Dennis Ahern and David Soles raise substantial problems for the conventional interpretation of Mo Tzu as a utilitarian. Although they defend different interpretations, both scholars agree that Mo Tzu is committed to a divine command theory in some form, citing the same key passages where, supposedly, Mo Tzu explicitly endorses the divine command theory. In this paper, I defend the orthodox interpretation, insisting that Mo Tzu is a utilitarian. I show that the passages cited by Ahern and Soles do not (...) explicitly endorse the divine command theory and are compatible with the utilitarian interpretation; in fact, I argue that many of these passages must be understood in light of a utilitarian interpretation if they are to be rendered intelligible at all. After showing that motivation for the divine command interpretation is lacking, I argue that the only satisfactory alternative is to understand Mo Tzu as a consistent utilitarian. (shrink)
The major purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the moral atmosphere of athletic teams to athletes' self-described likelihood to aggress (SLA). Two additional purposes were: first, to determine whether there was a predominant figure most influential to athletes' SLA and, secondly, to examine potential gender differences in athletes' perceived team moral atmosphere, their SLA and the most influential person affecting their SLA. Participants were 194 male and female soccer players 13-19 years of age. Athletes' perceptions of (...) their team pro-aggressive norms emerged as the most consistent predictor of their SLA. Regardless of gender, the athletes reported that they would be more likely to aggress if they thought their coach supported such behaviour. The findings shed light on the influence that significant others have in "shaping" the moral atmosphere operating on youth sport teams. (shrink)
This chapter makes the argument for both the practicality and impracticality of philosophy as it relates to liberal education. An exploration of the history of science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reveals that a study of philosophy cultivates a skill set of logic and critical thinking that are crucial for those who study science and mathematics. It also situates philosophy as a unifying discipline for liberal education and STEM studies (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). The study of philosophy also (...) is impractical, as is liberal education, in that it does not prepare students for any specific profession. But it is this impracticality that makes philosophy, and liberal education, central to its identity and value: it creates an individual who is more empathic, open-minded, and self-aware that would not be possible if philosophy and liberal education were subordinated to some practical goal. (shrink)
The article recalls shortly the early story of cooperation between the already existing Lvov philosophical school, headed by Twardowski, and the just then establishing Warsaw mathematical school, headed by Sierpiski. After that recollection the article proceeds to contributions made by men influenced by the two schools. Most prominent of them was Alfred Tarski whose work in those times, concentrated mainly upon the theory of deduction, axiom of choice, cardinal arithmetic, and measure problem, has been described in some detail.
The vivacity of mathematics results (partly) from the fact that mathematics is stretched between several poles, not being committed to any one. The paper presents the following polarities: realism - idealism, the finite - the infinite, the discrete - the continuous, the approximate - the exact, certitute - probability, simplicity - complexity, unity - multiplicity.
Composite Structure of Personal Networks, Age, and Well-being in Poland Traditionally aging research focused on the disintegration of social ties, however it has recently been observed that whom we contact has a larger impact on well-being. The authors used data from the Social Networks II module of the International Social Survey Programme to investigate the role of social network components in successful aging. A factor analysis on 1221 Polish participants revealed 4 factors that were interpreted as: close, medium, and distant (...) family, and friends. Well-being variables were most strongly related to contact with distant family, while SS variables were most strongly related to friends. Given SS was strongly related to distant family, while perceived SS was strongly related to close family. All family contacts decreased with age, though only distant family contacts were proactively managed. These results indicate the importance of distant family in Poland, in contrast to other countries. (shrink)
The origins of mathematics, a close connection and interpenetration of its parts, and uniform procedures of dealing with the mathematical matter - all of them speak in favour of the integrality of mathematics. It seems that a strong argument for such a view is a fundamental object of contemporary mathematics; namely a real line, which contains real numbers (so arithmetics as well) and constitutes a basis of geometry, mathematical analysis and all derivative branches. From the basic-structures perspective it is clear (...) that the real line is an exceptionally complex structure, for it contains the ordered structure (generated by the less-than relation), the algebraic structure (generated by addition and multiplication), the gemetrical structure (generated by translations and reflections) and the topological structure (generated by open intervals). This example explains, at least to some extent, the integrality and also the vivacity of mathematics. On the other hand, the integrality has not been confirmed by comprising the whole mathematics in one axiomatised, deductive theory. Moreover, the increasing „volume” of mathematics, unwillingness of mathematicians to cross the specialisation-barriers, emphasis on utility (models) and difficulties with axiomatisations of some parts of mathematics cast some doubts on the integrality in question. (shrink)
Primary object of interest of mathematicians can be identified as a „mathematical matter”, the concept analogous to „physical matter” or „biological matter”. The „mathematical matter” is the soil upon which mathematics grows. One can distinguish three levels of it: some abstract but not necessarily clear conceptions, operational notions (like number) but not necessarily openly defined, theories not necessarily axiomatic. The „mathematical matter” originates in the abstract reflection upon events and forms in time and space. Its important elements are notions formed (...) mostly in the process of idealization and/or abstraction. Once formed, notions usually evolve being, e.g., simplified or complexified. Mathematics is a mirror of the world, most abstract and therefore fundamental. Although it is a free activity of human mind, mathematics reflects some deep ideas (beauty, simplicity etc.) while most interesting notions come up in tension fields between pairs of poles: the notion of a function can be seen as a bridge connecting variability and immutability, while that of a limit – connecting finiteness and infinity. A fusion of freedom and internal restrictions leads to mathematics which is simple, beautiful and effective. (shrink)
In some patients with atrial fibrillation, the causative agent of attack is stress. In others, AF usually begins during relax or sleep. This study aimed to investigate the individual factors associated with the adrenergic or vagal type of AF. This study included 138 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Sixty-eight patients reported that AF was frequently triggered by stress and 70 patients reported that AF usually began during relaxation or sleep. Gender, age, ejection fraction, and temperament were compared across the two (...) groups. Temperament was evaluated using the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory. The groups differed only in temperament. Patients with sympathetic-type AF had a higher score for emotional reactivity and perseverance temperament traits and a lower score for endurance than patients with vagal-type AF and than the average in population. (shrink)
This work analyzes Cartesian doubt as a fundamental element describing the human attitude in modernity from the philosophical field, based on the criteria of Hannah Arendt. Arendt explains that the growth of doubt and science, introspection and the loss of common sense were simultaneous, as well..
El ser en su riqueza se expresa en el lenguaje que emana también del ser. El lenguaje emergió de su olvido en la filosofía griega, gracias a las ideas cristianas de encarnación y trinidad que le hicieron más justicia. El mayor milagro del lenguaje no estriba en que la palabra aparezca en su ser externo, sino en el hecho de que lo que emerge y se manifiesta sea siempre palabra. La vuelta de Gadamer al final de Verdad y método, en (...) torno a la evidencia de que el ser de lo bello consiste en presentarse, ilustra la estructura universal del ser mismo. Apalabrar a lo que es el ser mismo. Lo que determina y hace posible la interpretación es el presentarse del ser de lo que es. Being in its richness expresses itself in language, which itself emanates from Being. Language emerged from its oblivion in Greek philosophy thanks to the Christian ideas of incarnation and trinity, which did it more justice. Language's greatest miracle does not rest on the fact that the word appears in its external being, but on the fact that that which emerges and manifests itself is always word. Gadamer's turn at the end of Truth and Method, regarding the evidence according to which beauty's being consists of presenting itself, illustrates the universal structure of Being itself. Bespeaking what is Being itself. What determines and make possible interpretation is the presentation itself of the being of what is. (shrink)
Niklas Luhmann´s theory of social systems is, in westen social thought, the most important proposal for an analysis of society from a Complexity perspective. In this Article we begin by aiming to show, in general, the basic as sumptions ot this theoretical alternative offered by the german socilogi..