How Technologies of Imaging are Shaping Clinical Research and Practice in Neurology Content Type Journal Article Category Past & Present Pages 315-328 DOI 10.1007/s12376-010-0037-1 Authors Nicolas Kopp, Hôpital de l’HotelDieu Lyon University Hospitals, EspaceEthique Inter-régional 69288 Lyon, Cedex 02 France Journal Medicine Studies Online ISSN 1876-4541 Print ISSN 1876-4533 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 4.
Some types of solar radiation management (SRM) research are ethically problematic because they expose persons, animals, and ecosystems to significant risks. In our earlier work, we argued for ethical norms for SRM research based on norms for biomedical research. Biomedical researchers may not conduct research on persons without their consent, but universal consent is impractical for SRM research. We argue that instead of requiring universal consent, ethical norms for SRM research require only political legitimacy in decision-making about global SRM trials. (...) Using Allen Buchanan & Robert Keohane's model of global political legitimacy, we examine several existing global institutions as possible analogues for a politically legitimate SRM decision-making body. (shrink)
Climate engineering (CE), the intentional modification of the climate in order to reduce the effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, is sometimes touted as a potential response to climate change. Increasing interest in the topic has led to proposals for empirical tests of hypothesized CE techniques, which raise serious ethical concerns. We propose three ethical guidelines for CE researchers, derived from the ethics literature on research with human and animal subjects, applicable in the event that CE research progresses beyond computer (...) modeling. The Principle of Respect requires that the scientific community secure the global public's consent, voiced through their governmental representatives, before beginning any empirical research. The Principle of Beneficence and Justice requires that researchers strive for a favorable risk–benefit ratio and a fair distribution of risks and anticipated benefits, all while protecting the basic rights of affected individuals. Finally, the Minimization Principle requires that researchers minimize the extent and intensity of each experiment by ensuring that no experiments last longer, cover a greater geographical extent, or have a greater impact on the climate, ecosystem, or human welfare than is necessary to test the specific hypotheses in question. Field experiments that might affect humans or ecosystems in significant ways should not proceed until a full discussion of the ethics of CE research occurs and appropriate institutions for regulating such experiments are established. (shrink)
This chapter makes the argument for both the practicality and impracticality of philosophy as it relates to liberal education. An exploration of the history of science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reveals that a study of philosophy cultivates a skill set of logic and critical thinking that are crucial for those who study science and mathematics. It also situates philosophy as a unifying discipline for liberal education and STEM studies (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). The study of philosophy also (...) is impractical, as is liberal education, in that it does not prepare students for any specific profession. But it is this impracticality that makes philosophy, and liberal education, central to its identity and value: it creates an individual who is more empathic, open-minded, and self-aware that would not be possible if philosophy and liberal education were subordinated to some practical goal. (shrink)
Electronic technologies, in general, and computer-oriented technologies specifically have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of business. One area of increased concern is the protection of intellectual properties -- notably copyrights -- within the boundaries of the broadly defined technology industry. While the ability to share copyrighted information has always existed at the most basic levels, the advent of the information age has allowed the sharing of this information to take place in potentially greater quantities and without a loss (...) of quality. As such, copying creates a major threat to industries dealing in the production and distribution of copyrightable creations. The focus of this paper is to better understand how the ethical judgments of employees regarding the opportunities to recreate copyrighted works via traditional and newer technologies impact assessments of copying behavior in the workplace. (shrink)
The application of evolutionary perspectives to analyzing sex differences in aggressive behavior and dominance hierarchies has been found useful in multiple areas. We draw attention to the parallel of gender differences in the worsening health status of restructuring societies. Drastic socio-economic changes are interpreted as examples of hierarchy disruption, having differential psychological and behavioral impact on women and men, and leading to different changes in health status.
Wie beeinflussen sich Recht und Technik? Im ersten Teil dieses Bandes hinterfragen die Autorinnen und Autoren, ob es tatsächlich die rechtliche Entwicklung sein kann, die die Rahmenbedingungen für den technologischen und den damit möglicherweise einhergehenden gesellschaftlichen Fortschritt setzt – oder ob vielmehr das Recht nicht antizipiert, sondern nur reagiert. Damit und mit der globalen Dimension des Themas einher geht die Erkenntnis, dass es vielleicht an der Zeit ist, in einer weltweiten Informationsgesellschaft an neue, auch außerhalb des Rechts liegende Regulierungsansätze zu (...) denken. Im zweiten Teil des Bandes fragen die Autorinnen und Autoren nach der Relevanz des „practice turn“ für Recht und Moral. In ihren Beiträgen zeigen sie unter Rückgriff auf verschiedene philosophische Ansätze, was es für das Verständnis von Normen, Pflichten und Rechten bedeutet, wenn man diese als Teil sozialer Praktiken betrachtet: Wird so ein differenzierteres Bild gewonnen, das neue Möglichkeiten für die Kritik an bestehenden Normen eröffnet? Liegt hier theoretisches Potential für Völker- und Menschenrechtsdebatten? Oder wird die Möglichkeit normativer Begründungen dabei provinzialisiert und am Ende gar zugunsten von sozialtheoretischen Beschreibungen aufgegeben? (shrink)