Results for 'Ladislav Menzel'

383 found
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  1.  5
    Das problem der formalen logik in der kritik der reinen vernunft.Ladislav Menzel - 1965 - Kant-Studien 56 (3-4):396-411.
  2.  1
    Ordnungsrelationen und mundus sensbilis. Eine auseinandersetzung mit Ernst Cassirer.Ladislav Menzel - 1968 - Kant-Studien 59 (1-4):230-239.
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  3. Absolute Creation.Thomas V. Morris & Christopher Menzel - 1986 - American Philosophical Quarterly 23 (4):353 - 362.
  4.  78
    On an Unsound Proof of the Existence of Possible Worlds.Christopher Menzel - 1989 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 30 (4):598-603.
    In this paper, an argument of Alvin Plantinga's for the existence of abstract possible worlds is shown to be unsound. The argument is based on a principle Plantinga calls "Quasicompactness", due to its structural similarity to the notion of compactness in first-order logic. The principle is shown to be false.
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  5. Science as a Vocation By Ladislav Tondl.Ladislav Tondl - 1979 - In Jan Bärmark (ed.), Perspectives in Metascience. Kungl. Vetenskaps- Och Vitterhets-Samhället. pp. 2--173.
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  6. The Basic Notion of Justification.Jonathan L. Kvanvig & Christopher Menzel - 1990 - Philosophical Studies 59 (3):235-261.
    Epistemologists often offer theories of justification without paying much attention to the variety and diversity of locutions in which the notion of justification appears. For example, consider the following claims which contain some notion of justification: B is a justified belief, S's belief that p is justified, p is justified for S, S is justified in believing that p, S justifiably believes that p, S's believing p is justified, there is justification for S to believe that p, there is justification (...)
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  7.  27
    Conclusions From Color Vision of Insects.Werner Backhaus & Randolf Menzel - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (1):28-30.
  8.  24
    Scientific Procedures: A Contribution Concerning the Methodological Problems of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Explanation.Ladislav Tondl - 1973 - Boston: D. Reidel Pub. Co..
    For a decade, we have admired the incisive and broadly informed works of Ladislav Tondl on the foundations of science. Now it is indeed a pleasure to include this book among the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. We hope that it will help to deepen the collaborative scholar ship of scientists and philosophers in Czechoslovakia with the English reading scholars of the world. Professor Ladislav Tondl was born in 1924, and completed his higher education at the (...)
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  9. Worlds and Propositions Set Free.Otávio Bueno, Christopher Menzel & Edward N. Zalta - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (4):797–820.
    The authors provide an object-theoretic analysis of two paradoxes in the theory of possible worlds and propositions stemming from Russell and Kaplan. After laying out the paradoxes, the authors provide a brief overview of object theory and point out how syntactic restrictions that prevent object-theoretic versions of the classical paradoxes are justified philosophically. The authors then trace the origins of the Russell paradox to a problematic application of set theory in the definition of worlds. Next the authors show that an (...)
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  10.  79
    Afro Pessimism.Lewis R. Gordon, Annie Menzel, George Shulman & Jasmine Syedullah - 2018 - Contemporary Political Theory 17 (1):105-137.
  11.  16
    The Predictive Mind and the Experience of Visual Art Work.Ladislav Kesner - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  12.  8
    Advance Directives for Refusing Life‐Sustaining Treatment in Dementia.Bonnie Steinbock & Paul T. Menzel - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S3):S75-S79.
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  13.  7
    Have Mercier and Sperber Untied the Knot of Human Reasoning?Ladislav Koreň - forthcoming - Tandf: Inquiry:1-14.
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  14. Actualism.Christopher Menzel - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    To understand the thesis of actualism, consider the following example. Imagine a race of beings — call them ‘Aliens’ — that is very different from any life-form that exists anywhere in the universe; different enough, in fact, that no actually existing thing could have been an Alien, any more than a given gorilla could have been a fruitfly. Now, even though there are no Aliens, it seems intuitively the case that there could have been such things. After all, life might (...)
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  15. In Defense of the Possibilism–Actualism Distinction.Christopher Menzel - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (7):1971-1997.
    In Modal Logic as Metaphysics, Timothy Williamson claims that the possibilism-actualism (P-A) distinction is badly muddled. In its place, he introduces a necessitism-contingentism (N-C) distinction that he claims is free of the confusions that purportedly plague the P-A distinction. In this paper I argue first that the P-A distinction, properly understood, is historically well-grounded and entirely coherent. I then look at the two arguments Williamson levels at the P-A distinction and find them wanting and show, moreover, that, when the N-C (...)
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  16.  11
    Worlds and Propositions Set Free.Edward N. Zalta, Christopher Menzel & Otávio Bueno - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (4):797-820.
    The authors provide an object-theoretic analysis of two paradoxes in the theory of possible worlds and propositions stemming from Russell and Kaplan. After laying out the paradoxes, the authors provide a brief overview of object theory and point out how syntactic restrictions that prevent object-theoretic versions of the classical paradoxes are justified philosophically. The authors then trace the origins of the Russell paradox to a problematic application of set theory in the definition of worlds. Next the authors show that an (...)
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  17. Sets and Worlds Again.Christopher Menzel - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):304-309.
    Bringsjord (1985) argues that the definition W of possible worlds as maximal possible sets of propositions is incoherent. Menzel (1986a) notes that Bringsjord’s argument depends on the Powerset axiom and that the axiom can be reasonably denied. Grim (1986) counters that W can be proved to be incoherent without Powerset. Grim was right. However, the argument he provided is deeply flawed. The purpose of this note is to detail the problems with Grim’s argument and to present a sound alternative (...)
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  18. Possible Worlds.Christopher Menzel - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This article includes a basic overview of possible world semantics and a relatively comprehensive overview of three central philosophical conceptions of possible worlds: Concretism (represented chiefly by Lewis), Abstractionism (represented chiefly by Plantinga), and Combinatorialism (represented chiefly by Armstrong).
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  19. Wide Sets, ZFCU, and the Iterative Conception.Christopher Menzel - 2014 - Journal of Philosophy 111 (2):57-83.
    The iterative conception of set is typically considered to provide the intuitive underpinnings for ZFCU (ZFC+Urelements). It is an easy theorem of ZFCU that all sets have a definite cardinality. But the iterative conception seems to be entirely consistent with the existence of “wide” sets, sets (of, in particular, urelements) that are larger than any cardinal. This paper diagnoses the source of the apparent disconnect here and proposes modifications of the Replacement and Powerset axioms so as to allow for the (...)
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  20.  71
    Advance Directives, Dementia, and Physician‐Assisted Death.Paul T. Menzel & Bonnie Steinbock - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):484-500.
    Physician-assisted suicide laws in Oregon and Washington require the person's current competency and a prognosis of terminal illness. In The Netherlands voluntariness and unbearable suffering are required for euthanasia. Many people are more concerned about the loss of autonomy and independence in years of severe dementia than about pain and suffering in their last months. To address this concern, people could write advance directives for physician-assisted death in dementia. Should such directives be implemented even though, at the time, the person (...)
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  21.  36
    Advance Directives, Dementia, and Physician-Assisted Death.Paul T. Menzel & Bonnie Steinbock - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):484-500.
    Almost all jurisdictions where physician-assisted death is legal require that the requesting individual be competent to make medical decisions at time of assistance. The requirement of contemporary competence is intended to ensure that PAD is limited to people who really want to die and have the cognitive ability to make a final choice of such enormous import. Along with terminal illness, defined as prognosis of death within six months, contemporary competence is regarded as an important safeguard against mistake and abuse, (...)
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  22.  59
    Hinge Commitments Vis-À-Vis the Transmission Problem.Ladislav Koreň - 2015 - Synthese 192 (8):2513-2534.
    This study provides a critical appraisal of Duncan Pritchard’s argument to the effect that ability to preserve certain eminently plausible transmission and/or closure principles for knowledge serves as a powerful adequacy test on alternative accounts of so-called Wittgensteinian certainties or hinge commitments. I argue that Pritchard fails to establish this claim—the transmission test does not favour his favourite conception over alternative conceptions premised on the idea that hinge commitments are not supportable via evidential-cognitive routes.
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  23. Actualism, Ontological Commitment, and Possible World Semantics.Christopher Menzel - 1990 - Synthese 85 (3):355 - 389.
    Actualism is the doctrine that the only things there are, that have being in any sense, are the things that actually exist. In particular, actualism eschews possibilism, the doctrine that there are merely possible objects. It is widely held that one cannot both be an actualist and at the same time take possible world semantics seriously — that is, take it as the basis for a genuine theory of truth for modal languages, or look to it for insight into the (...)
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  24. The Process Specification Language: Theory and Applications.Michael Grüninger & Christopher Menzel - 2003 - AI Magazine 24 (3):63-74.
    The Process Specification Language (PSL) has been designed to facilitate correct and complete exchange of process information among manufacturing systems, such as scheduling, process modeling, process planning, production planning, simulation, project management, work flow, and business process reengineering. We given an overview of the theories with the PSL ontology, discuss some of the design principles for the ontology, and finish with examples of process specifications that are based on the ontology.
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  25. History of Geometry and the Development of the Form of its Language.Ladislav Kvasz - 1998 - Synthese 116 (2):141–186.
    The aim of this paper is to introduce Wittgenstein’s concept of the form of a language into geometry and to show how it can be used to achieve a better understanding of the development of geometry, from Desargues, Lobachevsky and Beltrami to Cayley, Klein and Poincaré. Thus this essay can be seen as an attempt to rehabilitate the Picture Theory of Meaning, from the Tractatus. Its basic idea is to use Picture Theory to understand the pictures of geometry. I will (...)
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  26. The True Modal Logic.Christopher Menzel - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 20 (4):331 - 374.
    This paper traces the course of Prior’s struggles with the concepts and phenomena of modality, and the reasoning that led him to his own rather peculiar modal logic Q. I find myself in almost complete agreement with Prior’s intuitions and the arguments that rest upon them. However, I argue that those intuitions do not of themselves lead to Q, but that one must also accept a certain picture of what it is for a proposition to be possible. That picture. though, (...)
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  27.  14
    Gombrich and the Problem of Relativity of Vision.Ladislav Kesner - 2009 - Human Affairs 19 (3).
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  28.  76
    Changes of Language in the Development of Mathematics.Ladislav Kvasz - 2000 - Philosophia Mathematica 8 (1):47-83.
    The nature of changes in mathematics was discussed recently in Revolutions in Mathematics. The discussion was dominated by historical and sociological arguments. An obstacle to a philosophical analysis of this question lies in a discrepancy between our approach to formulas and to pictures. While formulas are understood as constituents of mathematical theories, pictures are viewed only as heuristic tools. Our idea is to consider the pictures contained in mathematical text, as expressions of a specific language. Thus we get formulas and (...)
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  29. A Complete, Type-Free "Second-Order" Logic and its Philosophical Foundations.Christopher Menzel - 1986 - CSLI Publications.
    In this report I motivate and develop a type-free logic with predicate quantifiers within the general ontological framework of properties, relations, and propositions. In Part I, I present the major ideas of the system informally and discuss its philosophical significance, especially with regard to Russell's paradox. In Part II, I prove the soundness, consistency, and completeness of the logic.
     
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  30. The Proper Treatment of Predication in Fine-Grained Intensional Logic.Christopher Menzel - 1993 - Philosophical Perspectives 7:61-87.
    In this paper I rehearse two central failings of traditional possible world semantics. I then present a much more robust framework for intensional logic and semantics based liberally on the work of George Bealer in his book Quality and Concept. Certain expressive limitations of Bealer's approach, however, lead me to extend the framework in a particularly natural and useful way. This extension, in turn, brings to light associated limitations of Bealer's account of predication. In response, I develop a more general (...)
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  31. The History of Algebra and the Development of the Form of its Language.Ladislav Kvasz - 2006 - Philosophia Mathematica 14 (3):287-317.
    This paper offers an epistemological reconstruction of the historical development of algebra from al-Khwrizm, Cardano, and Descartes to Euler, Lagrange, and Galois. In the reconstruction it interprets the algebraic formulas as a symbolic language and analyzes the changes of this language in the course of history. It turns out that the most fundamental epistemological changes in the development of algebra can be interpreted as changes of the pictorial form of the symbolic language of algebra. Thus the paper develops further the (...)
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  32. On Classification of Scientific Revolutions.Ladislav Kvasz - 1999 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (2):201-232.
    The question whether Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions could be applied to mathematics caused many interesting problems to arise. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether there are different kinds of scientific revolution, and if so, how many. The basic idea of the paper is to discriminate between the formal and the social aspects of the development of science and to compare them. The paper has four parts. In the first introductory part we discuss some of the questions (...)
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  33.  14
    Should Mentalistic Concepts Be Defended or Assumed?E. W. Menzel & Garcia K. Johnson - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):586-587.
  34.  12
    Advance Directives, Dementia, and Withholding Food and Water by Mouth.Paul T. Menzel & M. Colette Chandler-Cramer - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (3):23-37.
  35. The Cultural Moral Right to a Basic Minimum of Accessible Health Care.Paul T. Menzel - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (1):79-119.
    In the United States, amid the fractious politics of attempting to achieve something close to universal access to basic health care, two impressions are likely to feed skepticism about the status of a right to universal access: the moral principles that underlie any right to universal access may seem incredibly "ideal," not well rooted in the society's actual fabric, and the necessary practical and political attempts to limit the scope of universally accessible care to make its achievement realistic may seem (...)
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  36.  16
    Mindless Behaviorism, Bodiless Cognitivism, or Primatology?E. W. Menzel - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):258-259.
  37.  69
    Semiotic Foundation of Models and Modelling.Ladislav Tondl - 2000 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 15 (3):413-420.
    The paper analyses the model as an artefact sui generis establishing the role of semiosis, as a homomorphic representation, as an artefact securing the function of an interface between the author and the receiver. The receiver's ability of accepting the model and its interpretation possibility and/or quality depends on the receiver's competence including the linquistic competence, his knowledge of the represented sphere and the knowledge of the applied sign system and its rules.
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  38.  34
    Toward a Broader View of Values in Cost‐Effectiveness Analysis of Health.Paul Menzel, Marthe R. Gold, Erik Nord, Jose-Louis Pinto-Prades, Jeff Richardson & Peter Ubel - 1999 - Hastings Center Report 29 (3):7-15.
  39.  13
    AEDs Are Problematic, but Mrs A is a Misleading Case.Paul T. Menzel - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (2):90-91.
    The case of Mrs A is a provocative example of euthanasia by advance directive to avoid increasingly severe dementia. It is also a ‘perfect storm’ of a disturbing case, revealing both the challenges that can arise with advance euthanasia directives generally and particular issues in the Dutch procedures. Kim, Miller and Dresser have done a distinct service to bioethics in detailing the case, in explaining the basis of the regional euthanasia review committee reprimand of the administering geriatrician and in highlighting (...)
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  40.  85
    Haecceities and Mathematical Structuralism.Christopher Menzel - 2018 - Philosophia Mathematica:84-111.
    Recent work in the philosophy of mathematics has suggested that mathematical structuralism is not committed to a strong form of the Identity of Indiscernibles (II). José Bermúdez demurs, and argues that a strong form of II can be warranted on structuralist grounds by countenancing identity properties, or haecceities, as legitimately structural. Typically, structuralists dismiss such properties as obviously non-structural. I will argue to the contrary that haecceities can be viewed as structural but that this concession does not warrant Bermdez’s version (...)
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  41.  26
    Moral Judgement Competence and Moral Attitudes of Medical Students.Birgita Slováčková & Ladislav Slováček - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (3):320-328.
    A cross-sectional study explored the moral judgement competence and moral attitudes of 310 Czech and Slovak and 70 foreign national students at the Medical Faculty of Charles University in Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Lind's Moral Judgement Test was used to evaluate moral judgement competence and moral attitudes depending on factors such as age, number of semesters of study, sex, nationality and religion. Moral judgement competence decreased significantly in the Czech and Slovak medical students as they grew older; in medical students (...)
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  42.  15
    Matematika a Skutočnosť.Ladislav Kvasz - 2011 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 18 (3):302-330.
    The aim of the present paper is to offer a new analysis of the multifarious relations between mathematics and reality. We believe that the relation of mathematics to reality is, just like in the case of the natural sciences, mediated by instruments . Therefore the kind of realism we aim to develop for mathematics can be called instrumental realism. It is a kind of realism, because it is based on the thesis, that mathematics describes certain patterns of reality. And it (...)
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  43. Kühn, Z. Je anonymizace publikovaných soudních rozhodnutí vskutku nutná.Ladislav Derka - forthcoming - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas.
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  44.  23
    Ladislav Tondl. Sémantika otázky v problémové situaci . Kybernetika , vol. 4 , pp. 295–317.Zoltan Domotor - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (2):314.
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  45.  12
    The Ethical QALY: Ethical Issues in Healthcare Resource Allocations; The Allocation of Health Care Resources: An Ethical Evaluation of the`QALY' Approach. [REVIEW]Paul Menzel - 1999 - Bioethics 13 (5):436.
  46.  22
    Book Review: Intimate Justice: The Black Female Body and the Body Politic, by Shatema Threadcraft. [REVIEW]Annie Menzel - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (5):805-810.
  47.  3
    Wolfgang Menzel: Pioneer of Integral Nationalism.Robert A. Kann - 1945 - Journal of the History of Ideas 6 (2):213.
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  48. Jiří Menzel’s Treatment of Sacrifice.Daniel Brennan - 2019 - Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 9 (3-4):208-220.
    The paper explores the philosophical treatment of sacrifice in four of Jiří Menzel’s films of the 1960’s, Closely observed trains, Capricious summer, Mr Balthazar’s death, his short film contribution to the anthology film of the New Wave, Pearls of the deep, and Larks on a string. The paper argues that Menzel problematizes romanticized versions of messianic sacrifice as they all too easily disregard the moral significance of mundane relations. By analysing the treatment of sacrifice in each of these (...)
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  49. Logic, Essence, and Modality — Review of Bob Hale's Necessary Beings. [REVIEW]Christopher Menzel - 2015 - Philosophia Mathematica 23 (3):407-428.
    Bob Hale’s distinguished record of research places him among the most important and influential contemporary analytic metaphysicians. In his deep, wide ranging, yet highly readable book Necessary Beings, Hale draws upon, but substantially integrates and extends, a good deal his past research to produce a sustained and richly textured essay on — as promised in the subtitle — ontology, modality, and the relations between them. I’ve set myself two tasks in this review: first, to provide a reasonably thorough (if not (...)
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  50.  13
    Matematika a Skúsenosť.Ladislav Kvasz - 2009 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 16 (2):146-182.
    Mathematics is traditionally considered being an apriori discipline consisting of purely analytic propositions. The aim of the present paper is to offer arguments against this entrenched view and to draw attention to the experiential dimension of mathematical knowledge. Following Husserl’s interpretation of physical knowledge as knowledge constituted by the use of instruments, I am trying to interpret mathematical knowledge also as acknowledge based on instrumental experience. This interpretation opens a new view on the role of the logicist program, both in (...)
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