedure for future long-term human space missions. This paper examines the arguments for applying GGE in a hypothetical future scenario where future parents living on Earth make decisions about applying GGE to their future children with the goal of allowing them to participate in space missions. The paper presents an ethical rationale for GGE. The paper also recognizes an area of potential moral (...)
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  38. Traktat o trzech oszustach: Mojżeszu, Jezusie i Mahomecie jako przykład radykalnej krytyki religii pozytywnych.Konrad Szocik - 2013 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 85 (1):127-135.
     
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  39.  37
    The revelation of superintelligence.Konrad Szocik, Bartłomiej Tkacz & Patryk Gulczyński - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):755-758.
    The idea of superintelligence is a source of mainly philosophical and ethical considerations. Those considerations are rooted in the idea that an entity which is more intelligent than humans, may evolve in some point in the future. For obvious reasons, the superintelligence is considered as a kind of existential threat for humanity. In this essay, we discuss two ideas. One of them is the putative nature of future superintelligence which does not necessary need to be harmful for humanity. Our key (...)
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  40.  5
    The “staying alive” theory reinforces stereotypes and shows women's lower quality of life.Konrad Szocik - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Staying alive theory explains why women have more effective self-protective mechanisms in terms of woman's role as a mother and caregiver. This theory reinforces stereotypes and the relationship of oppression and submission to men. Somewhat paradoxically, it also points to women's lower quality of life, which may be explained by their greater fear of threats caused by men's power.
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  41.  10
    Wars and Conflicts are Only Randomly Connected with Religion and Religious Beliefs. An Outline of Historical, Cognitive, and Evolutionary Approach.Konrad Szocik - 2016 - Studia Humana 5 (2):37-46.
    Many scholars that study of religion and religious beliefs find that they affect behavioral patterns. Some of them suggest that this impact is morally wrong because religion and religious beliefs can cause aggression, conflicts, and wars. However, it seems that this topic is more complicated and complex. Here I show that religion and religious beliefs can affect mentioned above morally wrong patterns only in some particular cases. Usually they do not do it. Here I show an outline of philosophical historical (...)
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  42.  1
    Why catastrophic events, human enhancement and progress in robotics may limit individual health rights.Konrad Szocik - 2022 - Monash Bioethics Review 40 (2):219-230.
    AbstractDespite the fact that people usually believe that individual health rights have an intrinsic value, they have, in fact, only extrinsic value. They are context dependent. While in normal conditions the current societies try to guarantee individual health rights, the challenge arises in emergency situations. Ones of them are pandemics including current covid-19 pandemic. Emergency situations challenge individual health rights due to insufficient medical resources and non-random criteria of selection of patients. However, there are some reasons to assume that societal (...)
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  43.  2
    Znaczenie religii w ateistycznej filozofii Hegla.Konrad Szocik - 2023 - Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Philosophica. Ethica-Aesthetica-Practica 25:101-110.
    Hegel's philosophy of religion is typical for critical philosophy of Enlightenment. Hegel treats about religion as an earlier and less developed form of human mind. Religion is product of culture, society and mythological mind, which is connected with emotions and imagination.
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  44.  18
    Multi-Level Challenges in a Long-Term Human Space Program. The Case of Manned Mission to Mars.Bartłomiej Tkacz & Konrad Szocik - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (2):24-30.
    Yuri Gagarin has started the first time in human history the manned mission in space when his Vostok aircraft successfully achieved Earth orbit in 1961. Since his times, human space programs did not develop too much, and the biggest achievement still remain landing on the Moon. Despite this stagnation, there are serious plans to launch manned mission to Mars including human space settlement. In out paper, we are going to identify and discuss a couple of challenges that – in our (...)
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