Results for 'Laboratory Labor'

998 found
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  1.  14
    Trajectories and Division of Labor in a Laboratory of Human Genetics.Mariana Toledo Ferreira - 2015 - Scientiae Studia 13 (4):899-927.
    RESUMO Este artigo discute a divisão do trabalho científico entre pesquisadores seniores e juniores em um centro de pesquisa brasileiro de genética humana e médica. Partindo do debate contemporâneo sobre a progressiva imbricação entre ciência e tecnologia - com progressiva fusão entre ambas, que evoca noções como a de tecnociência - é possível verificar, na subárea específica, velocidades crescentes na produção de dados, que pressionam os pesquisadores de maneiras distintas, seja pelo crescente custo das inovações tecnológicas, seja pela necessidade de (...)
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  2.  15
    The Writing Laboratory: Political Ecology, Labour, Experiment.Stephen Muecke - 2009 - Angelaki 14 (2):15-20.
  3.  16
    The Writing Laboratory: Political Ecology, Labour, Experiment.Stephen Muecke - 2009 - Angelaki 14 (2):15-20.
  4.  4
    Peter L. Twohig. Labour in the Laboratory: Medical Laboratory Workers in the Maritimes, 1900–1950. Xvi + 241 Pp., Illus., Figs., Tables, Bibl., Index. Montreal/Kingston: McGill‐Queens University Press, 2005. $70. [REVIEW]Floyd E. Thurston - 2006 - Isis 97 (3):584-584.
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  5.  26
    Natur Im Labor: Einleitung.Kristian Köchy & Gregor Schiemann - 2006 - Philosophia Naturalis 43 (1):1-9.
    Seit Beginn der frühen Neuzeit ist das naturwissenschaftliche Verfahren maßgeblich durch ein neues Konzept geprägt: das Konzept des experimentellen, gestalterischen Eingriffs in die Natur. Es geht nun nicht mehr darum, eine Geschichte der "freien und ungebundenen Natur" (Bacon) zu erzählen, die in ihrem eigenen Lauf belassen und als vollkommene Bildung betrachtet wird. Es geht vielmehr darum, der "gebundenen und bezwungenen Natur" (Bacon) vermittels der experimentellen Tätigkeit des Menschen die Geheimnisse zu entreißen. Diese technisch-praktische Konzeption grenzt sich explizit von den klassischen (...)
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  6. Natur Im Labor. Themenschwerpunkt in Philosophia Naturalis Bd. 43, Heft 1-2.Gregor Schiemann & Kristian Köchy (eds.) - 2006 - Klostermann..
    Seit Beginn der frühen Neuzeit ist das naturwissenschaftliche Verfahren maßgeblich durch ein neues Konzept geprägt: das Konzept des experimentellen, gestalterischen Eingriffs in die Natur. Es geht nun nicht mehr darum, eine Geschichte der "freien und ungebundenen Natur" (Bacon) zu erzählen, die in ihrem eigenen Lauf belassen und als vollkommene Bildung betrachtet wird. Es geht vielmehr darum, der "gebundenen und bezwungenen Natur" (Bacon) vermittels der experimentellen Tätigkeit des Menschen die Geheimnisse zu entreißen. Diese technisch-praktische Konzeption grenzt sich explizit von den klassischen (...)
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  7.  2
    La transparence des institutions : une ethnographie de la verrerie dans un laboratoire de biologie (The Transparency of Institutions. An Ethnography of Glassware in a Laboratory of Biology).Jérôme Lamy & Sébastien Plutniak - 2016 - Ethnologie Française 164 (4):733-746.
    This paper addresses two disciplinary expansion trends in social sciences: in sociology, by denying the distinction between human and non-human; in archaeology, relying on the objet-mémoire concept, which associates the ideas of social interaction and memory processes. We discuss them from an ethnographic study of the ordinary containers in a biology laboratory. The signs, drawn or engraved on their surface, are a proxy for a joint analysis of artifacts, textuality, institutionalization processes, and social stratification. Rather than such disciplinary expansions, (...)
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  8.  42
    Beyond the Boss and the Boys: Women and the Division of Labor in Drosophila Genetics in the United States, 1934–1970.Michael R. Dietrich & Brandi H. Tambasco - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (3):509-528.
    The vast network of Drosophila geneticists spawned by Thomas Hunt Morgan's fly room in the early 20th century has justifiably received a significant amount of scholarly attention. However, most accounts of the history of Drosophila genetics focus heavily on the "boss and the boys," rather than the many other laboratory groups which also included large numbers of women. Using demographic information extracted from the Drosophila Information Service directories from 1934 to 1970, we offer a profile of the gendered division (...)
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  9.  21
    Collaborative Production and Experimental Labor: Two Models of Dissertation Authorship in the Eighteenth Century.Ku-Ming Chang - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4):347-355.
    This article examines two early modern models of dissertation authorship that both relied on extensive collaboration between the degree candidate and his supervisor. The dissertation conducted on the traditional model, practiced until the eighteenth century at German universities, was a joint product of the supervisor, who prepared the thesis in writing, and the degree candidate, who defended it in the oral disputation. The two collaborators shared the credit for a successfully defended thesis in different forms: right for public recognition and (...)
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  10.  10
    The Power of Exercise and the Exercise of Power: The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, Distance Running, and the Disappearance of Work, 1919–1947.Robin Wolfe Scheffler - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (3):391-423.
    In the early twentieth century, fatigue research marked an area of conflicting scientific, industrial, and cultural understandings of working bodies. These different understandings of the working body marked a key site of political conflict during the growth of industrial capitalism. Many fatigue researchers understood fatigue to be a physiological fact and allied themselves with Progressive-era reformers in urging industrial regulation. Opposed to these researchers were advocates of Taylorism and scientific management, who held that fatigue was a mental event and that (...)
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  11.  16
    Gezeigte versus sich zeigende Natur: Eine Skizze im Blick auf das Verhältnis von Labor und Natur.Thomas Sören Hoffmann - 2006 - Philosophia Naturalis 43 (1):142-167.
    This contribution analyzes the general relation between nature and laboratory with respect to the alternative of a ,,presented" and a ,,self-presenting nature". It is argued that as essentially presented by technological means, ,,nature in the laboratory" has to be considered as a dimensionally reduced nature already incorporated to the objective world of man. The basic precondition of the emergence of laboratory science on the threshold of modern times was the introduction of a concept of an ,,active physics" (...)
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  12.  24
    Lebewesen Im Labor. Das Experiment in der Biologie.Kristian Köchy - 2006 - Philosophia Naturalis 43 (1):74-110.
    This study of biological laboratory is focussed on the biological experiment. By confronting the real conditions of life science experiments with an ideal canon of experimental principles - which is constituted by the six preconceptions of separation, manipulation, control, distance, reproduction and homogeneity - the differences and specialities of biological experimentation are examined. This special constitution of biological experiments in the laboratory is a reaction of the special conditions of biological phenomena too. In a co-evolutionary process of trial-and-error (...)
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  13.  49
    Natur und Labor: Über die Grenzen der Gültigkeit von Naturgesetzen.Andreas Hüttemann - 2000 - Philosophia Naturalis 37 (2):269-285.
    The paper analyses how knowledge claims can be extrapolated from laboratory situation to more complex situations. It argues that claims by Tetens, Knorr-Cetina and Cartwright that put doubts on extrapolation are unwarrented.
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  14.  1
    Basic Income, Wages, and Productivity: A Laboratory Experiment.Veera Amanda Jokipalo - 2019 - Basic Income Studies 14 (2).
    This paper reports the results of an economic lab experiment designed to test the impact of Basic Income on wages and productivity. The experimental design is based on the classic gift exchange game. Participants assigned the role of employer were tasked with making wage offers, and those assigned as employees chose how hard they would work in return. In addition to a control without any social security net, BI was compared to unemployment benefits, and both types of cash transfers were (...)
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  15.  10
    The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences.María Guadalupe Mettini - 2013 - Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofia 39 (1):139-142.
    La tensión entre fidelidad a la tradición e innovación presente en el pensamiento plotiniano se manifiesta de modo patente en su propuesta metafísica. La ontología expuesta en las Enéadas, en efecto, es un claro ejemplo de la labor exegética mediante la cual Plotino toma las concepciones metafísicas platónico-pitagóricas precedentes y las sintetiza infundiendo nueva vitalidad en ideas antiguas. Para llevar a cabo su exégesis utiliza, incluso, conceptos aristotélicos que integra de un modo peculiar a su pensamiento platonizante. En el (...)
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  16.  1
    The Body and the Production of Phenomena in the Science Laboratory.Liv Kondrup Hardahl, Per-Olof Wickman & Cecilia Caiman - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (8):865-895.
    This article deals with science content “in the making” and in particular the role of the body in producing scientific phenomena. While accounts of scientists’ work have repeatedly demonstrated, how producing phenomena requires immense amounts of time and effort, involving tinkering and manual labor, this is a little empirically studied content in science education. Seeking to shed light on how the body is involved with materiality to produce physics phenomena, and in what terms this is learning physics content, the (...)
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  17.  59
    The Meaning of Animal Labour.Nicolas Delon - 2020 - In Charlotte Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 160-180.
    Proponents of humane or traditional husbandry, in contrast to factory farming, often argue that maintaining meaningful relationships with animals entails working with them. Accordingly, they argue that animal liberation is misguided, since it appears to entail erasing our relationships to animals and depriving both us and them of valuable opportunities to live together. This chapter offers a critical examination of defense of animal husbandry based on the value of labour, in particular the view that farm animals could be seen as (...)
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  18. How Should We Conceive of Individual Consumer Responsibility to Address Labour Injustices?Christian Barry & Kate Macdonald - 2014 - In Yossi Dahan, Hanna Lerner & Faina Milman-Sivan (eds.), Global Justice and International Labour Rights. Cambridge University Press.
    Many approaches to addressing labour injustices—shortfalls from minimally decent wages and working conditions— focus on how governments should orient themselves toward other states in which such phenomena take place, or to the firms that are involved with such practices. But of course the question of how to regard such labour practices must also be faced by individuals, and individual consumers of the goods that are produced through these practices in particular. Consumers have become increasingly aware of their connections to complex (...)
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  19.  27
    Transnational Labor Regulation, Reification and Commodification: A Critical Review.George Tsogas - 2018 - Journal of Labor and Society 21 (4):517-532.
    Why does scholarship on transnational labor regulation (TLR) consistently fails to search for improvements in working conditions, and instead devotes itself to relentless efforts for identifying administrative processes, semantics, and amalgamations of stakeholders? This article critiques TLR from a pro-worker perspective, through the philosophical work of Georg Lukács, and the concepts of reification and commodification. A set of theoretically grounded criteria is developed and these are applied against selected contemporary cases of TLR. In the totality that is capitalism, reification (...)
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  20. Epistemic Landscapes, Optimal Search, and the Division of Cognitive Labor.Jason McKenzie Alexander, Johannes Himmelreich & Christopher Thompson - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):424-453,.
    This article examines two questions about scientists’ search for knowledge. First, which search strategies generate discoveries effectively? Second, is it advantageous to diversify search strategies? We argue pace Weisberg and Muldoon, “Epistemic Landscapes and the Division of Cognitive Labor”, that, on the first question, a search strategy that deliberately seeks novel research approaches need not be optimal. On the second question, we argue they have not shown epistemic reasons exist for the division of cognitive labor, identifying the errors (...)
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  21. Group Knowledge, Questions, and the Division of Epistemic Labour.Joshua Habgood-Coote - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    Discussions of group knowledge typically focus on whether a group’s knowledge that p reduces to group members’ knowledge that p. Drawing on the cumulative reading of collective knowledge ascriptions and considerations about the importance of the division of epistemic labour, I argue what I call the Fragmented Knowledge account, which allows for more complex relations between individual and collective knowledge. According to this account, a group can know an answer to a question in virtue of members of the group knowing (...)
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  22. The Ethical and Economic Case Against Sweatshop Labor: A Critical Assessment. [REVIEW]Benjamin Powell & Matt Zwolinski - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):449-472.
    During the last decade, scholarly criticism of sweatshops has grown increasingly sophisticated. This article reviews the new moral and economic foundations of these criticisms and argues that they are flawed. It seeks to advance the debate over sweatshops by noting the extent to which the case for sweatshops does, and does not, depend on the existence of competitive markets. It attempts to more carefully distinguish between different ways in which various parties might seek to modify sweatshop behavior, and to point (...)
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  23.  51
    Impacts of Corporate Code of Conduct on Labor Standards: A Case Study of Reebok’s Athletic Footwear Supplier Factory in China. [REVIEW]Xiaomin Yu - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):513 - 529.
    This study examines the social impacts of labor-related corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies or corporate codes of conduct on upholding labor standards through a case study of CSR discourses and codes implementation of Reebok – a leading branded company enjoying a high-profiled image for its human rights achievement – in a large Taiwanese-invested athletic footwear factory located in South China. I find although implementation of Reebok labor-related codes has resulted in a “race to ethical and legal minimum” (...)
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  24. The Metaphysics of Locke's Labour View.Peter Martin Jaworski - 2011 - Locke Studies 11:73-106.
    This paper is an evaluation of John Locke's labour theory of property. Section I sets out Locke's labour view. Section II addresses several possible objections, including against the conceptual coherence of Locke's argument, against the metaphysical implications of his view, as well as foundational criticisms of the moral significance of labour and of my relations with objects that are grounded in labour under certain conditions and circumstances. I attempt to address each of these criticisms in a Lockian spirit, which will (...)
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  25. Ethnographic Invention: Probing the Capacity of Laboratory Decisions. [REVIEW]Erik Fisher - 2007 - NanoEthics 1 (2):155-165.
    In an attempt to shape the development of nanotechnologies, ethics policy programs promote engagement in the hope of broadening the scope of considerations that scientists and engineers take into account. While enhancing the reflexivity of scientists theoretically implies changes in technoscientific practice, few empirical studies demonstrate such effects. To investigate the real-time effects on engineering research practices, a laboratory engagement study was undertaken to specify the interplay of technical and social considerations during the normal course of research. The study (...)
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  26. The Labour Theory of Property and Marginal Productivity Theory.David Ellerman - 2016 - Economic Thought 5 (1):19.
    After Marx, dissenting economics almost always used 'the labour theory' as a theory of value. This paper develops a modern treatment of the alternative labour theory of property that is essentially the property theoretic application of the juridical principle of responsibility: impute legal responsibility in accordance with who was in fact responsible. To understand descriptively how assets and liabilities are appropriated in normal production, a 'fundamental myth' needs to be cleared away, and then the market mechanism of appropriation can be (...)
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  27.  58
    Child Labor and Multinational Conduct: A Comparison of International Business Andstakeholder Codes. [REVIEW]Ans Kolk & Rob van Tuldere - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 36 (3):291-301.
    Increasing attention to the issue of child labor has been reflected in codes of conduct that emerged in the past decade in particular. This paper examines the way in which multinationals, business associations, governmental and non-governmental organizations deal with child labor in their codes. With a standardized framework, it analyzes 55 codes drawn up by these different actors to influence firms’ external, societal behavior. The exploratory study helps to identify the main issues related to child labor and (...)
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  28. Toward a Truly Social Epistemology: Babbage, the Division of Mental Labor, and the Possibility of Socially Distributed Warrant.Joseph Shieber - 2013 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (2):266-294.
    In what follows, I appeal to Charles Babbage’s discussion of the division of mental labor to provide evidence that—at least with respect to the social acquisition, storage, retrieval, and transmission of knowledge—epistemologists have, for a broad range of phenomena of crucial importance to actual knowers in their epistemic practices in everyday life, failed adequately to appreciate the significance of socially distributed cognition. If the discussion here is successful, I will have demonstrated that a particular presumption widely held within the (...)
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  29.  84
    Laboratory Models, Causal Explanation and Group Selection.James R. Griesemer & Michael J. Wade - 1988 - Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):67-96.
    We develop an account of laboratory models, which have been central to the group selection controversy. We compare arguments for group selection in nature with Darwin's arguments for natural selection to argue that laboratory models provide important grounds for causal claims about selection. Biologists get information about causes and cause-effect relationships in the laboratory because of the special role their own causal agency plays there. They can also get information about patterns of effects and antecedent conditions in (...)
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  30.  97
    Labor Human Rights and Human Dignity.Pablo Gilabert - 2016 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 42 (2):171-199.
    The current legal and political practice of human rights invokes entitlements to freely chosen work, to decent working conditions, and to form and join labor unions. Despite the importance of these rights, they remain under-explored in the philosophical literature on human rights. This article offers a systematic and constructive discussion of them. First, it surveys the content and current relevance of the labor rights stated in the most important documents of the human rights practice. Second, it gives a (...)
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  31. Labor as the Basis for Intellectual Property Rights.Bryan Cwik - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):681-695.
    In debates about the moral foundations of intellectual property, one very popular strand concerns the role of labor as a moral basis for intellectual property rights. This idea has a great deal of intuitive plausibility; but is there a way to make it philosophically precise? That is, does labor provide strong reasons to grant intellectual property rights to intellectual laborers? In this paper, I argue that the answer to that question is “yes”. I offer a new view, different (...)
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  32. That Was the New Labour That Wasn't.Stuart White & Martin O'Neill - 2013 - Fabian Review.
    The New Labour we got was different from the New Labour that might have been, had the reform agenda associated with stakeholding and pluralism in the early-1990s been fully realised. We investigate the road not taken and what it means for ‘one nation’ Labour.
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  33.  36
    Asian Transnational Corporations and Labor Rights: Vietnamese Trade Unions in Taiwan-Invested Companies.Hong-zen Wang - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (1):43-53.
    According to the reports in the past decade, some Asian subcontractors, mainly Taiwan, Hong Kong and Korea transnational corporations, tend to be labor abusive in their overseas investment destinations like China or Southeast Asia. Taking Vietnam as an example, this paper raises questions as to why Taiwanese transnational companies can control workplace unions in a trade-union-supportive regime. Given the government s constraint of political rights, and the individualized workplace unions, the function of trade unions in Vietnam is destined to (...)
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  34.  57
    Labor Standards in the Global Economy: Issues for Investors. [REVIEW]Pietra Rivoli - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (3):223 - 232.
    In the mid-1990s, global labour standards emerged as a new and important are of concern for socially responsible investors, especially with respect to investments in the "problematic" footwear, apparel, and toy industries. In this paper, I elucidate the primary areas of concern for investors and discuss a framework for evaluating firms'' labor standards performance. In addition, I argue that today''s sweatshop debates follow closely those of centuries ago, with the standard economic defense of low wage manufacturing on the one (...)
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  35.  19
    Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers.Patricia Kanngiesser & Bruce Hood - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (2):353-366.
    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between an owner of materials and an artist who used the materials for some artwork. Experiment 1 revealed that participants were more likely to transfer ownership to the (...)
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  36. Standards and the Distribution of Cognitive Labour: A Model of the Dynamics of Scientific Activity.Langhe Rogieder & Greiff Matthias - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (2):278-294.
    We present a model of the distribution of labour in science. Such models tend to rely on the mechanism of the invisible hand . Our analysis starts from the necessity of standards in distributed processes and the possibility of multiple standards in science. Invisible hand models turn out to have only limited scope because they are restricted to describing the atypical single-standard case. Our model is a generalisation of these models to J standards; single-standard models such as Kitcher are a (...)
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  37.  43
    Social Sustainability, Farm Labor, and Organic Agriculture: Findings From an Exploratory Analysis. [REVIEW]Aimee Shreck, Christy Getz & Gail Feenstra - 2006 - Agriculture and Human Values 23 (4):439-449.
    Much of the attention by social scientists to the rapidly growing organic agriculture sector focuses on the benefits it provides to consumers (in the form of pesticide-free foods) and to farmers (in the form of price premiums). By contrast, there has been little discussion or research about the implications of the boom in organic agriculture for farmworkers on organic farms. In this paper, we ask the question: From the perspective of organic farmers, does “certified organic” agriculture encompass a commitment to (...)
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  38.  27
    In the Social Factory?Rosalind Gill & Andy Pratt - 2008 - Theory, Culture and Society 25 (7-8):1-30.
    This article introduces a special section concerned with precariousness and cultural work. Its aim is to bring into dialogue three bodies of ideas — the work of the autonomous Marxist `Italian laboratory'; activist writings about precariousness and precarity; and the emerging empirical scholarship concerned with the distinctive features of cultural work, at a moment when artists, designers and media workers have taken centre stage as a supposed `creative class' of model entrepreneurs. The article is divided into three sections. It (...)
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  39. Some Remarks on the Division of Cognitive Labor.Marco Viola - 2015 - RT. A Journal on Research Policy and Evaluation 3.
    Since the publication of Kitcher’s influential paper The Division of Cognitive Labor, some philosophers wondered about these two related issues: (1) which is the optimal distribution of cognitive efforts among rival methods within a scientific community?, and (2) whether and how can a community achieve such an optimal distribution? Though not committing to any specific answer to question (1), I claim that issue (2) does not depend exclusively on an invisible hand like mechanism, since both intra-scientific and extra-scientific institutions (...)
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  40.  26
    Multi-Stakeholder Labour Monitoring Organizations: Egoists, Instrumentalists, or Moralists?Jeff S. Everett, Dean Neu & Daniel Martinez - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):117-142.
    This article examines four leading multi-stakeholder labour monitoring organizations. All operating in the maquiladora industry, these organizations are viewed in light of the growing global trend toward industry self-regulation, or what has been referred to as the 'global out-sourcing of regulation'. Their Board compositions, codes of conduct and monitoring and enforcement strategies are all examined as a means of tentatively positioning these organizations along an 'egoist-instrumentalist-moralist' ethical culture continuum. Such a framing provides insights into the perceived salience of these organizations' (...)
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  41.  98
    Beyond Wages and Working Conditions: A Conceptualization of Labor Union Social Responsibility. [REVIEW]Cedric Dawkins - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):129 - 143.
    This article integrates theory and concepts from the business and society, business ethics, and labor relations literatures to offer a conceptualization of labor union social responsibility that includes activities geared toward three primary objectives: economic equity, workplace democracy, and social justice. Economic, workplace, and social labor union stakeholders are identified, likely issues are highlighted, and the implications of labor union social responsibility for labor union strategy are discussed. It is noted that, given the breadth of (...)
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  42. REVIEW: James R. Brown, Laboratory of the Mind. [REVIEW]Michael T. Stuart - 2012 - Spontaneous Generations 6 (1):237-241.
    Originally published in 1991, The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences, is the first monograph to identify and address some of the many interesting questions that pertain to thought experiments. While the putative aim of the book is to explore the nature of thought experimental evidence, it has another important purpose which concerns the crucial role thought experiments play in Brown’s Platonic master argument.In that argument, Brown argues against naturalism and empiricism (Brown 2012), for mathematical (...)
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  43. The Concept of Labor: Marx and His Critics.Sean Sayers - 2007 - Science and Society 71 (4):431 - 454.
    Marx conceives of labor as form-giving activity. This is criticized for presupposing a "productivist" model of labor which regards work that creates a material product — craft or industrial work — as the paradigm for all work (Habermas, Benton, Arendt). Many traditional kinds of work do not seem to fit this picture, and new "immaterial" forms of labor (computer work, service work, etc.) have developed in postindus trial society which, it is argued, necessitate a fundamental revision of (...)
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  44.  18
    The Laboratory Technology of Discrete Molecular Separation: The Historical Development of Gel Electrophoresis and the Material Epistemology of Biomolecular Science, 1945–1970.Howard Hsueh-Hao Chiang - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (3):495-527.
    Preparative and analytical methods developed by separation scientists have played an important role in the history of molecular biology. One such early method is gel electrophoresis, a technique that uses various types of gel as its supporting medium to separate charged molecules based on size and other properties. Historians of science, however, have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this material epistemological dimension of biomolecular science. This paper substantiates the historiographical thread that explores the relationship between modern (...) practice and the production of scientific knowledge. It traces the historical development of gel electrophoresis from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s, with careful attention to the interplay between technical developments and disciplinary shifts, especially the rise of molecular biology in this time-frame. Claiming that the early 1950s marked a decisive shift in the evolution of electrophoretic methods from moving boundary to zone electrophoresis, I reconstruct various trajectories in which scientists such as Oliver Smithies sought out the most desirable solid supporting medium for electrophoretic instrumentation. Biomolecular knowledge, I argue, emerged in part from this process of seeking the most appropriate supporting medium that allowed for discrete molecular separation and visualization. The early 1950s, therefore, marked not only an important turning point in the history of separation science, but also a transformative moment in the history of the life sciences as the growth of molecular biology depended in part on the epistemological access to the molecular realm available through these evolving technologies. (shrink)
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  45.  36
    Reconstructing Nature: Alienation, Emancipation, and the Division of Labour.Peter Dickens - 1996 - Routledge.
    One of the main features of the contemporary environmental crisis is that no one has a clear picture of what is taking place. Environmental problems are real enough but they bring home the inadequacy of our knowledge. How does the natural world relate to the social world? Why do we continue to have such a poor understanding? How can ecological knowledge be made to relate to our understanding of human society? Reconstructing Nature argues that the division of labor is (...)
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  46.  49
    Manufacturing Consent: A Corpus‐Based Critical Discourse Analysis of New Labour's Educational Governance.Jane Mulderrig - 2011 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (6):562-578.
    This paper presents selected findings from a historical analysis of change in the discursive construction of social identity in UK education policy discourse from 1972–2005. My chief argument is that through its linguistic forms of self-identification the government construes educational roles, relations and responsibilities not only for itself, but also for other educational actors and wider society. More specifically, I argue that New Labour's distinctive mode of self-representation is an important element in its hegemonic project, textually manufacturing consent over its (...)
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  47.  6
    Representing in the Student Laboratory.Brandon Boesch - 2018 - Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science 5:34-48.
    In this essay, I will expand the philosophical discussion about the representational practice in science to examine its role in science education through four case studies. The cases are of what I call ‘educational laboratory experiments’, performative models used representationally by students to come to a better understanding of theoretical knowledge of a scientific discipline. The studies help to demonstrate some idiosyncratic features of representational practices in science education, most importantly a lack of novelty and discovery built into the (...)
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  48.  73
    Gender, Health, Labor, and Inequities: A Review of the Fair and Alternative Trade Literature. [REVIEW]Vincent Terstappen, Lori Hanson & Darrell McLaughlin - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1):21-39.
    Although research into fair and alternative trade networks has increased significantly in recent years, very little synthesis of the literature has occurred thus far, especially for social considerations such as gender, health, labor, and equity. We draw on insights from critical theorists to reflect on the current state of fair and alternative trade, draw out contradictions from within the existing research, and suggest actions to help the emancipatory potential of the movement. Using a systematic scoping review methodology, this paper (...)
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  49.  62
    Business Reputation and Labor Efficiency, Productivity, and Cost.Marty Stuebs & Li Sun - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2):265 - 283.
    Assumed benefits from improved reputation are often used as motives to drive corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Are improved cost efficiencies among these reputation benefits? Cost efficiencies and cost management have become more relevant as revenue streams dry up in these tough economic times. Can a good reputation aid these efforts to develop cost efficiencies specifically when managing labor costs? Prior research hypothesizes that good reputation can create labor productivity and efficiency benefits. The purpose of this study is (...)
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  50.  14
    Cells and the (Imaginary) Patient: The Multistable Practitioner–Technology–Cell Interface in the Cytology Laboratory[REVIEW]Anette Forss - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):295-308.
    Modern health care is inextricably bound up with technologically mediated knowledge and practice. It is vital to investigate its use and role in different clinical contexts characterized, on one hand, by face to face practitioner and patient encounters (where technology may be conceptualised as hindering therapeutic relations) and, on the other hand, by practitioners’ encounter with bodily parts in laboratories (where conceiving of patients may be thought of as confounding objectivity). To contribute to the latter, I offer an ethnographic analysis (...)
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