Different types of consent are used to obtain human biospecimens for future research. This variation has resulted in confusion regarding what research is permitted, inadvertent constraints on future research, and research proceeding without consent. The National Institutes of Health Clinical Center's Department of Bioethics held a workshop to consider the ethical acceptability of addressing these concerns by using broad consent for future research on stored biospecimens. Multiple bioethics scholars, who have written on these issues, discussed the reasons for consent, the (...) range of consent strategies, and gaps in our understanding, and concluded with a proposal for broad initial consent coupled with oversight and, when feasible, ongoing provision of information to donors. This article describes areas of agreement and areas that need more research and dialogue. Given recent proposed changes to the Common Rule, and new guidance regarding storing and sharing data and samples, this is an important and tim.. (shrink)
The goal of this paper is to examine whether business performance is affected by the adoption of practices included under the term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). To achieve this goal, we analyse the relation between CSR and certain accounting indicators and examine whether there exist significant differences in performance indicators between European firms that have adopted CSR and others that have not. The effects of compliance with the requirements of CSR were determined on the basis of firms included in the (...) Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI), and specific accounting indicators were applied to measure performance. For the purposes of this study, we selected one group of firms belonging to the DJSI and another comprised of firms quoted on the Dow Jones Global Index (DJGI) but not on the DJSI. The sample was made up of two groups of 55 firms, studied for the period 1998–2004. Empirical analysis supports the conclusion that differences in performance exist between firms that belong to the DJSI and to the DJGI and that these differences are related to CSR practices. We find that a short-term negative impact on performance is produced. (shrink)
Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons. We identify participant-centricity and trustworthiness as the most important features of an MIC and discuss the implications for those seeking to create a sustainable, useful, and widely available collection of linked resources for research and other purposes.
One of the objectives in the field of artificial intelligence for some decades has been the development of artificial agents capable of coexisting in harmony with people and other systems. The computing research community has made efforts to design artificial agents capable of doing tasks the way people do, tasks requiring cognitive mechanisms such as planning, decision-making, and learning. The application domains of such software agents are evident nowadays. Humans are experiencing the inclusion of artificial agents in their environment as (...) unmanned vehicles, intelligent houses, and humanoid robots capable of caring for people. In this context, research in the field of machine ethics has become more than a hot topic. Machine ethics focuses on developing ethical mechanisms for artificial agents to be capable of engaging in moral behavior. However, there are still crucial challenges in the development of truly Artificial Moral Agents. This paper aims to show the current status of Artificial Moral Agents by analyzing models proposed over the past two decades. As a result of this review, a taxonomy to classify Artificial Moral Agents according to the strategies and criteria used to deal with ethical problems is proposed. The presented review aims to illustrate the complexity of designing and developing ethical mechanisms for this type of agent, and that there is a long way to go before this type of artificial agent can replace human judgment in difficult, surprising or ambiguous moral situations. (shrink)
Los fenómenos urbanos son objeto de complejos modelos cuantitativos que persiguen explicar la emergencia de futuras tendencias. De similar manera, la intuición opera en algunos visionarios, cuya propiedad de percibir lo que esta por venir, los acerca a la realidad de un modo distinto. Este es el caso de Víctor Jara, cuya canción “Las Casitas del Barrio Alto” es objeto de estudio a través de un análisis crítico del discurso. En el trabajo se aprecia que Víctor Jara tiene la capacidad (...) de anticipar el futuro con esta canción, enunciando las características de lo que seria el porvenir urbano de Chile post dictatorial. (shrink)
We look at the relationship of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and country risk. We conceptualize the relationship first by asking if there is a correlationand then positing the directionality of the relationship. We posit that there is an inverse or negative correlation of implicit CSR with country risk and a positive correlation between explicit CSR and country risk. Understanding this relationship can help firms respond to a variety of external pressures such as those from activist organizations and stockholder disciplining; thus, (...) preventing firms from the need to “bolt” on CSR strategies to existing corporate strategies, as well as to help fulfill social needs within the community, mitigate political risks, and improve firm reputation. (shrink)
This paper concerns the connection between perceived country risk and corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies and the communication of CSR strategychoices to consumers. This study incorporates the idea of explicit (voluntary) and implicit (regulated) CSR and presents possible CSR strategies that managers might choose based on risk. Using a convenience sample, this study finds that as managers perceive greater country risk, managers choose predominately compliance based CSR strategies. The purpose of this study is to understand strategies that managers choose based (...) on perceived country risk and to recommend future research for CSR strategy implementation. (shrink)
This paper uses social capital theory to explain contemporary slavery in the context of American professional sports leagues. While traditional slavery was legallyabolished in the United States (US) during the nineteenth century, using the label slavery to describe professional athletes is often dismissed because these athletes are wellcompensated performers with access to incremental compensation through commercial endorsements. As active players, athletes have opportunities to build and leverage social capital, yet, after they retire from competition, these opportunities frequently diminish. We contend (...) contemporary slavery exists for professional athletes and during their careers they are bound to their owners via “gilded cage” slavery, which is attractive to enter yet difficult to exit. We also contend that during this “bondage,” athletes build and maintain social capital; yet upon retirement, athletes are limited in opportunities to leverage socialcapital to improve their own situations or those of their communities. (shrink)
Previously, Rodriguez & LeMaster (2007) recommended that the SEC issue a “CSR Seal of Approval” for companies that voluntarily disclose their corporate social responsibility (CSR) projects. That work lacks the strength of third or fourth-party accreditation. This paper recommends that the SEC issue an accreditation grade of A, B, B-, or C to provide strength to the “CSR Seal of Approval” and to help companies indicate the quality of company CSR programs. By issuing an accredited “CSR Seal of Approval,” all (...) stakeholders benefit because companies can incorporate CSR into their strategies and achieve recognition for their CSR projects. The premise of the accreditation concept support the original authors notion of letting CSR remain voluntary and not legislated; thus, all companies (small, medium, large, foreign or domestic) maintain competitive advantage by not incurring additional regulated costs. (shrink)
This case study explores local North Carolina emergency manager perspectives on Defense Support to Civil Authorities. We ask a) How do county emergency managers integrate DSCA to prepare for disasters, and b) What factors do emergency managers consider when integrating DSCA into response and recovery activities. The reason why this study is important is that the results provide detailed and rich data for local emergency managers, and offers possibilities to improve collaborative emergency responses between various local, state, and national emergency (...) management agencies. Moreover, the study outcomes can help key leaders in emergency agencies to improve education and training to facilitate local emergency management through DSCA. (shrink)
Should the private sector concern itself with the health of the communities in which it operates? Should the community look to local businesses for collaboration in the effort to elevate the health of its citizens? Is there an opportunity between the public and private sectors to create shared value through the enhancement of public health? These are questions this paper explores and analyzes, using theoretical models that originate in disparate literatures.
In 1906, Frigyes Riesz introduced a preliminary version of the notion of a topological space. He called it a mathematical continuum. This development can be traced back to the end of 1904 when, genuinely interested in taking up Hilbert’s foundations of geometry from 1902, Riesz aimed to extend Hilbert’s notion of a two-dimensional manifold to the three-dimensional case. Starting with the plane as an abstract point-set, Hilbert had postulated the existence of a system of neighbourhoods, thereby introducing the notion of (...) an accumulation point for the point-sets of the plane. Inspired by Hilbert’s technical approach, as well as by recent developments in analysis and point-set topology in France, Riesz defined the concept of a mathematical continuum as an abstract set provided with a notion of an accumulation point. In addition, he developed further elementary concepts in abstract point-set topology. Taking an abstract topological approach, he formulated a concept of three-dimensional continuous space that resembles the modern concept of a three-dimensional topological manifold. In 1908, Riesz presented his concept of mathematical continuum at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Rome. His lecture immediately won the attention of people interested in carrying on his research. They promoted his ideas, thus assuring their gradual reception by several future founders of general topology. In this way, Riesz’s work contributed significantly to the emergence of this discipline. (shrink)
This in-process study asks how companies in different cultural regions with different macro-risk levels understand the Corporate Sustainability practices. For this developing qualitative study, we review the influence of two components of the National Business Systems, culture and country risk, for firm level Corporate Sustainability practices as expressed by East / West firms in the Global Reporting Initiative’s database – a global initiative that works toward the standardization of organizational sustainability reporting. This study is important because many concepts of CS (...) stem from Western regions like North America and Western Europe; therefore, we expect that Eastern firms would conceptualize and implement CS differently. (shrink)
This paper aligns the Miles and Snow (Miles & Snow, 1978) strategy typology, with corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies and CSR marketing strategies in a unifying framework. The paper traces the evolution of CSR marketing and discusses a flexible definition of CSR. The value of this study is to improve competitive advantage and firm performance by identifying and aligning CSR strategies and CSR marketing strategies with the Reactor, Prospector, Analyzer, and Defender strategy typology.
This study looks to help reduce overweight and obesity in small towns by qualitatively examining public, private, and non-profit entities that possess aligned competences to form a tri-sector collaboration.
El objetivo del presente texto será hacer patente la dificultad que surge cuando se busca una finalidad en el escrito de Diógenes Laercio Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres. Para llevar a cabo esta tarea, primero analizaré acudiendo al prólogo de este escrito, las posibles maneras en que podría en tenderse el propósito del texto. Después, asumiendo que tales maneras constituyen una clave interpretativa aplicable a todas las vidas allí presentes, me serviré de ella para descifrar un (...) retrato en particular: el de Pirrón de Elis. Sugeriré en esta etapa que, aunque el uso de la clave interpretativa es útil para develar una posible finalidad en la biografía de Pirrón, no por ello resulta legítimo atribuir tal propósito a DL. Posteriormente, indicaré por qué este asunto, que puede fácilmente extenderse a las demás biografías, termina ocultando la verdadera finalidad de Vidas, si es que hay alguna. (shrink)
The goal of this article is to contribute to the development of an interdisciplinary political theory across a conceptual link between Aristotles political philosophy and complex systems theory. Aristotelian doctrine of the wisdom of the multitude is connected with the concept of emergence belong..