The analogy between biological and cultural evolution is not perfect. Yet, as Mesoudi et al. show, many of the vaunted differences between cultural and genetic evolution (for example, an absence of discrete particles of cultural inheritance, and the blurred distinction between cultural replicators and cultural phenotypes) are, on closer inspection, either illusory or peripheral to the validity of the analogy. But what about horizontal transmission? We strongly agree with the authors that the potential for horizontal transmission of cultural traits does (...) not invalidate an evolutionary approach to culture. We suggest, however, that it does require a different evolutionary treatment. (Published Online November 9 2006). (shrink)
In an effort to fulfill the commands of Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou, our people are working strenuously to build our country into a powerful, modernized socialist state before the end of the century. Following the gradual progress of the four modernizations, the productive forces will rapidly grow, and the socialization level of production is bound to rise noticeably. How to understand the socialization of production, how to promptly readjust the relations of production and the superstructure in order to fit (...) in with the new situation in which the socialization level of production is continuously on the rise, and how to reform the management of industrial and agricultural enterprises as well as the administrative system of the national economy in order to quicken the speed of economic development pose a new problem calling for earnest study and exploration. (shrink)
Im Paragraphen 206 seiner Philosophischen Untersuchungen sagt Ludwig Wittgenstein, daß „die gemeinsame menschliche Handlungsweise das Bezugssystem (ist), mittels dessen wir uns eine fremde Sprache deuten". Unter ,,gemeinsame menschliche Handlungsweise" wurde in der Literatur ein Bündel an Gattungsmerkmalen des Menschen verstanden (Baker/Hacker; Haller). Diese Interpretation ist exegetisch nicht überzeugend. Auch die Lesart (v. Savigny), wonach es lediglich um Gemeinsamkeiten der Sprechergemeinschaft geht, ist nicht zwingend. Am plausibelsten ist die Interpretation (Schulte) im Sinne einer Sprecher- und Beobachtergemeinschaft gemeinsamen Handlungsweise.