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Ludger Jansen [103]Lynn A. Jansen [33]L. Jansen [14]L. A. Jansen [5]
Laura Jansen [4]Lynn Jansen [2]Leo Jansen [1]Lawrence F. Jansen [1]
See also
Ludger Jansen
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
  1.  33
    We Are Not a Plural Subject.Ludger Jansen - 2018 - ProtoSociology 35:167-196.
    In "On Social Facts" (1989) and subsequent works, Margaret Gilbert has suggested a plural subject account of the semantics of ‘we’ that claims that a central or standard use of ‘we’ is to refer to an existing or anticipated plural subject. This contrasts with the more general approach to treat plural pronouns as expressions referring to certain pluralities. I argue that (i) the plural subject approach cannot account for certain syntactic phenomena and that (ii) the sense of intimacy, which Gilbert (...)
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  2.  6
    Unrealistic Optimism in Early-Phase Oncology Trials.Lynn A. Jansen, Paul S. Appelbaum, William Mp Klein, Neil D. Weinstein, William Cook, Jessica S. Fogel & Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2011 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 33 (1):1.
    Unrealistic optimism is a bias that leads people to believe, with respect to a specific event or hazard, that they are more likely to experience positive outcomes and/or less likely to experience negative outcomes than similar others. The phenomenon has been seen in a range of health-related contexts—including when prospective participants are presented with the risks and benefits of participating in a clinical trial. In order to test for the prevalence of unrealistic optimism among participants of early-phase oncology trials, we (...)
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  3.  26
    Disambiguating Clinical Intentions: The Ethics of Palliative Sedation.L. A. Jansen - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (1):19-31.
    It is often claimed that the intentions of physicians are multiple, ambiguous, and uncertain—at least with respect to end-of-life care. This claim provides support for the conclusion that the principle of double effect is of little or no value as a guide to end-of-life pain management. This paper critically discusses this claim. It argues that proponents of the claim fail to distinguish two different senses of “intention,” and that, as a result, they are led to exaggerate the extent to which (...)
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  4.  31
    The Ethics of Altruism in Clinical Research.Lynn A. Jansen - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (4):26-36.
  5.  12
    Two Concepts of Therapeutic Optimism.L. A. Jansen - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (9):563-566.
    Researchers and ethicists have long been concerned about the expectations for direct medical benefit expressed by participants in early phase clinical trials. Early work on the issue considered the possibility that participants misunderstand the purpose of clinical research or that they are misinformed about the prospects for medical benefit from these trials. Recently, however, attention has turned to the possibility that research participants are simply expressing optimism or hope about their participation in these trials. The ethical significance of this therapeutic (...)
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  6.  53
    Paternalism and Fairness in Clinical Research.Lynn A. Jansen & Steven Wall - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (3):172-182.
    In this paper, we defend the ethics of clinical research against the charge of paternalism. We do so not by denying that the ethics of clinical research is paternalistic, but rather by defending the legitimacy of paternalism in this context. Our aim is not to defend any particular set of paternalistic restrictions, but rather to make a general case for the permissibility of paternalistic restrictions in this context. Specifically, we argue that there is no basic liberty-right to participate in clinical (...)
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  7.  29
    Theory - Hitchcock Theory for Classics. A Student's Guide. Pp. Xvi + 213. London and New York: Routledge, 2008. Paper, £18.99, US$29.95 . ISBN: 978-0-415-45498-8. [REVIEW]Laura Jansen - 2011 - The Classical Review 61 (2):343-344.
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  8. Aristotle’s Categories.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):153-158.
    Being an "untimely review", this paper reviews Aristotle's 'Categories' as if they were published today, in the era of computerised information, where categorisation becomes more and more essential for information retrieval. I suggest a systematic ordering of Aristotle's list of categories and argue that Aristotle's discussion of ontological dependency and his focus on concrete entities are still a source of new insight and can indeed be read as a contribution to the emerging field of applied ontology and ontological engineering.
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  9. The Ontology of Tendencies and Medical Information Sciences.Ludger Jansen - 2006 - In Ingvar Johansson, Bertin Klein & Thomas Roth-Berghofer (eds.), WSPI 2006: Contributions to the Third International Workshop on Philosophy and Informatics. pp. 1-14.
    In order to develop the ontology of tendencies for use in the representation of medical knowledge, tendencies are compared with other kinds of entities possessing the realizable-realization-structure, specifically: dispositions, propensities, abilities and virtues. The peculiarities of tendencies are discussed and a standard schema of tendency ascription is developed in order to represent the relations between the ascriptions of tendency tokens to particulars and the ascriptions of tendency types to universals. Two non-standard cases and their epistemic variants are discussed.
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  10.  18
    Between Beneficence and Justice: The Ethics of Stewardship in Medicine.L. A. Jansen - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (1):50-63.
    In an era of rapidly rising health care costs, physicians and policymakers are searching for new and effective ways to contain health care spending without sacrificing the quality of services provided. These proposals are increasingly articulated in terms of an ethical duty of stewardship. The duty of stewardship in medicine, however, is not at present well understood, and it is frequently conflated with other duties. This article presents a critical analysis of the notion of stewardship, which shows that it has (...)
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  11.  97
    Tendencies and Other Realizables in Medical Information Sciences.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - The Monist 90 (4):534-554.
    In order to develop the ontology of tendencies for use in the representation of medical knowledge, tendencies are compared with other kinds of entities possessing the realizable-realization structure, specifically: dispositions, propensities, abilities and virtues. The peculiarities of tendencies are discussed and a standard schema of tendency ascription is developed in order to represent the relations between the ascriptions of tendency tokens to particulars and the ascriptions of tendency types to universals. Two nonstandard cases and their epistemic variants are discussed.
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  12.  85
    Proportionality, Terminal Suffering and the Restorative Goals of Medicine.Lynn A. Jansen & Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (4-5):321-337.
    Recent years have witnessed a growing concern that terminally illpatients are needlessly suffering in the dying process. This has ledto demands that physicians become more attentive in the assessment ofsuffering and that they treat their patients as `whole persons.'' Forthe most part, these demands have not fallen on deaf ears. It is nowwidely accepted that the relief of suffering is one of the fundamentalgoals of medicine. Without question this is a positive development.However, while the importance of treating suffering has generally (...)
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  13.  13
    Perceptions of Control and Unrealistic Optimism in Early-Phase Cancer Trials.Lynn A. Jansen, Daruka Mahadevan, Paul S. Appelbaum, William M. P. Klein, Neil D. Weinstein, Motomi Mori, Catherine Degnin & Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (2):121-127.
    Purpose Recent research has found unrealistic optimism among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. Our aim was to investigate the cognitive and motivational factors that evoke this bias in this context. We expected perceptions of control to be a strong correlate of unrealistic optimism. Methods A study of patient-subjects enrolled in early-phase oncology trials was conducted at two sites in the USA. Respondents completed questionnaires designed to assess unrealistic optimism and several risk attribute variables that have been found to evoke the (...)
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  14. Aristoteles’ Kategorie des Relativen Zwischen Dialektik Und Ontologie.Ludger Jansen - 2006 - Philosophie­Geschichte Und Logische Analyse 9.
    Like the doctrine of the categories in general, Aristotle’s category of the relative fulfils disparate functions: On the one hand, the category of the pros ti fulfils a dialectic or logical function that aims at the avoidance of fallacies. On the other hand, the category respects the peculiar mode of being of the relative. Taking these two different functions into consideration helps with the interpretation of Aristotle’s two definitions of the relative and his treatment of the properties of the relative (...)
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  15.  36
    Rethinking Exploitation: A Process-Centered Account.Lynn A. Jansen & Steven Wall - 2013 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (4):381-410.
    The term “exploitation” has gained wide currency in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer’s path-breaking work on the topic (Wertheimer 1999, 2011). Wertheimer presented a clear and compelling non-Marxist account of the concept of exploitation—one that stressed the connection between exploitation and unfair distributive outcomes. On this account, when one party exploits another, she takes advantage of the other to gain unfairly. A number of contemporary bioethicists (...)
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  16. Dispositionen und ihre Realität.Ludger Jansen - 2004 - In Christoph Halbig & Suhm Christian (eds.), Was ist wirklich? Neuere Beiträge zu philosophischen Rea­lismusdebatten. Ontos. pp. 117-137.
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  17. The Diachronic Identity of Social Entities.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - In Kanzian Christian (ed.), Persistence,. Ontos. pp. 49-71.
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  18. Staatliche Toleranz und staatliche Wertorientierung.Ludger Jansen - 2006 - In Starck Christian (ed.), Wo hört die Toleranz auf? Wallstein. pp. 20-62.
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  19. Dispositions, Laws, and Categories.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - Metaphysica 8 (2):211-220.
    After a short sketch of Lowe’s account of his four basic categories, I discuss his theory of formal ontological relations and how Lowe wants to account for dispositional predications. I argue that on the ontic level Lowe is a pan-categoricalist, while he is a language dualist and an exemplification dualist with regard to the dispositional/categorical distinction. I argue that Lowe does not present an adequate account of disposition. From an Aristotelian point of view, Lowe conflates dispositional predication with hôs epi (...)
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  20.  31
    A Closer Look at the Bad Deal Trial: Beyond Clinical Equipoise.Lynn A. Jansen - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (5):29-36.
    : Some commentators have recently proposed that "clinical equipoise," although widely accepted, is not necessary for morally acceptable research on human subjects. If this concept is rejected, however, we may find that trials not in the best medical interests of their subjects--bad deal trials--could be justified. To avoid exploiting participants, we must find a way to distribute the risks fairly, even if it means embracing radical changes in the way clinical research is conducted.
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  21. Die Wahrheit der Geschichte und die Tugenden des Historikers.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 62 (4):471-491.
    Zuweilen werden der Geschichtsschreibung der Wissenschaftscharakter und historischen Aussagen die Wahrheitsfähigkeit abgesprochen. Ich werde erstens zeigen, dass Aussagen über Vergangenes nicht nur wahrheitsfähig sind, sondern dass einige Aussagen über Vergangenes tatsächlich wahr sind. Zweitens argumentiere ich dafür, dass weder die Gebundenheit an Quellen und die Möglichkeit des Irrtums, noch die Zeit- und Standortgebundenheit historischer Aussagen und eine eventuelle Werthaltigkeit historischer Urteile eine zwingende Gefahr für den Wissenschaftscharakter der Geschichtsschreibung sind. Sie stellen aber besondere Ansprüche an die wissenschaftlichen Tugenden, die ein (...)
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  22. Planners, Deciders, Performers. Aristotelian Reflections on the Ontology of Agents and Actions.Ludger Jansen - 2003 - In Christian Kanzian, Josef Quitterer & Edmund Runggaldier (eds.), Persons. An Interdisciplinary Approach. öbv & hpt. pp. 208-215.
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  23. Who has Got Our Group-Intentions?Ludger Jansen - 2004 - In Johann C. Marek & Maria E. Reicher (eds.), Erfahrung und Analyse. Beiträge des 27. Internationalen Wittgenstein-Sym­posiums. ILWG. pp. 151-153.
    There are group-actions, and if actions are intentional, there should also be group-intentions. Who has got these intentions? The groups? This seems to be the natural answer. But then: Groups do not have a mind or brain of there own to form any mental attitude. Different kinds of individualistic analyses of group-intentions have been suggested in the literature. On the one hand there are suggestions to reduce group intentions to a complex of different Iattitudes. John Searle, on the other hand, (...)
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  24. Experimental Philosophy, Clinical Intentions, and Evaluative Judgment.Lynn A. Jansen, Jessica S. Fogel & Mark Brubaker - 2013 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (2):126-135.
    Recent empirical work on the concept of intentionality suggests that people’s assessments of whether an action is intentional are subject to uncertainty. Some researchers have gone so far as to claim that different people employ different concepts of intentional action. These possibilities have motivated a good deal of work in the relatively new field of experimental philosophy. The findings from this empirical research may prove to be relevant to medical ethics. -/- In this article, we address this issue head on. (...)
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  25.  55
    Molecular Interactions. On the Ambiguity of Ordinary Statements in Biomedical Literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2009 - Applied Ontology (4):21-34.
    Statements about the behavior of biochemical entities (e.g., about the interaction between two proteins) abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that have to be taken into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering: Such statements can not only be understood as event reporting statements, but also as ascriptions of (...)
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  26.  18
    Assessing Clinical Pragmatism.Lynn A. Jansen - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (1):23-36.
    : "Clinical pragmatism" is an important new method of moral problem solving in clinical practice. This method draws on the pragmatic philosophy of John Dewey and recommends an experimental approach to solving moral problems in clinical practice. Although the method may shed some light on how clinicians and their patients ought to interact when moral problems are at hand, it nonetheless is deficient in a number of respects. Clinical pragmatism fails to explain adequately how moral problems can be solved experimentally, (...)
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  27. Was Hat der Inkarnierte Logos MIT Aristoteles Zu Tun? Thomas von Aquins Gebrauch der Philo­Sophie in der Auslegung des Johannesprologs Und Eine ‚Holistische‘ Interpretation Seiner Schrifthermeneutik.Ludger Jansen - 2000 - Theologie Und Philosophie 80.
    Taking Thomas Aquinas's interpretation of the prologue of St John's gospel (in his Lectura super loannem Evangelium) as example, I first discuss eight differences between medieval biblical interpretation and modern exegesis, especially Aquinas's frequent use of philosophical opinions in interpreting the Bible, taken mostly from Aristotle. Second, I account for these differences by reconstructing Aquinas's hermeneutics, hinging, as is shown, upon the assumption that scripture was authored by God infallible and, therefore, only contains true statements. From this starting point Aquinas (...)
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  28.  9
    Bioethics, Conflicts of Interest, the Limits of Transparency.Lynn A. Jansen & Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (4):40-43.
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  29. The so-Called Materially Valid Inferences and the Logic of Concepts.Ludger Jansen & Niko Strobach - 2003 - In Foundations of The Formal Sciences II. Applications of Mathematical Logic in Philosophy and Linguistics [Trends in Logic]. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 113-118.
    The so-called materially valid inferences have come to new prominence through the work of Robert Brandom. This paper introduces a fragment of a logic of concepts that does not reduce concepts to their extensions. Concept logic and ist semantics allow us to represent the conceptual knowledge used in material inferences and thus suggests a way to deal with them.
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  30. On Ascribing Dispositions.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - In Gnassounou Bruno & Kistler Max (eds.), Dispositions and Causal Powers. Ashgate. pp. 161-177.
  31.  26
    Classifications.Ludger Jansen - forthcoming - Applied Ontology: An Introduction.
    It has long been a standard practice for the natural sciences to classify things. Thus, it is no wonder that, for two and a half millennia, philosophers have been reflecting on classifications, from Plato and Aristotle to contemporary philosophy of science. Some of the results of these reflections will be presented in this chapter. I will start by discussing a parody of a classification, namely: the purportedly ancient Chinese classification of animals described by Jorge Luis Borges. I will show that (...)
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  32. Die Struktur der Substanz Bei Thomas von Aquin.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - In Antonella Balestra, Holger Gutschmidt & Gianluigi Segalerba (eds.), Substantia – Sic et Non. Eine Geschichte des Substanzbegriffs von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart in Einzelbeiträgen. Ontos. pp. 181-209.
    Starting from the early treatise "On Being and Essence", I review issues concerning substances composed of matter and form: their hylomorphic composition, individuation, essence as part and as whole, and the analogy between genus/difference and matter/form. Then I discuss substances separated from matter, which may range from human souls and angels (or intelligences) to God. I then turn to Aquinas's later 'Summa Theologica', where he argues that in the end God cannot possibly belong to the category of substance and discuss (...)
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  33. Permanent Generic Relatedness and Silent Change.Niels Grewe, Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith - 2016 - In Formal Ontology and Information Systems. CEUR, Vol. 1060. pp. 1-5.
    Given the assertion of a relation between two types, like: “Epidermis has part some Keratinocyte”, we define silent change as any kind of change of the instance-relata of the relation in question that does not change the truth-value of the respective type-level assertion. Such assertions are notoriously difficult to model in OWL 2. To address this problem, we distinguish different modes of type-level relatedness giving rise to this problem and describe a conservative extension to the BFO top-level ontology that allows (...)
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  34. Unity and Constitution of Social Entities.Ludger Jansen - 2009 - In Ludger Honnefelder & Edmund Runggaldier (eds.), Unity and Time in Metaphysics. de Gruyter. pp. 15-45.
    Is a bank note identical with the piece of paper of which it consists? On the one hand, John Searle, in his reply to Barry Smith, suggests that they are “one and the same object” that is a social or non-social object only under certain descriptions. On the other hand, Lynne Rudder Baker puts forward the claim that bank note and paper are distinct entities that are bound together by the relation of material constitution. I suggest two possible analyses for (...)
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  35.  17
    Drawing the Line on Physician-Assisted Death.Lynn A. Jansen, Steven Wall & Franklin G. Miller - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3):190-197.
    Drawing the line on physician assistance in physician-assisted death continues to be a contentious issue in many legal jurisdictions across the USA, Canada and Europe. PAD is a medical practice that occurs when physicians either prescribe or administer lethal medication to their patients. As more legal jurisdictions establish PAD for at least some class of patients, the question of the proper scope of this practice has become pressing. This paper presents an argument for restricting PAD to the terminally ill that (...)
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  36. The Ship of Theseus.Ludger Jansen - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  37.  26
    Categories: The Top-Level Ontology.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - In Katherine Munn & Barry Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction. Ontos. pp. 173--196.
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  38.  96
    Institutionen und die kategoriale Ontologie.Ludger Jansen - 2005 - In Gerhard Schönrich (ed.), Institutionen und ihre Ontologie. Ontos. pp. 45-57.
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  39.  60
    A Method for Re-Engineering a Thesaurus Into an Ontology.D. Kless, L. Jansen, J. Lindenthal & J. Wiebensohn - 2012 - In Maureen Donnelly & Giancarlo Guizzardi (eds.), Formal Ontology and Information Systems. IOS. pp. 133-146.
    The construction of complex ontologies can be facilitated by adapting existing vocabularies. There is little clarity and in fact little consensus as to what modifications of vocabularies are necessary in order to re-engineer them into ontologies. In this paper we present a method that provides clear steps to follow when re-engineering a thesaurus. The method makes use of top-level ontologies and was derived from the structural differences between thesauri and ontologies as well as from best practices in modeling, some of (...)
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  40.  94
    HIV Exceptionalism, CD4+ Cell Testing, and Conscientious Subversion.L. A. Jansen - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (6):322-326.
    In recent years, many states in the United States have passed legislation requiring laboratories to report the names of patients with low CD4 cell counts to their state Departments of Health. This name reporting is an integral part of the growing number of “HIV Reporting and Partner Notification Laws” which have emerged in response to recently revised guidelines suggested by the National Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Name reporting for patients with low CD4 cell counts allows for a more accurate (...)
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  41. Die Ontologie des Geschlechts.Ludger Jansen - 2009 - In Hella Ehlers, Beate Rudlof, Heike Trappe, Gabriele Linke & Heike Kahlert (eds.), Geschlechterdifferenz – und kein Ende? Sozial- und geisteswissenschaftliche Beiträge zur Genderforschung. LIT-Verlag. pp. 19-39.
  42.  18
    Doctor Vs. Scientist?Lynn A. Jansen - 2008 - Hastings Center Report 38 (2):3-3.
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  43. Zeit und Gemeinschaft. Soziale Geschichtlichkeit und geschichtliche Sozialität.Ludger Jansen - 2005 - In Friedrich Stadler & Michael Stöltzner (eds.), Zeit und Geschichte. Beiträge des 28. Internationalen Wittgenstein-Sym­posiums. ILWG. pp. 117-120.
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  44.  10
    Representing Dispositions.Johannes Röhl & Ludger Jansen - 2011 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2 (4).
    Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will (...)
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  45.  8
    Dispositions, Laws, and Categories A Critical Study of E. J. Lowe’s The Four-Category Ontology.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - Metaphysica 8 (2):211-220.
    After a short sketch of Lowe's account of his four basic categories, I discuss his theory of formal ontological relations and how Lowe wants to account for dispositional predications. I argue that on the ontic level Lowe is a pan-categoricalist, while he is a language dualist and an exemplification dualist with regard to the dispositional/categorical distinction. I argue that Lowe does not present an adequate account of disposition. From an Aristotelian point of view, Lowe conflates dispositional predication with 'hôs epi (...)
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  46. Split-Case Arguments About Personal Identity.Ludger Jansen - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  47.  68
    Attribuer des dispositions.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - In Kistler Max & Gnassounou Bruno (eds.), Les Dispositions en philosophie et en sciences. Presses Universitaires de France. pp. 89-106.
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  48.  94
    The Virtues in Their Place: Virtue Ethics in Medicine.Lynn A. Jansen - 2000 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (3):261-276.
    We are currently in the midst of a revival of interest in thevirtues. A number of contemporary moral philosophers havedefended a virtue-based approach to ethics. But does thisrenewal of interest in the virtues have much to contributeto medical ethics and medical practice? This paper criticallydiscusses this question. It considers and rejects a number ofimportant arguments that purport to establish the significanceof the virtues for medical practice. Against these arguments,the paper seeks to show that while the virtues have a genuinerole to (...)
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  49. Kwame Anthony Appiah, The Ethics of Identity. [REVIEW]Ludger Jansen - 2005 - Metapsychology 9.
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  50.  11
    The Virtues in Their Place: Virtue Ethics in Medicine.Lynn Jansen - 2004 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (3):261-275.
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