Results for 'Kristine A. Kovack-Lesh'

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  1.  21
    A Framework for the Extraction and Modeling of Fact-Finding Reasoning From Legal Decisions: Lessons From the Vaccine/Injury Project Corpus. [REVIEW]Vern R. Walker, Nathaniel Carie, Courtney C. DeWitt & Eric Lesh - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (4):291-331.
    This article describes the Vaccine/Injury Project Corpus, a collection of legal decisions awarding or denying compensation for health injuries allegedly due to vaccinations, together with models of the logical structure of the reasoning of the factfinders in those cases. This unique corpus provides useful data for formal and informal logic theory, for natural-language research in linguistics, and for artificial intelligence research. More importantly, the article discusses lessons learned from developing protocols for manually extracting the logical structure and generating the logic (...)
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  2.  5
    Cognitive Control of Episodic Memory in Schizophrenia: Differential Role of Dorsolateral and Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex.John D. Ragland, Charan Ranganath, Joshua Phillips, Megan A. Boudewyn, Ann M. Kring, Tyler A. Lesh, Debra L. Long, Steven J. Luck, Tara A. Niendam, Marjorie Solomon, Tamara Y. Swaab & Cameron S. Carter - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  3.  41
    Behavior of a Magnetic Dipole Freely Floating on Water Surface.M. A. & H. Kh - manuscript
    In this paper, the authors have detected a new effect in the area of geomagnetism, related to the behavior of a magnetic dipole freely floating on water surface. An experiment is described in the present paper in which a magnetic dipole fixed upon a float placed on non- magnetized water surface undergoes displacement along with reorientation caused by fine structure of the earth's magnetic field. This fact can probably be explained by secular decrease of the earth's major dipole moment. Further, (...)
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  4.  34
    Infant Directed Speech and the Development of Speech Perception: Enhancing Development or an Unintended Consequence?Bob McMurray, Kristine A. Kovack-Lesh, Dresden Goodwin & William McEchron - 2013 - Cognition 129 (2):362-378.
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  5.  24
    Kristine Bonnevie, Tine Tammes and Elisabeth Schiemann in Early Genetics: Emerging Chances for a University Career for Women. [REVIEW]Ida H. Stamhuis & Arve Monsen - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (3):427 - 466.
    The beginning of the twentieth century saw the emergence of the discipline of genetics. It is striking how many female scientists were contributing to this new field at the time. At least three female pioneers succeeded in becoming professors: Kristine Bonnevie (Norway), Elisabeth Schiemann (Germany) and the Tine Tammes (The Netherlands). The question is which factors contributed to the success of these women's careers? At the time women were gaining access to university education it had become quite the norm (...)
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  6.  16
    Gender and Leadership: A Frame Analysis of University Home Web Page Images.Kristine F. Hoover, Deborah A. O’Neil & Michael Poutiatine - 2014 - Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (1):15-27.
    With calls for (business) leaders to contribute to greater global fairness and social justice (BAWB 2006; Maak and Pless Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 537–550, 2009), this paper considers gender equality on University home web page images as one means of communicating equal access to leadership roles for both men and women. Although there are many paths for leadership development, one important purpose of Universities is to create people who will potentially become leaders in our society (Shapiro 2005). We analyzed (...)
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  7.  9
    Standards of Practice in Empirical Bioethics Research: Towards a Consensus.Jonathan Ives, Michael Dunn, Bert Molewijk, Jan Schildmann, Kristine Bærøe, Lucy Frith, Richard Huxtable, Elleke Landeweer, Marcel Mertz, Veerle Provoost, Annette Rid, Sabine Salloch, Mark Sheehan, Daniel Strech, Martine de Vries & Guy Widdershoven - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):68.
    Background This paper reports the process and outcome of a consensus finding project, which began with a meeting at the Brocher Foundation in May 2015. The project sought to generate and reach consensus on standards of practice for Empirical Bioethics research. The project involved 16 academics from 5 different European Countries, with a range of disciplinary backgrounds. Methods The consensus process used a modified Delphi approach. Results Consensus was reached on 15 standards of practice, organised into 6 domains of research (...)
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  8.  15
    Does Gender Influence Managers’ Ethics? A Cross‐Cultural Analysis.Chung‐wen Chen, Kristine Velasquez Tuliao, John B. Cullen & Yi‐Ying Chang - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (4):345-362.
    The relationship between gender and ethics has been extensively researched. However, previous studies have assumed that the gender–ethics association is constant; hence, scholars have seldom investigated factors potentially affecting the gender–ethics association. Thus, using managers as the research target, this study examined the relationship between gender and ethics and analyzed the moderating effect of cultural values on the gender–ethics association. The results showed that, compared with female managers, their male counterparts are more willing to justify business-related unethical behaviors such as (...)
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  9. Patient Autonomy, Assessment of Competence and Surrogate Decision‐Making: A Call for Reasonableness in Deciding for Others.Kristine Bærøe - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (2):87-95.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, I address some of the shortcomings of established clinical ethics centring on personal autonomy and consent and what I label the Doctrine of Respecting Personal Autonomy in Healthcare. I discuss two implications of this doctrine: 1) the practice for treating patients who are considered to have borderline decision‐making competence and 2) the practice of surrogate decision‐making in general. I argue that none of these practices are currently aligned with respectful treatment of vulnerable individuals. Because of ‘structural arbitrariness’ (...)
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  10.  6
    Economy and Supervisors’ Ethical Values: Exploring the Mediating Role of Noneconomic Institutions in a Cross-National Test of Institutional Anomie Theory.Kristine Velasquez Tuliao & Chung-wen Chen - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (3):823-838.
    This study examined the direct influence of national economic condition, as well as the indirect effects through the strength of noneconomic institutions on supervisors’ ethical reasoning using the institutional anomie theory developed by Messner and Rosenfeld :1393–1416, 2001). Utilizing data of 20,025 supervisors across 52 countries, the analyses showed that high disparity in the economic distribution directly and indirectly leads to unethical values. High economic inequality in a country resulted in high tendency of supervisors to justify unethical acts. In addition, (...)
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  11.  32
    Mapping Out Structural Features in Clinical Care Calling for Ethical Sensitivity: A Theoretical Approach to Promote Ethical Competence in Healthcare Personnel and Clinical Ethical Support Services (Cess).Kristine Bærøe & Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (7):394-402.
    Clinical ethical support services (CESS) represent a multifaceted field of aims, consultancy models, and methodologies. Nevertheless, the overall aim of CESS can be summed up as contributing to healthcare of high ethical standards by improving ethically competent decision-making in clinical healthcare. In order to support clinical care adequately, CESS must pay systematic attention to all real-life ethical issues, including those which do not fall within the ‘favourite’ ethical issues of the day. In this paper we attempt to capture a comprehensive (...)
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  12.  24
    Legitimate Healthcare Limit Setting in a Real-World Setting: Integrating Accountability for Reasonableness and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.Kristine Bærøe & Rob Baltussen - 2014 - Public Health Ethics 7 (2):98-111.
    The overall aim of this article is to discuss the organization of limit setting in healthcare in terms of legitimacy. We argue there is a strong ethical demand that such processes should be arranged to provide adversely affected people well-justified reasons to confer legitimacy to the processes despite favouring a different decision-making outcome. Two increasingly popular approaches, Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), can both be applied to support legitimate decision-making processes. However, the role played by ‘fair-minded (...)
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  13.  13
    Challenges in Collecting Big Data in A Clinical Environment with Vulnerable Population: Lessons Learned From A Study Using A Multi-Modal Sensors Platform.Bing Ye, Shehroz S. Khan, Belkacem Chikhaoui, Andrea Iaboni, Lori Schindel Martin, Kristine Newman, Angel Wang & Alex Mihailidis - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    Agitation is one of the most common behavioural and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. This behaviour can cause tremendous stress and anxiety on family caregivers and healthcare providers. Direct observation of PLwD is the traditional way to measure episodes of agitation. However, this method is subjective, bias-prone and timeconsuming. Importantly, it does not predict the onset of the agitation. Therefore, there is a need to develop a continuous monitoring system that can detect and/or predict the onset of agitation. (...)
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  14.  25
    Patient Autonomy, Assessment of Competence and Surrogate Decision-Making: A Call for Reasonableness in Deciding for Others.Kristine Baerøe - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (2):87-95.
    In this paper, I address some of the shortcomings of established clinical ethics centring on personal autonomy and consent and what I label the Doctrine of Respecting Personal Autonomy in Healthcare. I discuss two implications of this doctrine: 1) the practice for treating patients who are considered to have borderline decision-making competence and 2) the practice of surrogate decision-making in general. I argue that none of these practices are currently aligned with respectful treatment of vulnerable individuals. Because of ‘structural arbitrariness’ (...)
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  15.  13
    Translational Ethics: An Analytical Framework of Translational Movements Between Theory and Practice and a Sketch of a Comprehensive Approach.Kristine Bærøe - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):71.
    Translational research in medicine requires researchers to identify the steps to transfer basic scientific discoveries from laboratory benches to bedside decision-making, and eventually into clinical practice. On a parallel track, philosophical work in ethics has not been obliged to identify the steps to translate theoretical conclusions into adequate practice. The medical ethicist A. Cribb suggested some years ago that it is now time to debate ‘the business of translational’ in medical ethics. Despite the very interesting and useful perspective on the (...)
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  16.  15
    Newborn Health Benefits or Financial Risk Protection? An Ethical Analysis of a Real-Life Dilemma in a Setting Without Universal Health Coverage.Kristine Husøy Onarheim, Ole Frithjof Norheim & Ingrid Miljeteig - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (8):524-530.
    Introduction High healthcare costs make illness precarious for both patients and their families’ economic situation. Despite the recent focus on the interconnection between health and financial risk at the systemic level, the ethical conflict between concerns for potential health benefits and financial risk protection at the household level in a low-income setting is less understood. Methods Using a seven-step ethical analysis, we examine a real-life dilemma faced by families and health workers at the micro level in Ethiopia and analyse the (...)
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  17.  7
    Towards Theoretically Robust Evidence on Health Equity: A Systematic Approach to Contextualising Equity-Relevant Randomised Controlled Trials.Gry Wester, Kristine Bærøe & Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (1):54-59.
    Reducing inequalities in health and the determinants of health is a widely acknowledged health policy goal, and methods for measuring inequalities and inequities in health are well developed. Yet, the evidence base is weak for how to achieve these goals. There is a lack of high-quality randomised controlled trials reporting impact on the distribution of health and non-health benefits and lack of methodological rigour in how to design, power, measure, analyse and interpret distributional impact in RCTs. Our overarching aim in (...)
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  18.  13
    Group Emotions in Collective Reasoning: A Model.Claire Polo, Christian Plantin, Kristine Lund & Gerald Niccolai - 2017 - Argumentation 31 (2):301-329.
    Education and cognition research today generally recognize the tri-dimensional nature of reasoning processes as involving cognitive, social and emotional phenomena. However, there is so far no theoretical framework articulating these three dimensions from a descriptive perspective. This paper aims at presenting a first model of how group emotions work in collective reasoning, and specifies their social and cognitive functions. This model is inspired both from a multidisciplinary literature review and our extensive previous empirical work on an international corpus of videotaped (...)
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  19.  7
    “Cum Multimodi Curiositatis”: A Musical Treatise From Eleventh-Century Cataloniaarticle Author Queryutterback Kt [Google Scholar]the Breviarium De Musica By A Monk Named Oliva Is The Initial Treatise Found In Ms Ripoll 42, And It Indicates The State Of Musica Speculativa At The Monastery Of Santa María De Ripoll In The Mid-Eleventh Century. Ripoll, Located Near The Spanish-French Border North Of Barcelona, Was A Major Intellectual Center In Medieval Catalonia. Its Scriptorium Began Ca. 935, During The Abbacy Of Arnulfus, And By The Mid-Eleventh Century Its Library Contained Nearly Two Hundred Books. Musical Manuscripts From The Eleventh Century Indicate That Ripoll Was Actively Concerned With Musica Practica; Anglès Suggested That Ripoll Was Among The Earliest Monasteries To Employ The Singleline Staff. The Unique Treatise To Be Considered Here Indicates That Members Of The Community Were Also Interested In Theoretical Music, Musica Speculativa. Jquery.Click { Event.Preventdefault(); }.Kristine Utterback - 1979 - Speculum 54 (2):283-296.
    The Breviarium de musica by a monk named Oliva is the initial treatise found in MS Ripoll 42, and it indicates the state of musica speculativa at the monastery of Santa María de Ripoll in the mid-eleventh century. Ripoll, located near the Spanish-French border north of Barcelona, was a major intellectual center in medieval Catalonia. Its scriptorium began ca. 935, during the abbacy of Arnulfus, and by the mid-eleventh century its library contained nearly two hundred books. Musical manuscripts from the (...)
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  20.  5
    Commentary to ‘Social Health Disparities in Clinical Care: A New Approach to Medical Fairness’ by Puschel, Furlan and Dekkers.Berit Bringedal & Kristine Bærøe - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (1).
    The commentary brings up two topics. The first concerns whether and how a patient’s socioeconomic status should count in clinical care. We provide a brief summary of Puschel and colleagues’ view and discuss it in relation to other accounts. We share their conclusion; considering SES in clinical care can be justified from a fairness perspective. Yet, we question the claim that this is a new perspective, and argue that the reason for the claim of novelty is an insufficient use of (...)
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  21. Researching Schools: Stories From a Schools-University Partnership for Educational Research.Colleen McLaughlin, Kristine Black Hawkins, Sue Brindley, Donald McIntyre & Keith Taber - 2006 - Routledge.
    Presenting the work of a highly innovative partnership between the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education and eight secondary schools, this book explores this networked learning community which has helped to define the use and production of educational knowledge and research within and between various partners. This book examines the central questions and gives examples of the outcomes of the development that will assist any researchers, especially teachers undertaking research, to develop school-university partnerships. Stories and examples from practitioners and others (...)
     
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  22. A Constructivist Connectionist Model of Transitions on False-Belief Tasks.Vincent G. Berthiaume, Thomas R. Shultz & Kristine H. Onishi - 2013 - Cognition 126 (3):441-458.
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  23.  5
    Pascale Charron, Marc Gil, and Ambre Vilain, Eds., La Pensée du Regard: Études D’Histoire de L’Art du Moyen Âge Offertes À Christian Heck. Turnhout: Brepols, 2016. Paper. Pp. 448; Many Color Plates and Black-and-White Figures. €150. ISBN: 978-2-503-56870-6.Table of Contents Available Online at Http://Www.Brepols.Net/Pages/ShowProduct.Aspx?Prod_id=IS-9782503568706-1. [REVIEW]Kristine Tanton - 2019 - Speculum 94 (2):511-512.
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  24. The St Albans Psalter: A Reconsideration.Kristine E. Haney - 1995 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 58:1-28.
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  25.  10
    Priority-Setting in Healthcare: A Framework for Reasonable Clinical Judgements.Kristine Bærøe - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):488-496.
  26.  12
    Portraying Science as Humanism – A Historical Case Study of Cultural Boundary Work From the Dawn of the ‘Atomic Age’.Kristine Hays Lynning - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (3-5):479-510.
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  27.  13
    Technology Selection and Useful Knowledge: A Comment.Kristine Bruland - 2007 - History of Science 45 (148):179-183.
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  28.  13
    Clinical Utility of Mindfulness Training in the Treatment of Fatigue After Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury and Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.Kristine M. Ulrichsen, Tobias Kaufmann, Erlend S. Dørum, Knut K. Kolskår, Geneviève Richard, Dag Alnæs, Tone J. Arneberg, Lars T. Westlye & Jan E. Nordvik - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  29.  5
    Emotional Positioning as a Cognitive Resource for Arguing.Claire Polo, Christian Plantin, Kristine Lund & Gerald Peter Niccolai - 2017 - Pragmatics and Society 8 (3):323-354.
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  30.  9
    Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Assuring a Legally Prepared Workforce.Mary Anne Viverette, Jennifer Leaning, Susan K. Steeg, Kristine M. Gebbie & Maureen Litchveld - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (4_suppl):81-83.
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  31.  7
    The Medieval Crown of Aragon: A Short History. T. N. Bisson.Kristine Utterback - 1989 - Speculum 64 (3):661-662.
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  32.  11
    Kristine arnet connidis.A. Dream of Dirty Hands - 2004 - In David C. Thomasma & David N. Weisstub (eds.), The Variables of Moral Capacity. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 95.
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  33.  6
    Reading Jane Thayer, The Puppy Who Wanted a Boy.Kristine Noack-Reeves - 2016 - Questions: Philosophy for Young People 16:6-6.
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  34.  6
    The Making of a Manuscript: The Worms Bible of 1148 . Aliza Cohen-Mushlin.Kristine Haney - 1986 - Speculum 61 (2):396-398.
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  35.  6
    A Phase II Study of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol for Appetite Stimulation in Cancer-Associated Anorexia.Kristine Nelson, Declan Walsh, Paula Deeter & Finbar Sheehan - forthcoming - Journal of Palliative Care.
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  36.  2
    Civil Society as an Area of a Personality Self-Realization.Kristine Tanajyan - 2016 - Wisdom 2 (7):216.
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  37.  2
    Rebuilding a Public Health Infrastructure.Kristine M. Gebbie - 1993 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 21 (3-4):368-371.
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  38.  4
    Rebuilding a Public Health Infrastructure.Kristine M. Gebbie - 1993 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 21 (3-4):368-371.
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  39.  4
    Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Assuring a Legally Prepared Workforce.Mary Anne Viverette, Jennifer Leaning, Susan K. Steeg, Kristine M. Gebbie & Maureen Litchveld - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (s4):81-83.
  40.  13
    Determined by Reasons: A Competence Account of Acting for a Normative Reason.Susanne Mantel - 2018 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    This book offers a new account of what it is to act for a normative reason. The first part of the book examines the problems of causal accounts of acting for reasons and suggests to solve them by a dispositional approach. The author argues for a dispositional account which unites epistemic, volitional, and executional dispositions in a complex normative competence. This ‘Normative Competence Account’ allows for more and less reflective ways of acting for normative reasons. The second part of the (...)
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  41.  80
    Consenting Options for Posthumous Organ Donation: Presumed Consent and Incentives Are Not Favored. [REVIEW]Muhammad M. Hammami, Hunaida M. Abdulhameed, Kristine A. Concepcion, Abdullah Eissa, Sumaya Hammami, Hala Amer, Abdelraheem Ahmed & Eman Al-Gaai - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):32-.
    Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable) the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, (...)
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  42.  17
    Professionals’ Responsibilities to Foster the Autonomy of Future Adults.Marilyn L. Bach, Jeffery Smith, Kristine A. Diemer, Erin L. Magnus, Nicholas A. Bryant & Charles N. Oberg - 1996 - Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 5 (3):73-91.
  43.  8
    Accountability for Private Military and Security Contractors in the International Legal Regime.Kristine A. Huskey - 2012 - Criminal Justice Ethics 31 (3):193-212.
    Abstract The rapidly growing presence of private military and security contractors (PMSCs) in armed conflict and post-conflict situations in the last decade brought corresponding incidents of serious misconduct by PMSC personnel. The two most infamous events?one involving the firm formerly known as Blackwater and the other involving Titan and CACI?engendered scrutiny of available mechanisms for criminal and civil accountability of the individuals whose misconduct caused the harm. Along a parallel track, scholars and policymakers began examining the responsibility of states and (...)
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  44.  63
    Defending the Traditional Interpretations of Kant’s Formula of a Law of Nature.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2019 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 66 (158):76-102.
    In this paper I defend the traditional interpretations of Kant’s Formula of a Law of Nature from recent attacks leveled by Faviola Rivera-Castro, James Furner, Ido Geiger, Pauline Kleingeld and Sven Nyholm. After a short introduction, the paper is divided into four main sections. In the first, I set out the basics of the three traditional interpretations, the Logical Contradiction Interpretation, the Practical Contradiction Interpretation and the Teleological Contradiction Interpretation. In the second, I examine the work of Geiger, Kleingeld and (...)
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  45.  60
    Consumer Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Ethical Beliefs of Turkish and American Consumers.Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Ziad Swaidan & Mine Oyman - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):183-195.
    The ethical climate in Turkey is beset by ethical problems. Bribery, environmental pollution, tax frauds, deceptive advertising, production of unsafe products, and the ethical violations that involved politicians and business professionals are just a few examples. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the ethical beliefs of American and Turkish consumers using the Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) of Forsyth (1980), the Machiavellianism scale, and the Consumer Ethical Practices of Muncy and Vitell questionnaire (MVQ). A sample of 376 (...)
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  46. What the Externalist Can Know A Priori.Paul A. Boghossian - 1997 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97 (2):161-75.
    Controversy continues to attach to the question whether an externalism about mental content is compatible with a traditional doctrine of privileged self-knowledge. By an externalism about mental content, I mean the view that what concepts our thoughts involve may depend not only on facts that are internal to us, but on facts about our environment. It is worth emphasizing, if only because it is still occasionally misperceived, that this thesis is supposed to apply at the level of sense and not (...)
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  47. Being in a Position to Know and Closure.Jan Heylen - 2016 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):63-67.
    The focus of this article is the question whether the notion of being in a position to know is closed under modus ponens. The question is answered negatively.
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  48.  72
    Newton on Action at a Distance and the Cause of Gravity.Steffen Ducheyne - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):154-159.
    In this discussion paper, I seek to challenge Hylarie Kochiras’ recent claims on Newton’s attitude towards action at a distance, which will be presented in Section 1. In doing so, I shall include the positions of Andrew Janiak and John Henry in my discussion and present my own tackle on the matter . Additionally, I seek to strengthen Kochiras’ argument that Newton sought to explain the cause of gravity in terms of secondary causation . I also provide some specification on (...)
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  49.  97
    Phenomenological Architecture of a Mind and Operational Architectonics of the Brain: The Unified Metastable Continuum.Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves - 2009 - In Robert Kozma & John Caulfield (eds.), Journal of New Mathematics and Natural Computing. Special Issue on Neurodynamic Correlates of Higher Cognition and Consciousness: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches - in Honor of Walter J Freeman's 80th Birthday. World Scientific. pp. 221-244.
    In our contribution we will observe phenomenal architecture of a mind and operational architectonics of the brain and will show their intimate connectedness within a single integrated metastable continuum. The notion of operation of different complexity is the fundamental and central one in bridging the gap between brain and mind: it is precisely by means of this notion that it is possible to identify what at the same time belongs to the phenomenal conscious level and to the neurophysiological level of (...)
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  50. Signs, Toy Models, and the A Priori.Lydia Patton - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3):281-289.
    The Marburg neo-Kantians argue that Hermann von Helmholtz's empiricist account of the a priori does not account for certain knowledge, since it is based on a psychological phenomenon, trust in the regularities of nature. They argue that Helmholtz's account raises the 'problem of validity' (Gueltigkeitsproblem): how to establish a warranted claim that observed regularities are based on actual relations. I reconstruct Heinrich Hertz's and Ludwig Wittgenstein's Bild theoretic answer to the problem of validity: that scientists and philosophers can depict the (...)
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