MARTIN HEIDEGGER’S FUNDAMENTAL ONTOLOGY – REALITY ENCLOSED IN DASEIN Martin Heidegger’s fundamental ontology was supposed to divert philosophy towards the absolutely fundamental issue, which in the history of philosophy, unfortunately, as the author claimed, had been neglected. It was an attempt to designate the real foundation, which western metaphysics – while forgetting about being – had never touched. Thus, Heidegger focused on being. He asked about its sense, the way in which it can be described and explained. The answer was (...) to be found in the analysis of some special being – the human being. Only man, who exists in such a way (Heidegger uses the concept of Dasein) that by his very nature refers to being, is “open” to being. This article shows Heidegger’s explanation based on the analysis of man’s being, connecting the existence of reality with human existence, in its essence making the world thoroughly dependent on man, enclosing the world in Dasein. The world ceases to be the whole reality consisting of particular essences existing independently of man. It becomes “the condition”, the way of being. In the first part, the author presents how the fundamental ontology, while placing being at the centre of the discourse and using the phenomenological method, directs the attention to man. When asking about being, it asks about Dasein, about the way of man’s being. Then, the paper presents the existential analytics, the hermeneutics of Dasein, which is crucial from the point of view of Heidegger’s philosophy. The author explains what Heidegger’s existentials are and what it means that man exists as “being-in-the world”, that he exists in a way of “care”. Finally, it is shown that such an understanding of human being, the way in which he cares about the world and understands the world, i.e. designs it, results in enclosing the world in Dasein. The very sense of reality becomes thus the sense of human existence. Keywords: FUNDAMENTAL ONTOLOGY, MARTIN HEIDEGGER, REALITY, DASEIN. (shrink)
Jest to początek Zarysów Pyrrońskich Sekstusa Empiryka, ks. I (1-30) w nowym przekładzie. Całość tekstu ukaże się w Wydawnictwie UMK w połowie roku 2019. -/- This is the opening part of Sextus' Outlines of Pyrrhonism (I 1-30). The translation of the treatise will be published by Wydawnictwo UMK in the 2019.
`On Usury`, the treaty by Martin Smiglecki SJ, was the first strictly scientific attempt to show the economic and social background of the bourgeois and peasant social stratum in Poland and Lithuania at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. The author, being an excellent logician, expressed his views in a very precise way, limiting his technical language to a minimum, so that his treatise would be understandable to readers from a range of social positions and circumstances. Its careful (...) analysis of the socio-economic situation and clear formulation of its postulates enabled it to function, over the course of two centuries, as a practical manual imparting guidance to the ruling class as they sought to maintain a just and fair stance in their dealings with the burghers and peasants. Smiglecki’s ideas have become a reference point for many generations of professors of moral philosophy and folk preachers seeking to raise social issues in their own works. (shrink)
Philosophy of nature as “a science in the beginning,” having paved a way for natural sciences, has not lost its impact even today. It suggests new problems and proposes solutions in the domains which the scientific disciplines in question cannot solve because they do not have appropriate tools. On can notice the relationship between the philosophy of nature and natural sciences in various stages of their development. It happens so that the overall images of the world are constructed on the (...) basis of the results of natural sciences and philosophical theses. Those theses, i.e. philosophical ideas are introduced as presuppositions into natural sciences, which in turn may generate philosophical problems. One can observe a relationship between natural sciences and various types of the philosophy of nature from the ancient times till today. The classical tradition had ignored the factor of time in the manners it sought to explain nature and, instead, stressed formal elements in knowledge. This conception of the scientific explanation of nature was questioned by the idea of creation and the Christian conception of history which took the factor of time into account in explanations. The principal change of the hitherto manner of interpretation of phenomena had taken place at the moment of introducing evolutionary ideas into geology and biology. Owing to this genetic explanation appeared, and the conceptual apparatus of the hitherto systems of the philosophy of nature changed. On the grounds of the essentialising approaches the elements of the philosophy of nature are mixed with the elements of natural sciences. One can notice also a relationship between the existential approaches of the philosophy of nature and natural sciences. Much attention is devoted to the relations between natural sciences and the philosophy of nature on the grounds of classical philosophy and in the non-classical positions. (shrink)