Results for 'Kristen Dunbar'

560 found
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  1. Using Experience Sampling to Examine Links Between Compassion, Eudaimonia, and Prosocial Behavior.Jason D. Runyan, Brian N. Fry, Timothy A. Steenbergh, Nathan L. Arbuckle, Kristen Dunbar & Erin E. Devers - 2019 - Journal of Personality 87 (3):690-701.
    Objective: Compassion has been associated with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior, and has been regarded as a virtue, both historically and cross-culturally. However, the psychological study of compassion has been limited to laboratory settings and/or standard survey assessments. Here, we use an experience sampling method (ESM) to compare naturalistic assessments of compassion with standard assessments, and to examine compassion, its variability, and associations with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior. -/- Methods: Participants took a survey which included standard assessments of compassion and eudaimonia. (...)
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  2.  5
    Dunbar’s Number Goes to Church: The Social Brain Hypothesis as a Third Strand in the Study of Church Growth.R. Bretherton & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2020 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 42 (1):63-76.
    The study of church growth has historically been divided into two strands of research: the Church Growth Movement and the Social Science approach. This article argues that Dunbar’s Social Brain Hypothesis represents a legitimate and fruitful third strand in the study of church growth, sharing features of both previous strands but identical with neither. We argue that five predictions derived from the Social Brain Hypothesis are accurately borne out in the empirical and practical church growth literature: that larger congregations (...)
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  3. Evolution of Social Behaviour Patterns in Primates and Man.W. G. Runciman, John Smith & R. I. M. Dunbar (eds.) - 1996 - British Academy.
    Introduction, W G Runciman Social Evolution in Primates: The Role of Ecological Factors and Male Behaviour, Carel P van Schaik Determinants of Group Size in Primates: A General Model, R I M Dunbar Function and Intention in the Calls of Non-Human Primates, Dorothy L Cheney & Robert M Seyfarth Why Culture is Common, but Cultural Evolution is Rare, Robert Boyd & Peter J Richerson An Evolutionary and Chronological Framework for Human Social Behaviour, Robert A Foley Friendship and the Banker?s (...)
     
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  4. A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework for Understanding Causal Reasoning and the Law.Jonathan A. Fugelsang & Kevin N. Dunbar - 2006 - In Semir Zeki & Oliver Goodenough (eds.), Law and the Brain. Oxford University Press. pp. 157--166.
  5.  34
    Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size and Language in Humans.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):681-694.
    Group size is a function of relative neocortical volume in nonhuman primates. Extrapolation from this regression equation yields a predicted group size for modern humans very similar to that of certain hunter-gatherer and traditional horticulturalist societies. Groups of similar size are also found in other large-scale forms of contemporary and historical society. Among primates, the cohesion of groups is maintained by social grooming; the time devoted to social grooming is linearly related to group size among the Old World monkeys and (...)
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  6.  15
    On the Control of Automatic Processes: A Parallel Distributed Processing Account of the Stroop Effect.Jonathan D. Cohen, Kevin Dunbar & James L. McClelland - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (3):332-361.
  7.  17
    Dual Space Search During Scientific Reasoning.David Klahr & Kevin Dunbar - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (1):1-48.
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  8.  1
    Revising Ethical Guidance for the Evaluation of Programmes and Interventions Not Initiated by Researchers.Samuel I. Watson, Mary Dixon-Woods, Celia A. Taylor, Emily B. Wroe, Elizabeth L. Dunbar, Peter J. Chilton & Richard J. Lilford - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (1):26-30.
    Public health and service delivery programmes, interventions and policies are typically developed and implemented for the primary purpose of effecting change rather than generating knowledge. Nonetheless, evaluations of these programmes may produce valuable learning that helps determine effectiveness and costs as well as informing design and implementation of future programmes. Such studies might be termed ‘opportunistic evaluations’, since they are responsive to emergent opportunities rather than being studies of interventions that are initiated or designed by researchers. However, current ethical guidance (...)
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  9.  21
    Concept Discovery in a Scientific Domain.Kevin Dunbar - 1993 - Cognitive Science 17 (3):397-434.
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  10.  42
    Social Network Size in Humans.R. A. Hill & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2003 - Human Nature 14 (1):53-72.
    This paper examines social network size in contemporary Western society based on the exchange of Christmas cards. Maximum network size averaged 153.5 individuals, with a mean network size of 124.9 for those individuals explicitly contacted; these values are remarkably close to the group size of 150 predicted for humans on the basis of the size of their neocortex. Age, household type, and the relationship to the individual influence network structure, although the proportion of kin remained relatively constant at around 21%. (...)
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  11.  37
    The Anatomy of Friendship.R. I. M. Dunbar - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (1):32-51.
  12.  9
    The Modern Mind: Its Missing Parts?R. I. M. Dunbar - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):758-759.
  13.  69
    How Scientists Think: On-Line Creativity and Conceptual Change in Science.Kevin Dunbar - 1997 - In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith & J. Viad (eds.), Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. American Psychological Association. pp. 461--493.
  14. Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology.Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology is the definitive, comprehensive, and authoritative text on this burgeoning field. With contributions from over fifty experts in the field, the range and depth of coverage is unequalled. It will be an essential resource for students and researchers in psychology.
     
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  15.  16
    Altruism in Social Networks: Evidence for a 'Kinship Premium'.Oliver Curry, Sam G. B. Roberts & Robin I. M. Dunbar - unknown
    Why and under what conditions are individuals altruistic to family and friends in their social networks? Evolutionary psychology suggests that such behaviour is primarily the product of adaptations for kin- and reciprocal altruism, dependent on the degree of genetic relatedness and exchange of benefits, respectively. For this reason, individuals are expected to be more altruistic to family members than to friends: whereas family members can be the recipients of kin and reciprocal altruism, friends can be the recipients of reciprocal altruism (...)
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  16.  49
    The in Vivo/in Vitro Approach to Cognition: The Case of Analogy.Kevin Dunbar & Isabelle Blanchette - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (8):334-339.
  17.  6
    Religion, the Social Brain and the Mystical Stance.Rim Dunbar - 2020 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 42 (1):46-62.
    This article explores the implications of the social brain and the endorphin-based bonding mechanism that underpins it for the evolution of religion. I argue that religion evolved as one of the behavioural mechanisms designed to facilitate community bonding when humans first evolved the larger social groups of ~150 that now characterise our species. This is not a matter of facilitating cooperation, but of engineering social cohesion – a very different problem. Analysis of the size of C19th utopian communities suggests that (...)
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  18.  57
    A Single-Stage Approach to Learning Phonological Categories: Insights From Inuktitut.Brian Dillon, Ewan Dunbar & William Idsardi - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (2):344-377.
    To acquire one’s native phonological system, language-specific phonological categories and relationships must be extracted from the input. The acquisition of the categories and relationships has each in its own right been the focus of intense research. However, it is remarkable that research on the acquisition of categories and the relations between them has proceeded, for the most part, independently of one another. We argue that this has led to the implicit view that phonological acquisition is a “two-stage” process: Phonetic categories (...)
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  19. Mind the Gap: Or Why Humans Aren't Just Great Apes.R. I. M. Dunbar - 2008 - In Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 154, 2007 Lectures. pp. 403-423.
  20.  12
    The Complexity of Jokes Is Limited by Cognitive Constraints on Mentalizing.R. I. M. Dunbar, Jacques Launay & Oliver Curry - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (2):130-140.
  21. Causal Thinking in Science: How Scientists and Students Interpret the Unexpected.K. Dunbar & J. Fugelsang - 2005 - In M. Gorman, R. Tweney, D. Gooding & A. Kincannon (eds.), Scientific and Technological Thinking. Erlbaum. pp. 57--79.
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  22.  33
    Human Conversational Behavior.Robin I. M. Dunbar, Anna Marriott & Neil D. C. Duncan - 1997 - Human Nature 8 (3):231-246.
  23. Methodological Triangulation in Nursing Research.Mark Risjord, Margaret Moloney & Sandra Dunbar - 2001 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (1):40-59.
    Methodological triangulation is the use of more than one method to investigate a phenomenon. Nurse researchers investigate health phenomena using methods drawn from the natural and social sciences. The methodological debate concerns the possibility of confirming a single theory with different kinds of methods. The nursing debate parallels the philosophical debate about how the natural and social sciences are related. This article critiques the presuppositions of the nursing debate and suggests alternatives. The consequence is a view of triangulation that permits (...)
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  24.  1
    The Psychology of Scientific Discovery: Search in Two Problem Spaces.David Klahr & Kevin Dunbar - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (1):1-48.
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  25.  20
    The Microbiome in Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience.Amar Sarkar, Siobhán Harty, Soili M. Lehto, Andrew H. Moeller, Timothy G. Dinan, Robin I. M. Dunbar, John F. Cryan & Philip W. J. Burnet - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (7):611-636.
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  26.  2
    Strategies to Maximize the Involvement of Undergraduates in Publishable Research at an R2 University.Gary L. Dunbar - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  27.  15
    The Trouble with Science.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1996 - Harvard University Press.
    Science is not a great way to make money, or these days, even a job. But there are great riches in it, and in this book too. Tim Bradford, 'New Scientist'.
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  28.  23
    Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?Oliver Curry & Robin I. M. Dunbar - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (3):336-347.
    Cooperation requires that individuals are able to identify, and preferentially associate with, others who have compatible preferences and the shared background knowledge needed to solve interpersonal coordination problems. The present study investigates the nature of such similarity within social networks, asking: What do friends have in common? And what is the relationship between similarity and altruism? The results show that similarity declines with frequency of contact; similarity in general is a significant predictor of altruism and emotional closeness; and, specifically, sharing (...)
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  29.  8
    No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability Among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.Benjamin C. Trumble, Steven J. C. Gaulin, Matt D. Dunbar, Hillard Kaplan & Michael Gurven - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (1):51-67.
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  30.  26
    On the Origin of the Human Mind.Robin Dunbar - 2000 - In Peter Carruthers & A. Chamberlain (eds.), Evolution and the Human Mind: Modularity, Language and Meta-Cognition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 238--53.
  31. The Scientist in Vivo: How Scientists Think and Reason in the Laboratory.Kevin Dunbar - 1999 - In L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Kluwer/Plenum. pp. 89--98.
     
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  32.  74
    Emotional Engagement in Professional Ethics.W. Scott Dunbar - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (4):535-551.
    Recent results from two different studies show evidence of strong emotional engagement in moral dilemmas that require personal involvement or ethical problems that involve significant inter-personal issues. This empirical evidence for a connection between emotional engagement and moral or ethical choices is interesting because it is related to a fundamental survival mechanism rooted in human evolution. The results lead one to question when and how emotional engagement might occur in a professional ethical situation. However, the studies employed static dilemmas or (...)
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  33.  37
    Archaic Greek Poetry - Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica, 2. Pp. 201. Urbino: Centro di Studi sulla Lirica Greca , 1966. Paper, L. 2,000. [REVIEW]Nan V. Dunbar - 1969 - The Classical Review 19 (2):148-150.
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  34.  14
    Aristophanic Comedy.Nan V. Dunbar & K. J. Dover - 1974 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 94:186-187.
  35.  40
    The Social Brain Meets Neuroimaging.Robin Im Dunbar - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (2):101-102.
  36.  7
    Resource Competition and Reproduction.Eckart Voland & R. I. M. Dunbar - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (1):33-49.
    A family reconstitution study of the Krummhörn population (Ostfriesland, Germany, 1720–1874) reveals that infant mortality and children’s probabilities of marrying or emigrating unmarried are affected by the number of living same-sexed sibs in farmers’ families but not in the families of landless laborers. We interpret these results in terms of a “local resource competition” model in which resource-holding families are obliged to manipulate the reproductive future of their offspring. In contrast, families that lack resources have no need to manipulate their (...)
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  37. Supernatural Punishment and Individual Social Compliance Across Cultures.Pierrick Bourrat, Quentin Atkinson & Robin Dunbar - 2011 - Religion, Brain and Behavior 1 (2):119-134.
    Cooperation for the public good is vulnerable to exploitation by free-riders because it always pays individuals to exploit the social contract for their own benefit. This problem can be resolved if free-riders are punished, but punishment is itself a public good subject to free-riding. The fear of supernatural punishment hypothesis (FSPH) proposes that belief in supernatural punishment might offer a solution to this problem by deflecting the cost of punishment onto supernatural forces and thereby incentivizing cooperation. FSPH is supported empirically (...)
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  38.  3
    Text Analysis Shows Conceptual Overlap as Well as Domain-Specific Differences in Christian and Secular Worldviews.Joseph Watts, Sam Passmore, Joshua Conrad Jackson, Christoph Rzymski & Robin I. M. Dunbar - 2020 - Cognition 201:104290.
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  39.  21
    Social Networks, Support Cliques, and Kinship.R. I. M. Dunbar & M. Spoors - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (3):273-290.
    Data on the number of adults that an individual contacts at least once a month in a set of British populations yield estimates of network sizes that correspond closely to those of the typical “sympathy group” size in humans. Men and women do not differ in their total network size, but women have more females and more kin in their networks than men do. Kin account for a significantly higher proportion of network members than would be expected by chance. The (...)
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  40.  32
    The Bacchides - John Barsby: Plautus, Bacchides. Edited with Translation and Commentary. Pp. Iv + 202. Warminster, Wilts, and Chicago, IL: Aris & Phillips and Bolchazy-Carducci, 1986. £17.50. [REVIEW]Nan V. Dunbar - 1987 - The Classical Review 37 (1):11-13.
  41. The Small World of Shakespeare’s Plays.James Stiller, Daniel Nettle & Robin I. M. Dunbar - 2003 - Human Nature 14 (4):397-408.
    Drama, at least according to the Aristotelian view, is effective inasmuch as it successfully mirrors real aspects of human behavior. This leads to the hypothesis that successful dramas will portray fictional social networks that have the same properties as those typical of human beings across ages and cultures. We outline a methodology for investigating this hypothesis and use it to examine ten of Shakespeare’s plays. The cliques and groups portrayed in the plays correspond closely to those which have been observed (...)
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  42.  13
    Size and Structure of Freely Forming Conversational Groups.R. I. M. Dunbar, N. D. C. Duncan & D. Nettle - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (1):67-78.
    Data from various settings suggest that there is an upper limit of about four on the number of individuals who can interact in spontaneous conversation. This limit appears to be a consequence of the mechanisms of speech production and detection. There appear to be no differences between men and women in this respect, other than those introduced by women’s lighter voices.
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  43.  7
    What Shall We Talk about in Farsi?Mahdi Dahmardeh & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):423-433.
    Previous empirical studies have suggested that language is primarily used to exchange social information, but our evidence on this derives mainly from English speakers. We present data from a study of natural conversations among Farsi speakers in Iran and show that not only are conversation groups the same size as those observed in Europe and North America, but people also talk predominantly about social topics. We argue that these results reinforce the suggestion that language most likely evolved for the transmission (...)
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  44.  10
    Understanding the Role of Cognition in Science: The Science as Category Framework.Kevin Dunbar - 2002 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen P. Stich & Michael Siegal (eds.), The Cognitive Basis of Science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 154--170.
  45.  29
    Phylogeny, Ecology and Behaviour. By D. R. Brooks & D. A. McLennan. Pp. 434.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1992 - Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (1):139-141.
  46.  18
    Evolution and the Social Sciences.Robin I. M. Dunbar - 2007 - History of the Human Sciences 20 (2):29-50.
    When the social sciences parted company from evolutionary biology almost exactly a century ago, they did so at a time when evolutionary biology was still very much in its infancy and many key issues were unresolved. As a result, the social sciences took away with them an understanding of evolution that was in fact based on 18th- rather than 19th-century biology. I argue that contemporary evolutionary thinking has much more to offer the social sciences than most people have assumed. Contemporary (...)
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  47.  20
    Clique Size and Network Characteristics in Hyperlink Cinema.Jaimie Arona Krems & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (4):414-429.
    Hyperlink cinema is an emergent film genre that seeks to push the boundaries of the medium in order to mirror contemporary life in the globalized community. Films in the genre thus create an interacting network across space and time in such a way as to suggest that people’s lives can intersect on scales that would not have been possible without modern technologies of travel and communication. This allows us to test the hypothesis that new kinds of media might permit us (...)
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  48.  22
    F. H. Sandbach: The Comic Theatre of Greece and Rome. Pp. 168; 2 Figures, 4 Plates. London: Chatto & Windus, 1977. Cloth, £4·50. [REVIEW]Nan V. Dunbar - 1979 - The Classical Review 29 (1):139-139.
  49.  38
    Ethics in Indigenous Research – Connecting with Community.Terry Dunbar & Margaret Scrimgeour - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (3):179-185.
    The challenge for those responsible for funding, brokering and assessing the merit of proposed Indigenous research is to identify and then work co-operatively with appropriate representatives of Indigenous interests in order to increase the flow of benefits from research to Indigenous peoples. Experience in Australia has shown that this is not a straightforward process. In this paper we indicate some reasons why it is important for the research community to broker research with representative Indigenous organisations and to involve Indigenous peoples (...)
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  50.  21
    Who Dares, Wins.Susan Kelly & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2001 - Human Nature 12 (2):89-105.
    Heroism is apparently nonadaptive in Darwinian terms, so why does it exist at all? Risk-taking and heroic behavior are predominantly male tendencies, and literature and legend reflect this. This study explores the possibility that heroism persists in many human cultures owing to a female preference for risk-prone rather than risk-averse males as sexual partners, and it suggests that such a preference may be exploited as a male mating strategy. It also attempts to quantify the relative influences of altruism and bravery (...)
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