Results for 'Kristian Pollock'

945 found
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  1.  66
    Procedure Versus Process: Ethical Paradigms and the Conduct of Qualitative Research. [REVIEW]Kristian Pollock - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):25-.
    Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness (...)
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  2.  19
    Gaining and Maintaining Consent When Capacity Can Be an Issue: A Research Study with People with Huntington's Disease.Eleanor Wilson, Kristian Pollock & Aimee Aubeeluck - 2010 - Clinical Ethics 5 (3):142-147.
    This paper recognizes the complexity of the debate on informed consent and discusses the importance of the ongoing process of consent for people affected by Huntington's disease (HD). Although written information may not be the most appropriate form of obtaining informed consent in qualitative research, it remains an important part of the ethical approval process for health research in the UK. This paper draws on a study in which the information sheet and consent form were specifically designed to help obtain (...)
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  3.  99
    Pollock and Sturgeon on Defeaters.Albert Casullo - 2018 - Synthese 195 (7):2897-2906.
    Scott Sturgeon has recently challenged Pollock’s account of undercutting defeaters. The challenge involves three primary contentions: the account is both too strong and too weak, undercutting defeaters exercise their power to defeat only in conjunction with higher-order beliefs about the basis of the lower-order beliefs whose justification they target, and since rebutting defeaters exercise their power to defeat in isolation, rebutting and undercutting defeaters work in fundamentally different ways. My goal is to reject each of these contentions. I maintain (...)
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  4.  2
    Thinking About Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making.John L. Pollock - 2006 - Oxford University Press USA.
    John Pollock aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real agents--not ideal agents. Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of "real rationality.".
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  5.  86
    Measuring Consciousness: Is One Measure Better Than the Other?Kristian Sandberg, Bert Timmermans, Morten Overgaard & Axel Cleeremans - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1069-1078.
    What is the best way of assessing the extent to which people are aware of a stimulus? Here, using a masked visual identification task, we compared three measures of subjective awareness: The Perceptual Awareness Scale , through which participants are asked to rate the clarity of their visual experience; confidence ratings , through which participants express their confidence in their identification decisions, and Post-decision wagering , in which participants place a monetary wager on their decisions. We conducted detailed explorations of (...)
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  6. Constitutional Experiments: Representing Future Generations Through Submajority Rules.Kristian Skagen Ekeli - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (4):440-61.
  7. Pollock on Probability in Epistemology. [REVIEW]Branden Fitelson - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 148 (3):455 - 465.
    In Thinking and Acting John Pollock offers some criticisms of Bayesian epistemology, and he defends an alternative understanding of the role of probability in epistemology. Here, I defend the Bayesian against some of Pollock's criticisms, and I discuss a potential problem for Pollock's alternative account.
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  8.  22
    How to Develop a Phenomenological Model of Disability.Kristian Moltke Martiny - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (4):553-565.
    During recent decades various researchers from health and social sciences have been debating what it means for a person to be disabled. A rather overlooked approach has developed alongside this debate, primarily inspired by the philosophical tradition called phenomenology. This paper develops a phenomenological model of disability by arguing for a different methodological and conceptual framework from that used by the existing phenomenological approach. The existing approach is developed from the phenomenology of illness, but the paper illustrates how the case (...)
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  9. Constructing the Myth of the Copenhagen Interpretation.Kristian Camilleri - 2009 - Perspectives on Science 17 (1):pp. 26-57.
    According to the standard view, the so-called ‘Copenhagen interpretation’ of quantum mechanics originated in discussions between Bohr and Heisenberg in 1927, and was defended by Bohr in his classic debate with Einstein. Yet recent scholarship has shown Bohr’s views were never widely accepted, let alone properly understood, by his contemporaries, many of whom held divergent views of the ‘Copenhagen orthodoxy’. This paper examines how the ‘myth of the Copenhagen interpretation’ was constructed by situating it in the context of Soviet Marxist (...)
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  10.  33
    Measuring Consciousness: Task Accuracy and Awareness as Sigmoid Functions of Stimulus Duration.Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby, Bert Timmermans, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1659-1675.
    When consciousness is examined using subjective ratings, the extent to which processing is conscious or unconscious is often estimated by calculating task performance at the subjective threshold or by calculating the correlation between accuracy and awareness. However, both these methods have certain limitations. In the present article, we propose describing task accuracy and awareness as functions of stimulus intensity as suggested by Koch and Preuschoff . The estimated lag between the curves describes how much stimulus intensity must increase for awareness (...)
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  11.  30
    Pollock on Practical Reasoning.David Hitchcock - 2002 - Informal Logic 22 (3).
    The epistemologist John Pollock has implemented computationally an architecture for a rational agent which he calls OSCAR. OSCAR models both practical and theoretical (or epistemic) reasoning. I argue that Pollock's model of practical reasoning, which has seven components, is superior not only to the two-component belief-desire model stemming from Aristotle, but also to the three-component belief-desire-intention model developed especially by Michael Bratman. Despite its advantages, Pollock's model of practical reasoning is incomplete in at least three respects: it (...)
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  12.  25
    Measuring and Testing Awareness of Emotional Face Expressions.Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby & Morten Overgaard - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):806-809.
    Comparison of behavioural measures of consciousness has attracted much attention recently. In a recent article, Szczepanowski et al. conclude that confidence ratings predict accuracy better than both the perceptual awareness scale and post-decision wagering when using stimuli with emotional content . Although we find the study interesting, we disagree with the conclusion that CR is superior to PAS because of two methodological issues. First, the conclusion is not based on a formal test. We performed this test and found no evidence (...)
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  13. Epistemic Norms.John L. Pollock - 1987 - Synthese 71 (1):61 - 95.
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  14.  90
    Toward a Constructivist Epistemology of Thought Experiments in Science.Kristian Camilleri - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8):1697-1716.
    This paper presents a critical analysis of Tamar Szabó Gendler’s view of thought experiments, with the aim of developing further a constructivist epistemology of thought experiments in science. While the execution of a thought experiment cannot be reduced to standard forms of inductive and deductive inference, in the process of working though a thought experiment, a logical argument does emerge and take shape. Taking Gendler’s work as a point of departure, I argue that performing a thought experiment involves a process (...)
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  15.  30
    Subjective Rightness and Minimizing Expected Objective Wrongness.Kristian Olsen - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 99 (3):417-441.
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  16.  84
    Rational Choice and Action Omnipotence.John L. Pollock - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (1):1-23.
    Counterexamples are constructed for the theory of rational choice that results from a direct application of classical decision theory to ordinary actions. These counterexamples turn on the fact that an agent may be unable to perform an action, and may even be unable to try to perform an action. An alternative theory of rational choice is proposed that evaluates actions using a more complex measure, and then it is shown that this is equivalent to applying classical decision theory to "conditional (...)
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  17.  43
    Pollock on Defeasible Reasons.Scott Sturgeon - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 169 (1):105-118.
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  18. Belief Revision and Epistemology.John Pollock & Anthony Gillies - 2000 - Synthese 122 (1-2):69-92.
    Postulational approaches attempt to understand the dynamics of belief revision by appealing to no more than the set of beliefs held by an agent and the logical relations between them. It is argued there that such an approach cannot work. A proper account of belief revision must also appeal to the arguments supporting beliefs, and recognize that those arguments can be defeasible. If we begin with a mature epistemological theory that accommodates this, it can be seen that the belief revision (...)
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  19. GMOs and Global Justice: Applying Global Justice Theory to the Case of Genetically Modified Crops and Food. [REVIEW]Kristian Høyer Toft - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (2):223-237.
    Proponents of using genetically modified (GM) crops and food in the developing world often claim that it is unjust not to use GMOs (genetically modified organisms) to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. In reply, the critics of GMOs claim that while GMOs may be useful as a technological means to increase yields and crop quality, stable and efficient institutions are required in order to provide the benefits from GMO technology. In this debate, the GMO proponents tend to rely (...)
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  20. Pollock on Defeasible Reasons.Scott Sturgeon - 2012 - Philosophical Studies (1):1-14.
  21.  70
    Niels Bohr as Philosopher of Experiment: Does Decoherence Theory Challenge Bohr׳s Doctrine of Classical Concepts?Kristian Camilleri & Maximilian Schlosshauer - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 49:73-83.
  22.  15
    Rational Choice and Action Omnipotence.John L. Pollock - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (1):1.
    A theory of rational choice is a theory of how an agent should, rationally, go about deciding what actions to perform at any given time. For example, I may want to decide whether to go to a movie this evening or stay home and read a book. The actions between which we want to choose are perfectly ordinary actions, and the presumption is that to make such a decision we should attend to the likely consequences of our decision. It is (...)
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  23.  2
    Digital Resources in the Translation Process – Attention, Cognitive Effort and Processing Flow.Kristian Tangsgaard Hvelplund - 2019 - Perspectives 27 (4):510-524.
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  24.  2
    Digital Resources in the Translation Process – Attention, Cognitive Effort and Processing Flow.Kristian Tangsgaard Hvelplund - 2019 - Perspectives 27 (4):510-524.
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  25.  71
    A Defense of the Objective/Subjective Moral Ought Distinction.Kristian Olsen - 2017 - The Journal of Ethics 21 (4):351-373.
    In this paper, I motivate and defend the distinction between an objective and a subjective moral sense of “ought.” I begin by looking at the standard way the distinction is motivated, namely by appealing to relatively simple cases where an agent does something she thinks is best, but her action has a tragic outcome. I argue that these cases fail to do the job—the intuitions they elicit can be explained without having to distinguish between different senses of “ought.” However, these (...)
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  26.  17
    Evidence of Weak Conscious Experiences in the Exclusion Task.Kristian Sandberg, Simon H. Del Pin, Bo M. Bibby & Morten Overgaard - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  27.  81
    A History of Entanglement: Decoherence and the Interpretation Problem.Kristian Camilleri - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (4):290-302.
  28. The Structure of Defeat: Pollock's Evidentialism, Lackey's Framework, and Prospects for Reliabilism.Peter J. Graham & Jack C. Lyons - forthcoming - In Jessica Brown & Mona Simion (eds.), Reasons, Justification, and Defeaters. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Epistemic defeat is standardly understood in either evidentialist or responsibilist terms. The seminal treatment of defeat is an evidentialist one, due to John Pollock, who famously distinguishes between undercutting and rebutting defeaters. More recently, an orthogonal distinction due to Jennifer Lackey has become widely endorsed, between so-called doxastic (or psychological) and normative defeaters. We think that neither doxastic nor normative defeaters, as Lackey understands them, exist. Both of Lackey’s categories of defeat derive from implausible assumptions about epistemic responsibility. Although (...)
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  29.  3
    Framing a Phenomenological Mixed Method: From Inspiration to Guidance.Kristian Moltke Martiny, Juan Toro & Simon Høffding - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Despite a long history of researchers who combine phenomenology with qualitative or quantitative methods, there are only few examples of working with a phenomenological mixed method—a method where phenomenology informs both qualitative and quantitative data generation, analysis, and interpretation. Researchers have argued that in working with a phenomenological mixed method, there should be mutual constraint and enlightenment between the qualitative and quantitative methods for studying consciousness. In this article, we discuss what a framework for phenomenological mixed methods could look like (...)
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  30. Griselda Pollock 90.Griselda Pollock - 2007 - In Diarmuid Costello & Jonathan Vickery (eds.), Art: Key Contemporary Thinkers. Berg. pp. 89.
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  31.  75
    Giving a Voice to Posterity – Deliberative Democracy and Representation of Future People.Kristian Skagen Ekeli - 2005 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (5):429-450.
    The aim of this paper is to consider whether some seats in a democratically elected legislative assembly ought to be reserved for representatives of future generations. In order to examine this question, I will propose a new democratic model for representing posterity. It is argued that this model has several advantages compared with a model for the democratic representation of future people previously suggested by Andrew Dobson. Nevertheless, the democratic model that I propose confronts at least two difficult problems. First, (...)
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  32.  5
    Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics : The Physicist as Philosopher.Kristian Camilleri - 2009 - University of Melbourne.
    New perspective on Heisenberg's interpretation of quantum mechanics for researchers and graduate students in the history and philosophy of physics.
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  33.  3
    Lectures and Essays.William Kingdon Clifford, Frederick Pollock & Leslie Stephen (eds.) - 1879 - Macmillan.
    A fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and of the Royal Society, William Clifford made his reputation in applied mathematics, but his interests ranged far more widely, encompassing ethics, evolution, metaphysics and philosophy of mind. This posthumously collected two-volume work, first published in 1879, bears witness to the dexterity and eclecticism of this Victorian thinker, whose commitment to the most abstract principles of mathematics and the most concrete details of human experience resulted in vivid and often unexpected arguments. Volume 1 includes (...)
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  34.  79
    Framing a Phenomenological Interview: What, Why and How.Simon Høffding & Kristian Martiny - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (4):539-564.
    Research in phenomenology has benefitted from using exceptional cases from pathology and expertise. But exactly how are we to generate and apply knowledge from such cases to the phenomenological domain? As researchers of cerebral palsy and musical absorption, we together answer the how question by pointing to the resource of the qualitative interview. Using the qualitative interview is a direct response to Varela’s call for better pragmatics in the methodology of phenomenology and cognitive science and Gallagher’s suggestion for phenomenology to (...)
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  35. Environmental Risks, Uncertainty and Intergenerational Ethics.Kristian Skagen Ekeli - 2004 - Environmental Values 13 (4):421-448.
    The way our decisions and actions can affect future generations is surrounded by uncertainty. This is evident in current discussions of environmental risks related to global climate change, biotechnology and the use and storage of nuclear energy. The aim of this paper is to consider more closely how uncertainty affects our moral responsibility to future generations, and to what extent moral agents can be held responsible for activities that inflict risks on future people. It is argued that our moral responsibility (...)
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  36.  30
    The Role of Heuristic Appraisal in Conflicting Assessments of String Theory.Kristian Camilleri & Sophie Ritson - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 51:44-56.
  37.  34
    Cognitive Carpentry: A Blueprint for How to Build a Person.John L. Pollock - 1995 - MIT Press.
    "A sequel to Pollock's How to Build a Person, this volume builds upon that theoretical groundwork for the implementation of rationality through artificial ...
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  38.  83
    Language as a Tool for Interacting Minds.Kristian Tylén, Ethan Weed, Mikkel Wallentin, Andreas Roepstorff & Chris D. Frith - 2010 - Mind and Language 25 (1):3-29.
    What is the role of language in social interaction? What does language bring to social encounters? We argue that language can be conceived of as a tool for interacting minds, enabling especially effective and flexible forms of social coordination, perspective-taking and joint action. In a review of evidence from a broad range of disciplines, we pursue elaborations of the language-as-a-tool metaphor, exploring four ways in which language is employed in facilitation of social interaction. We argue that language dramatically extends the (...)
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  39.  55
    Bohr, Heisenberg and the Divergent Views of Complementarity.Kristian Camilleri - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (3):514-528.
  40. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge.John Pollock - 1986 - Hutchinson.
    This new edition of the classic Contemporary Theories of Knowledge has been significantly updated to include analyses of the recent literature in epistemology.
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  41.  38
    Defeasible Reasoning and Degrees of Justification.Pollock & L. John - 2010 - Argument and Computation 1 (1):7-22.
  42. Heisenberg and the Wave–Particle Duality.Kristian Camilleri - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 37 (2):298-315.
  43.  19
    Legendary Brands and Economic Value.Kristian Bankov - 2018 - American Journal of Semiotics 34 (3):273-291.
    In this paper I compare and synthesize three separate discourses on marketing communication and propose a model for symbolic added value, a quality that characterizes the most memorable brands. Kevin Lane Keller exhaustively outlines the pragmatic steps for building, managing and measuring strong brands, but his approach overlooks the basic distinction between ordinary product brands and Legendary Brands. Laurence Vincent’s book is dedicated to precisely this distinction, and the author takes an interdisciplinary approach to proposing a model for a “brand (...)
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  44.  17
    Case‐Based Planning: A Framework for Planning From Experience.Kristian J. Hammond - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (3):385-443.
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  45.  3
    Politisk uvitenhet, stemmeretten og velgeres moralske ansvar.Kristian Skagen Ekeli - 2019 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 54 (3):151-166.
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  46.  50
    Ross and the Particularism/Generalism Divide.Kristian Olsen - 2014 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (1):56-75.
    W. D. Ross is commonly considered to be a generalist about prima facie duty but a particularist about absolute duty. That is, many philosophers hold that Ross accepts that there are true moral principles involving prima facie duty but denies that there are any true moral principles involving absolute duty. I agree with the former claim: Ross surely accepts prima facie moral principles. However, in this paper, I challenge the latter claim. Ross, I argue, is no more a particularist about (...)
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  47.  30
    Knowing What Would Happen: The Epistemic Strategies in Galileo's Thought Experiments.Kristian Camilleri - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 54:102-112.
  48.  88
    Indeterminacy and the Limits of Classical Concepts: The Transformation of Heisenberg's Thought.Kristian Camilleri - 2007 - Perspectives on Science 15 (2):178-201.
    : This paper examines the transformation which occurs in Heisenberg's understanding of indeterminacy in quantum mechanics between 1926 and 1928. After his initial but unsuccessful attempt to construct new quantum concepts of space and time, in 1927 Heisenberg presented an operational definition of concepts such as 'position' and 'velocity'. Yet, after discussions with Bohr, he came to the realisation that classical concepts such as position and momentum are indispensable in quantum mechanics in spite of their limited applicability. This transformation in (...)
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  49.  34
    Diagrammatic Reasoning: Abstraction, Interaction, and Insight.Kristian Tylén, Riccardo Fusaroli, Johanne Stege Bjørndahl, Joanna Raczaszek-Leonardi, Svend Østergaard & Frederik Stjernfelt - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (2):264-283.
    Many types of everyday and specialized reasoning depend on diagrams: we use maps to find our way, we draw graphs and sketches to communicate concepts and prove geometrical theorems, and we manipulate diagrams to explore new creative solutions to problems. The active involvement and manipulation of representational artifacts for purposes of thinking and communicating is discussed in relation to C.S. Peirce’s notion of diagrammatical reasoning. We propose to extend Peirce’s original ideas and sketch a conceptual framework that delineates different kinds (...)
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  50.  41
    Pollock on Rational Choice and Trying.Peter K. Mcinerney - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 129 (2):253-261.
    In everyday life people frequently recognize that a person at a time may be more or less strongly motivated to carry out an intentional action and that “trying harder” frequently affects the successful completion of an intentional action. In “Rational Choice and Action Omnipotence,” John Pollock provides an original account of rational choice in which “trying to do an action” is a basic factor. This paper argues that Pollock’s “expected-utility optimality prescription” is deficient because it lacks a parameter (...)
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