Results for 'Ladislav Menzel'

380 found
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  1. Menzel's Realism Art and Embodiment in Nineteenth-Century Berlin.Michael Fried & Adolph Menzel - 2002
  2.  5
    Das problem der formalen logik in der kritik der reinen vernunft.Ladislav Menzel - 1965 - Kant-Studien 56 (3-4):396-411.
  3.  1
    Ordnungsrelationen und mundus sensbilis. Eine auseinandersetzung mit Ernst Cassirer.Ladislav Menzel - 1968 - Kant-Studien 59 (1-4):230-239.
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  4. Sets and Worlds Again.Christopher Menzel - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):304-309.
    Bringsjord (1985) argues that the definition W of possible worlds as maximal possible sets of propositions is incoherent. Menzel (1986a) notes that Bringsjord’s argument depends on the Powerset axiom and that the axiom can be reasonably denied. Grim (1986) counters that W can be proved to be incoherent without Powerset. Grim was right. However, the argument he provided is deeply flawed. The purpose of this note is to detail the problems with Grim’s argument and to present a sound alternative (...)
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  5.  1
    Proceedings of the KI 2003 Workshop on Reference Ontologies and Application Ontologies.Pierre Grenon, Christopher Menzel & Barry Smith (eds.) - 2004 - CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 94.
    Contains the following contributions: -/- Ingvar Johansson: Ontologies and Concepts. Two Proposals -/- Christopher Menzel: Reference Ontologies - Application Ontologies: Either/Or or Both/And? -/- Luc Schneider: Foundational Ontologies and the Realist Bias -/- Guenther Goerz, Kerstin Buecher, Bernd Ludwig, Frank-Peter Schweinberger, and Iman Thabet: Combining a Lexical Taxonomy with Domain Ontology in the Erlangen Dialogue System -/- Vim Vandenberghe, Burkhard Schafer, John Kingston: Ontology Modelling in the Legal Domain - Realism Without Revisionism -/- A Proposed Methodology for the Development (...)
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  6. In Defense of the Possibilism–Actualism Distinction.Christopher Menzel - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (7):1971-1997.
    In Modal Logic as Metaphysics, Timothy Williamson claims that the possibilism-actualism (P-A) distinction is badly muddled. In its place, he introduces a necessitism-contingentism (N-C) distinction that he claims is free of the confusions that purportedly plague the P-A distinction. In this paper I argue first that the P-A distinction, properly understood, is historically well-grounded and entirely coherent. I then look at the two arguments Williamson levels at the P-A distinction and find them wanting and show, moreover, that, when the N-C (...)
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  7. Actualism.Christopher Menzel - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    To understand the thesis of actualism, consider the following example. Imagine a race of beings — call them ‘Aliens’ — that is very different from any life-form that exists anywhere in the universe; different enough, in fact, that no actually existing thing could have been an Alien, any more than a given gorilla could have been a fruitfly. Now, even though there are no Aliens, it seems intuitively the case that there could have been such things. After all, life might (...)
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  8. Wide Sets, ZFCU, and the Iterative Conception.Christopher Menzel - 2014 - Journal of Philosophy 111 (2):57-83.
    The iterative conception of set is typically considered to provide the intuitive underpinnings for ZFCU (ZFC+Urelements). It is an easy theorem of ZFCU that all sets have a definite cardinality. But the iterative conception seems to be entirely consistent with the existence of “wide” sets, sets (of, in particular, urelements) that are larger than any cardinal. This paper diagnoses the source of the apparent disconnect here and proposes modifications of the Replacement and Powerset axioms so as to allow for the (...)
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  9.  68
    Advance Directives, Dementia, and Physician‐Assisted Death.Paul T. Menzel & Bonnie Steinbock - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):484-500.
    Physician-assisted suicide laws in Oregon and Washington require the person's current competency and a prognosis of terminal illness. In The Netherlands voluntariness and unbearable suffering are required for euthanasia. Many people are more concerned about the loss of autonomy and independence in years of severe dementia than about pain and suffering in their last months. To address this concern, people could write advance directives for physician-assisted death in dementia. Should such directives be implemented even though, at the time, the person (...)
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  10.  35
    Advance Directives, Dementia, and Physician-Assisted Death.Paul T. Menzel & Bonnie Steinbock - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):484-500.
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  11. Modal Set Theory.Christopher Menzel - forthcoming - In Otávio Bueno & Scott Shalkowski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Modality. London and New York: Routledge.
    This article presents an overview of the basic philosophical motivations for, and some recent work in, modal set theory.
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  12. Possible Worlds.Christopher Menzel - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This article includes a basic overview of possible world semantics and a relatively comprehensive overview of three central philosophical conceptions of possible worlds: Concretism (represented chiefly by Lewis), Abstractionism (represented chiefly by Plantinga), and Combinatorialism (represented chiefly by Armstrong).
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  13. Advance Directives for Dementia Can Survive Altered Preferences.Paul T. Menzel - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (8):80-82.
    Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2020, Page 80-82.
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  14. Logic, Essence, and Modality — Review of Bob Hale's Necessary Beings. [REVIEW]Christopher Menzel - 2015 - Philosophia Mathematica 23 (3):407-428.
    Bob Hale’s distinguished record of research places him among the most important and influential contemporary analytic metaphysicians. In his deep, wide ranging, yet highly readable book Necessary Beings, Hale draws upon, but substantially integrates and extends, a good deal his past research to produce a sustained and richly textured essay on — as promised in the subtitle — ontology, modality, and the relations between them. I’ve set myself two tasks in this review: first, to provide a reasonably thorough (if not (...)
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  15. Problems with the Bootstrapping Objection to Theistic Activism.Christopher Menzel - 2016 - American Philosophical Quarterly 53 (1):55-68.
    According to traditional theism, God alone exists a se, independent of all other things, and all other things exist ab alio, i.e., God both creates them and sustains them in existence. On the face of it, divine "aseity" is inconsistent with classical Platonism, i.e., the view that there are objectively existing, abstract objects. For according to the classical Platonist, at least some abstract entities are wholly uncreated, necessary beings and, hence, as such, they also exist a se. The thesis of (...)
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  16. The Cultural Moral Right to a Basic Minimum of Accessible Health Care.Paul T. Menzel - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (1):79-119.
    In the United States, amid the fractious politics of attempting to achieve something close to universal access to basic health care, two impressions are likely to feed skepticism about the status of a right to universal access: the moral principles that underlie any right to universal access may seem incredibly "ideal," not well rooted in the society's actual fabric, and the necessary practical and political attempts to limit the scope of universally accessible care to make its achievement realistic may seem (...)
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  17.  26
    Conclusions From Color Vision of Insects.Werner Backhaus & Randolf Menzel - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (1):28-30.
  18.  11
    Advance Directives, Dementia, and Withholding Food and Water by Mouth.Paul T. Menzel & M. Colette Chandler-Cramer - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (3):23-37.
  19.  62
    Afro Pessimism.Lewis R. Gordon, Annie Menzel, George Shulman & Jasmine Syedullah - 2018 - Contemporary Political Theory 17 (1):105-137.
  20. Actualism, Ontological Commitment, and Possible World Semantics.Christopher Menzel - 1990 - Synthese 85 (3):355 - 389.
    Actualism is the doctrine that the only things there are, that have being in any sense, are the things that actually exist. In particular, actualism eschews possibilism, the doctrine that there are merely possible objects. It is widely held that one cannot both be an actualist and at the same time take possible world semantics seriously — that is, take it as the basis for a genuine theory of truth for modal languages, or look to it for insight into the (...)
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  21. Absolute Creation.Thomas V. Morris & Christopher Menzel - 1986 - American Philosophical Quarterly 23 (4):353 - 362.
  22.  8
    Advance Directives for Refusing Life‐Sustaining Treatment in Dementia.Bonnie Steinbock & Paul T. Menzel - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S3):S75-S79.
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  23. The True Modal Logic.Christopher Menzel - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 20 (4):331 - 374.
    This paper traces the course of Prior’s struggles with the concepts and phenomena of modality, and the reasoning that led him to his own rather peculiar modal logic Q. I find myself in almost complete agreement with Prior’s intuitions and the arguments that rest upon them. However, I argue that those intuitions do not of themselves lead to Q, but that one must also accept a certain picture of what it is for a proposition to be possible. That picture. though, (...)
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  24. Worlds and Propositions Set Free.Otávio Bueno, Christopher Menzel & Edward N. Zalta - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (4):797–820.
    The authors provide an object-theoretic analysis of two paradoxes in the theory of possible worlds and propositions stemming from Russell and Kaplan. After laying out the paradoxes, the authors provide a brief overview of object theory and point out how syntactic restrictions that prevent object-theoretic versions of the classical paradoxes are justified philosophically. The authors then trace the origins of the Russell paradox to a problematic application of set theory in the definition of worlds. Next the authors show that an (...)
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  25. The Basic Notion of Justification.Jonathan L. Kvanvig & Christopher Menzel - 1990 - Philosophical Studies 59 (3):235-261.
    Epistemologists often offer theories of justification without paying much attention to the variety and diversity of locutions in which the notion of justification appears. For example, consider the following claims which contain some notion of justification: B is a justified belief, S's belief that p is justified, p is justified for S, S is justified in believing that p, S justifiably believes that p, S's believing p is justified, there is justification for S to believe that p, there is justification (...)
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  26.  34
    Toward a Broader View of Values in Cost‐Effectiveness Analysis of Health.Paul Menzel, Marthe R. Gold, Erik Nord, Jose-Louis Pinto-Prades, Jeff Richardson & Peter Ubel - 1999 - Hastings Center Report 29 (3):7-15.
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    The Proper Treatment of Predication in Fine-Grained Intensional Logic.Christopher Menzel - 1993 - Philosophical Perspectives 7:61-87.
    In this paper I rehearse two central failings of traditional possible world semantics. I then present a much more robust framework for intensional logic and semantics based liberally on the work of George Bealer in his book Quality and Concept. Certain expressive limitations of Bealer's approach, however, lead me to extend the framework in a particularly natural and useful way. This extension, in turn, brings to light associated limitations of Bealer's account of predication. In response, I develop a more general (...)
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  28.  13
    Mindless Behaviorism, Bodiless Cognitivism, or Primatology?E. W. Menzel - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):258-259.
  29. On the Iterative Explanation of the Paradoxes.Christopher Menzel - 1986 - Philosophical Studies 49 (1):37 - 61.
    As the story goes, the source of the paradoxes of naive set theory lies in a conflation of two distinct conceptions of set: the so-called iterative, or mathematical, conception, and the Fregean, or logical, conception. While the latter conception is provably inconsistent, the former, as Godel notes, "has never led to any antinomy whatsoever". More important, the iterative conception explains the paradoxes by showing precisely where the Fregean conception goes wrong by enabling us to distinguish between sets and proper classes, (...)
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  30.  70
    Haecceities and Mathematical Structuralism.Christopher Menzel - 2018 - Philosophia Mathematica:84-111.
    Recent work in the philosophy of mathematics has suggested that mathematical structuralism is not committed to a strong form of the Identity of Indiscernibles (II). José Bermúdez demurs, and argues that a strong form of II can be warranted on structuralist grounds by countenancing identity properties, or haecceities, as legitimately structural. Typically, structuralists dismiss such properties as obviously non-structural. I will argue to the contrary that haecceities can be viewed as structural but that this concession does not warrant Bermdez’s version (...)
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  31. The Argument From Collections.Christopher Menzel - 2018 - In J. Walls & T. Dougherty (eds.), Two Dozen (or so) Arguments for God: The Plantinga Project. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 29-58.
    Very broadly, an argument from collections is an argument that purports to show that our beliefs about sets imply — in some sense — the existence of God. Plantinga (2007) first sketched such an argument in “Two Dozen” and filled it out somewhat in his 2011 monograph Where the Conflict Really Lies: Religion, Science, and Naturalism. In this paper I reconstruct what strikes me as the most plausible version of Plantinga’s argument. While it is a good argument in at least (...)
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  32.  13
    Should Mentalistic Concepts Be Defended or Assumed?E. W. Menzel & Garcia K. Johnson - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):586-587.
  33. The Fundamental Theorem of World Theory.Christopher Menzel & Edward N. Zalta - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic (2-3):1-31.
    The fundamental principle of the theory of possible worlds is that a proposition p is possible if and only if there is a possible world at which p is true. In this paper we present a valid derivation of this principle from a more general theory in which possible worlds are defined rather than taken as primitive. The general theory uses a primitive modality and axiomatizes abstract objects, properties, and propositions. We then show that this general theory has very small (...)
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  34.  9
    Voluntarily Stopping Eating and Drinking: A Normative Comparison with Refusing Lifesaving Treatment and Advance Directives.Paul T. Menzel - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (4):634-646.
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  35. Cognitive Architecture of a Mini-Brain: The Honeybee.Randolf Menzel & Martin Giurfa - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (2):62-71.
  36. The Process Specification Language: Theory and Applications.Michael Grüninger & Christopher Menzel - 2003 - AI Magazine 24 (3):63-74.
    The Process Specification Language (PSL) has been designed to facilitate correct and complete exchange of process information among manufacturing systems, such as scheduling, process modeling, process planning, production planning, simulation, project management, work flow, and business process reengineering. We given an overview of the theories with the PSL ontology, discuss some of the design principles for the ontology, and finish with examples of process specifications that are based on the ontology.
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  37.  4
    Worlds and Propositions Set Free.Edward N. Zalta, Christopher Menzel & Otávio Bueno - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (4):797-820.
    The authors provide an object-theoretic analysis of two paradoxes in the theory of possible worlds and propositions stemming from Russell and Kaplan. After laying out the paradoxes, the authors provide a brief overview of object theory and point out how syntactic restrictions that prevent object-theoretic versions of the classical paradoxes are justified philosophically. The authors then trace the origins of the Russell paradox to a problematic application of set theory in the definition of worlds. Next the authors show that an (...)
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  38. Knowledge Representation, the World Wide Web, and the Evolution of Logic.Christopher Menzel - 2011 - Synthese 182 (2):269-295.
    It is almost universally acknowledged that first-order logic (FOL), with its clean, well-understood syntax and semantics, allows for the clear expression of philosophical arguments and ideas. Indeed, an argument or philosophical theory rendered in FOL is perhaps the cleanest example there is of “representing philosophy”. A number of prominent syntactic and semantic properties of FOL reflect metaphysical presuppositions that stem from its Fregean origins, particularly the idea of an inviolable divide between concept and object. These presuppositions, taken at face value, (...)
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  39. A Complete, Type-Free "Second-Order" Logic and its Philosophical Foundations.Christopher Menzel - 1986 - CSLI Publications.
    In this report I motivate and develop a type-free logic with predicate quantifiers within the general ontological framework of properties, relations, and propositions. In Part I, I present the major ideas of the system informally and discuss its philosophical significance, especially with regard to Russell's paradox. In Part II, I prove the soundness, consistency, and completeness of the logic.
     
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  40.  12
    The Fundamental Theorem of World Theory.Edward N. Zalta & Christopher Menzel - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (2-3):333-363.
    The fundamental principle of the theory of possible worlds is that a proposition p is possible if and only if there is a possible world at which p is true. In this paper we present a valid derivation of this principle from a more general theory in which possible worlds are defined rather than taken as primitive. The general theory uses a primitive modality and axiomatizes abstract objects, properties, and propositions. We then show that this general theory has very small (...)
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  41. Singular Propositions and Modal Logic.Christopher Menzel - 1993 - Philosophical Topics 21 (2):113-148.
    According to many actualists, propositions, singular propositions in particular, are structurally complex, that is, roughly, (i) they have, in some sense, an internal structure that corresponds rather directly to the syntactic structure of the sentences that express them, and (ii) the metaphysical components, or constituents, of that structure are the semantic values — the meanings — of the corresponding syntactic components of those sentences. Given that reference is "direct", i.e., that the meaning of a name is its denotation, an apparent (...)
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  42. Theism, Platonism, and the Metaphysics of Mathematics.Christopher Menzel - 1987 - Faith and Philosophy 4 (4):365-382.
    In a previous paper, Thomas V. Morris and I sketched a view on which abstract objects, in particular, properties, relations, and propositions , are created by God no less than contingent, concrete objects. In this paper r suggest a way of extending this account to cover mathematical objects as well. Drawing on some recent work in logic and metaphysics, I also develop a more detailed account of the structure of PRPs in answer to the paradoxes that arise on a naive (...)
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  43. On Set Theoretic Possible Worlds.Christopher Menzel - 1986 - Analysis 46 (2):68 - 72.
    In his paper "Are There Set Theoretic Possible Worlds?", Selmer Bringsjord argued that the set theoretic definition of possible worlds proffered by, among others, Robert Adams and Alvin Plantinga is incoherent. It is the purpose of this note to evaluate that argument. The upshot: these set theoretic accounts can be preserved, but only by abandoning the power set axiom.
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  44.  5
    Topic Specificity and Antecedents for Preservice Biology Teachers’ Anticipated Enjoyment for Teaching About Socioscientific Issues: Investigating Universal Values and Psychological Distance.Alexander Georg Büssing, Jacqueline Dupont & Susanne Menzel - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  45.  54
    Edward N. Zalta. Intensional Logic and the Metaphysics of Intentionality. Bradford Books. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1988, Xiii + 256 Pp. [REVIEW]Christopher Menzel - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (3):1146-1150.
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  46.  26
    Justice and Fairness: A Critical Element in U.S. Health System Reform.Paul T. Menzel - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):582-597.
    The case for U.S. health system reform aimed at achieving wider insurance coverage in the population and disciplining the growth of costs is fundamentally a moral case, grounded in two principles: (1) a principle of social justice, the Just Sharing of the costs of illness, and (2) a related principle of fairness, the Prevention of Free‐Riding. These principles generate an argument for universal access to basic care when applied to two existing facts: the phenomenon of “market failure” in health insurance (...)
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  47.  11
    AEDs Are Problematic, but Mrs A is a Misleading Case.Paul T. Menzel - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (2):90-91.
    The case of Mrs A is a provocative example of euthanasia by advance directive to avoid increasingly severe dementia. It is also a ‘perfect storm’ of a disturbing case, revealing both the challenges that can arise with advance euthanasia directives generally and particular issues in the Dutch procedures. Kim, Miller and Dresser have done a distinct service to bioethics in detailing the case, in explaining the basis of the regional euthanasia review committee reprimand of the administering geriatrician and in highlighting (...)
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  48. Temporal Actualism and Singular Foreknowledge.Christopher Menzel - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:475-507.
    Suppose we believe that God created the world. Then surely we want it to be the case that he intended, in some sense at least, to create THIS world. Moreover, most theists want to hold that God didn't just guess or hope that the world would take one course or another; rather, he KNEW precisely what was going to take place in the world he planned to create. In particular, of each person P, God knew that P was to exist. (...)
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  49. Basic Semantic Integration.Christopher Menzel - 2004 - Semantic Interoperability and Integration, Proceedings of Dagstuhl Seminar 04391.
    The use of highly abstract mathematical frameworks is essential for building the sort of theoretical foundation for semantic integration needed to bring it to the level of a genuine engineering discipline. At the same time, much of the work that has been done by means of these frameworks assumes a certain amount of background knowledge in mathematics that a lot of people working in ontology, even at a fairly high theoretical level, lack. The major purpose of this short paper is (...)
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  50. Progress in the Study of Chimpanzee Recall and Episodic Memory.Charles Menzel - 2005 - In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
     
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