Results for 'Kristen Dunbar'

504 found
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  1.  33
    Using Experience Sampling to Examine Links Between Compassion, Eudaimonia, and Prosocial Behavior.Jason D. Runyan, Brian N. Fry, Timothy A. Steenbergh, Nathan L. Arbuckle, Kristen Dunbar & Erin E. Devers - forthcoming - Journal of Personality.
    Objective: Compassion has been associated with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior, and has been regarded as a virtue, both historically and cross-culturally. However, the psychological study of compassion has been limited to laboratory settings and/or standard survey assessments. Here, we use an experience sampling method (ESM) to compare naturalistic assessments of compassion with standard assessments, and to examine compassion, its variability, and associations with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior. -/- Methods: Participants took a survey which included standard assessments of compassion and eudaimonia. (...)
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  2. Evolution of Social Behaviour Patterns in Primates and Man.W. G. Runciman, John Smith & R. I. M. Dunbar (eds.) - 1996 - British Academy.
    Introduction, W G Runciman Social Evolution in Primates: The Role of Ecological Factors and Male Behaviour, Carel P van Schaik Determinants of Group Size in Primates: A General Model, R I M Dunbar Function and Intention in the Calls of Non-Human Primates, Dorothy L Cheney & Robert M Seyfarth Why Culture is Common, but Cultural Evolution is Rare, Robert Boyd & Peter J Richerson An Evolutionary and Chronological Framework for Human Social Behaviour, Robert A Foley Friendship and the Banker?s (...)
     
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  3. A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework for Understanding Causal Reasoning and the Law.Jonathan A. Fugelsang & Kevin N. Dunbar - 2006 - In Semir Zeki & Oliver Goodenough (eds.), Law and the Brain. Oxford University Press. pp. 157--166.
  4.  16
    Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size and Language in Humans.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):681-694.
    Group size is a function of relative neocortical volume in nonhuman primates. Extrapolation from this regression equation yields a predicted group size for modern humans very similar to that of certain hunter-gatherer and traditional horticulturalist societies. Groups of similar size are also found in other large-scale forms of contemporary and historical society. Among primates, the cohesion of groups is maintained by social grooming; the time devoted to social grooming is linearly related to group size among the Old World monkeys and (...)
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  5.  5
    On the Control of Automatic Processes: A Parallel Distributed Processing Account of the Stroop Effect.Jonathan D. Cohen, Kevin Dunbar & James L. McClelland - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (3):332-361.
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  6.  3
    The Modern Mind: Its Missing Parts?R. I. M. Dunbar - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):758.
  7.  5
    Dual Space Search During Scientific Reasoning.David Klahr & Kevin Dunbar - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (1):1-48.
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  8.  9
    Concept Discovery in a Scientific Domain.Kevin Dunbar - 1993 - Cognitive Science 17 (3):397-434.
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  9.  24
    Social Network Size in Humans.R. A. Hill & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2003 - Human Nature 14 (1):53-72.
    This paper examines social network size in contemporary Western society based on the exchange of Christmas cards. Maximum network size averaged 153.5 individuals, with a mean network size of 124.9 for those individuals explicitly contacted; these values are remarkably close to the group size of 150 predicted for humans on the basis of the size of their neocortex. Age, household type, and the relationship to the individual influence network structure, although the proportion of kin remained relatively constant at around 21%. (...)
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  10.  38
    The in Vivo/in Vitro Approach to Cognition: The Case of Analogy.Kevin Dunbar & Isabelle Blanchette - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (8):334-339.
  11.  55
    How Scientists Think: On-Line Creativity and Conceptual Change in Science.Kevin Dunbar - 1997 - In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith & J. Viad (eds.), Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. American Psychological Association. pp. 461--493.
  12. Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology.Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in this fast-growing area of research. With contributions from over fifty experts in the field, the range and depth of coverage is unequalled. In addition to well studied areas of investigation, such as mate choice and reproduction, the volume also includes chapters on the philosophical underpinnings of evolutionary psychology, comparative perspectives from other species, recent neurobiological findings, and gets to grips with the issue of cultural evolution (...)
     
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  13.  7
    The Complexity of Jokes Is Limited by Cognitive Constraints on Mentalizing.R. I. M. Dunbar, Jacques Launay & Oliver Curry - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (2):130-140.
  14.  1
    What Shall We Talk about in Farsi?Mahdi Dahmardeh & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):423-433.
    Previous empirical studies have suggested that language is primarily used to exchange social information, but our evidence on this derives mainly from English speakers. We present data from a study of natural conversations among Farsi speakers in Iran and show that not only are conversation groups the same size as those observed in Europe and North America, but people also talk predominantly about social topics. We argue that these results reinforce the suggestion that language most likely evolved for the transmission (...)
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  15. Causal Thinking in Science: How Scientists and Students Interpret the Unexpected.K. Dunbar & J. Fugelsang - 2005 - In M. Gorman, R. Tweney, D. Gooding & A. Kincannon (eds.), Scientific and Technological Thinking. Erlbaum. pp. 57--79.
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  16.  26
    A Single-Stage Approach to Learning Phonological Categories: Insights From Inuktitut.Brian Dillon, Ewan Dunbar & William Idsardi - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (2):344-377.
    To acquire one’s native phonological system, language-specific phonological categories and relationships must be extracted from the input. The acquisition of the categories and relationships has each in its own right been the focus of intense research. However, it is remarkable that research on the acquisition of categories and the relations between them has proceeded, for the most part, independently of one another. We argue that this has led to the implicit view that phonological acquisition is a “two-stage” process: Phonetic categories (...)
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  17.  26
    Human Conversational Behavior.Robin I. M. Dunbar, Anna Marriott & Neil D. C. Duncan - 1997 - Human Nature 8 (3):231-246.
  18. Mind the Gap: Or Why Humans Aren't Just Great Apes.R. I. M. Dunbar - 2008 - In Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 154, 2007 Lectures. pp. 403-423.
     
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  19. Methodological Triangulation in Nursing Research.Mark Risjord, Margaret Moloney & Sandra Dunbar - 2001 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (1):40-59.
    Methodological triangulation is the use of more than one method to investigate a phenomenon. Nurse researchers investigate health phenomena using methods drawn from the natural and social sciences. The methodological debate concerns the possibility of confirming a single theory with different kinds of methods. The nursing debate parallels the philosophical debate about how the natural and social sciences are related. This article critiques the presuppositions of the nursing debate and suggests alternatives. The consequence is a view of triangulation that permits (...)
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  20. The Scientist in Vivo: How Scientists Think and Reason in the Laboratory.Kevin Dunbar - 1999 - In L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Kluwer/Plenum. pp. 89--98.
     
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  21.  1
    Resource Competition and Reproduction.Eckart Voland & R. I. M. Dunbar - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (1):33-49.
    A family reconstitution study of the Krummhörn population (Ostfriesland, Germany, 1720–1874) reveals that infant mortality and children’s probabilities of marrying or emigrating unmarried are affected by the number of living same-sexed sibs in farmers’ families but not in the families of landless laborers. We interpret these results in terms of a “local resource competition” model in which resource-holding families are obliged to manipulate the reproductive future of their offspring. In contrast, families that lack resources have no need to manipulate their (...)
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  22.  39
    Emotional Engagement in Professional Ethics.W. Scott Dunbar - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (4):535-551.
    Recent results from two different studies show evidence of strong emotional engagement in moral dilemmas that require personal involvement or ethical problems that involve significant inter-personal issues. This empirical evidence for a connection between emotional engagement and moral or ethical choices is interesting because it is related to a fundamental survival mechanism rooted in human evolution. The results lead one to question when and how emotional engagement might occur in a professional ethical situation. However, the studies employed static dilemmas or (...)
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  23.  10
    Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?Oliver Curry & Robin I. M. Dunbar - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (3):336-347.
    Cooperation requires that individuals are able to identify, and preferentially associate with, others who have compatible preferences and the shared background knowledge needed to solve interpersonal coordination problems. The present study investigates the nature of such similarity within social networks, asking: What do friends have in common? And what is the relationship between similarity and altruism? The results show that similarity declines with frequency of contact; similarity in general is a significant predictor of altruism and emotional closeness; and, specifically, sharing (...)
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  24.  84
    The Small World of Shakespeare's Plays.James Stiller, Daniel Nettle & Robin I. M. Dunbar - 2003 - Human Nature 14 (4):397-408.
    Drama, at least according to the Aristotelian view, is effective inasmuch as it successfully mirrors real aspects of human behavior. This leads to the hypothesis that successful dramas will portray fictional social networks that have the same properties as those typical of human beings across ages and cultures. We outline a methodology for investigating this hypothesis and use it to examine ten of Shakespeare’s plays. The cliques and groups portrayed in the plays correspond closely to those which have been observed (...)
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  25.  35
    The Social Brain Meets Neuroimaging.Robin Im Dunbar - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (2):101-102.
  26.  9
    Clique Size and Network Characteristics in Hyperlink Cinema.Jaimie Arona Krems & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (4):414-429.
    Hyperlink cinema is an emergent film genre that seeks to push the boundaries of the medium in order to mirror contemporary life in the globalized community. Films in the genre thus create an interacting network across space and time in such a way as to suggest that people’s lives can intersect on scales that would not have been possible without modern technologies of travel and communication. This allows us to test the hypothesis that new kinds of media might permit us (...)
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  27.  20
    The Anatomy of Friendship.R. I. M. Dunbar - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (1):32-51.
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  28.  8
    The Microbiome in Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience.Amar Sarkar, Siobhán Harty, Soili M. Lehto, Andrew H. Moeller, Timothy G. Dinan, Robin I. M. Dunbar, John F. Cryan & Philip W. J. Burnet - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (7):611-636.
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  29.  7
    Evolution and the Social Sciences.Robin I. M. Dunbar - 2007 - History of the Human Sciences 20 (2):29-50.
    When the social sciences parted company from evolutionary biology almost exactly a century ago, they did so at a time when evolutionary biology was still very much in its infancy and many key issues were unresolved. As a result, the social sciences took away with them an understanding of evolution that was in fact based on 18th- rather than 19th-century biology. I argue that contemporary evolutionary thinking has much more to offer the social sciences than most people have assumed. Contemporary (...)
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  30.  3
    No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability Among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.Benjamin C. Trumble, Steven J. C. Gaulin, Matt D. Dunbar, Hillard Kaplan & Michael Gurven - forthcoming - Human Nature.
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  31.  1
    Managing Relationship Decay.Sam B. G. Roberts & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2015 - Human Nature 26 (4):426-450.
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  32.  11
    Social Networks, Support Cliques, and Kinship.R. I. M. Dunbar & M. Spoors - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (3):273-290.
    Data on the number of adults that an individual contacts at least once a month in a set of British populations yield estimates of network sizes that correspond closely to those of the typical “sympathy group” size in humans. Men and women do not differ in their total network size, but women have more females and more kin in their networks than men do. Kin account for a significantly higher proportion of network members than would be expected by chance. The (...)
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  33.  19
    On the Origin of the Human Mind.Robin Dunbar - 2000 - In Peter Carruthers & A. Chamberlain (eds.), Evolution and the Human Mind: Modularity, Language and Meta-Cognition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 238--53.
  34.  8
    Size and Structure of Freely Forming Conversational Groups.R. I. M. Dunbar, N. D. C. Duncan & D. Nettle - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (1):67-78.
    Data from various settings suggest that there is an upper limit of about four on the number of individuals who can interact in spontaneous conversation. This limit appears to be a consequence of the mechanisms of speech production and detection. There appear to be no differences between men and women in this respect, other than those introduced by women’s lighter voices.
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  35. Communication – Putting the Manners Into Management.David Dunbar - 2014 - Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education 18 (3):84-89.
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  36.  9
    The Trouble with Science.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1996 - Harvard University Press.
    Science is not a great way to make money, or these days, even a job. But there are great riches in it, and in this book too. Tim Bradford, 'New Scientist'.
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  37.  14
    Who Dares, Wins.Susan Kelly & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2001 - Human Nature 12 (2):89-105.
    Heroism is apparently nonadaptive in Darwinian terms, so why does it exist at all? Risk-taking and heroic behavior are predominantly male tendencies, and literature and legend reflect this. This study explores the possibility that heroism persists in many human cultures owing to a female preference for risk-prone rather than risk-averse males as sexual partners, and it suggests that such a preference may be exploited as a male mating strategy. It also attempts to quantify the relative influences of altruism and bravery (...)
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  38.  9
    Understanding the Role of Cognition in Science: The Science as Category Framework.Kevin Dunbar - 2002 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen P. Stich & Michael Siegal (eds.), The Cognitive Basis of Science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 154--170.
  39.  22
    Ethics in Indigenous Research – Connecting with Community.Terry Dunbar & Margaret Scrimgeour - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (3):179-185.
    The challenge for those responsible for funding, brokering and assessing the merit of proposed Indigenous research is to identify and then work co-operatively with appropriate representatives of Indigenous interests in order to increase the flow of benefits from research to Indigenous peoples. Experience in Australia has shown that this is not a straightforward process. In this paper we indicate some reasons why it is important for the research community to broker research with representative Indigenous organisations and to involve Indigenous peoples (...)
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  40.  13
    Towards a Cognitive Analysis of Polysemy, Ambiguity, and Vagueness.George Dunbar - 2001 - Cognitive Linguistics 12 (1):1-14.
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  41.  50
    On Visibility: AIDS, Deception by Patients, and the Responsibility of the Doctor.S. Dunbar & S. Rehm - 1992 - Journal of Medical Ethics 18 (4):180-185.
    Contrary to the usual discussion of lying or deceiving in medical ethics literature where the lying or deceiving is done by the doctor or surgeon, this paper deals with lying or deceiving on the part of the patient. Three cases involving HIV-infected male homosexual or bisexual persons are presented. In each case the patient deceives or wants the doctor to deceive a third party on his behalf. Are such deceptions or lies expressions of compassion? Are they in the patient's best (...)
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  42.  35
    An Obstructed Death and Medical Ethics.S. Dunbar - 1990 - Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (2):83-92.
    In this case analysis deception or lying to a dying patient is discussed within the context of different relationships: the relationship between the patient and her family doctor, the relationship between the patient and the surgeon and the relationship between the patient and her family. It is suggested that the principle of veracity is not only a core feature in the patient-doctor relationship but is also fundamentally connected with the basic element of trust between the patient and doctor. The surgeon, (...)
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  43.  12
    Bayle, Jurieu, and the Dictionnaire Historique Et Critique by Mara van der Lugt. [REVIEW]Irwin Kristen - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (3):547-548.
    Scholars in history and philosophy know the extraordinary difficulty of producing original research that is simultaneously creative, well-documented, and methodologically rigorous. But this is exactly what Mara van der Lugt manages in her recent book, a comprehensive treatment of Pierre Bayle's magnum opus. Reading Bayle is not for the faint of heart; he is a complex thinker with a controversial legacy. Van der Lugt exhibits appropriate caution, and though other interpreters have professed similar caution, van der Lugt's methodological commitments necessitate (...)
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  44.  5
    Causal Reasoning, Mental Rehearsal, and the Evolution of Primate Cognition.Robin Im Dunbar - 2000 - In Celia Heyes & Ludwig Huber (eds.), The Evolution of Cognition. MIT Press.
  45.  33
    Examining the Representation of Causal Knowledge.Jonathan A. Fugelsang, Valerie A. Thompson & Kevin N. Dunbar - 2006 - Thinking and Reasoning 12 (1):1 – 30.
    Three experiments investigated reasoners' beliefs about causal powers; that is, their beliefs about the capacity of a putative cause to produce a given effect. Covariation-based theories (e.g., Cheng, 1997; Kelley, 1973; Novick & Cheng, 2004) posit that beliefs in causal power are represented in terms of the degree of covariation between the cause and its effect; covariation is defined in terms of the degree to which the effect occurs in the presence of the cause, and fails tooccur in the absence (...)
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  46. Social Networks and Social Complexity in Female-Bonded Primates.Julia Lehmann, Katherine Andrews & Robin Dunbar - 2010 - In Social Brain, Distributed Mind. pp. 57.
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  47.  7
    Selfishness Reexamined.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):700.
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  48.  2
    Childlessness Predicts Helping of Nieces and Nephews in United States, 1910.Thomas V. Pollet & Robin I. M. Dunbar - 2008 - Journal of Biosocial Science 40 (5):761-770.
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  49. The Psychology of Scientific Discovery: Search in Two Problem Spaces.D. Klahr & K. Dunbar - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12:1-48.
     
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  50.  17
    A Paradigm for Investigating Executive Control Mechanisms in Word Retrieval in Language-Impaired and Neurotypical Speakers.Middleton Erica, Schwartz Myrna, Graziano Kristen, Brown Danielle & Nozari Nazbanou - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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