80 found
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  1.  14
    [Book Review] Children, Families, and Health Care Decision Making. [REVIEW]Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):639-641.
  2.  9
    Prisoners as Living Donors: A Vulnerabilities Analysis.Lainie Friedman Ross & J. Richard Thistlethwaite - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (1):93-108.
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  3.  11
    Ethical and Logistical Issues Raised by the Advanced Donation Program “Pay It Forward” Scheme.Lainie Friedman Ross, James R. Rodrigue & Robert M. Veatch - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (5):518-536.
    The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who (...)
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  4. Mandatory Versus Voluntary Consent for Newborn Screening?Lainie Friedman Ross - 2010 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (4):299-328.
    Virtually every infant in the United States (U.S.) undergoes a heel stick within the first week of life to test for a variety of metabolic, endocrine, and hematological conditions as part of state-run universal newborn screening (NBS) programs. In the U.S., NBS began in the 1960s for phenylketonuria (PKU), a metabolic condition that causes intellectual disability if left untreated. I review the history of how NBS came to be a mandatory public health program that did not require parental consent1 and (...)
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  5.  9
    Theory and Practice of Pediatric Bioethics.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2015 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 58 (3):267-280.
    The fundamental principle of modern-day bioethics is that “the competent adult has the right to accept or refuse all medical care, including life-saving medical care,” a principle that has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Bouvia v. Superior Court ) and Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health ). If the adult lacks decision-making capacity, a surrogate can speak on his or her behalf. The adult may have chosen his or her surrogate through an advance directive; if not, (...)
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  6.  49
    Disclosing Misattributed Paternity.Lainie Friedman Ross - 1996 - Bioethics 10 (2):114–130.
    ABSTRACTIn 1994, the Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks of the Institute of Medicine published their recommendations regarding the ethical issues raised by advances in genetics. One of the Committee's recommendation was to inform women when test results revealed misattributed paternity, but not to disclose this information to the women's partners. The Committee's reason for withholding such information was that “'genetic testing should not be used in ways that disrupt families”. In this paper, I argue that the Committee's conclusion in favour (...)
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  7.  12
    Living Donation by Individuals with Life-Limiting Conditions.Lainie Friedman Ross & J. Richard Thistlethwaite - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):112-122.
    The traditional living donor was very healthy. However, as the supply-demand gap continues to expand, transplant programs have become more accepting of less healthy donors. This paper focuses on the other extreme, asking whether and when individuals who have life-limiting conditions should be considered for living organ donation. We discuss ethical issues raised by 1) donation by individuals with progressive severe debilitating disease for whom there is no ameliorative therapy; and 2) donation by individuals who are imminently dying or would (...)
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  8.  19
    Lethal Language, Lethal Decisions.Tracy K. Koogler, Benjamin S. Wilfond & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (2):37-41.
  9.  69
    Children in Medical Research: Access Versus Protection.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Lainie Ross presents a rigorous critical investigation of the development of policy governing the involvement of children in medical research. She examines the shift in focus from protection of medical research subjects, enshrined in post-World War II legislation, to the current era in which access is assuming greater precedence. Infamous studies such as Willowbrook are evidence that before the policy shift protection was not always adequate, even for the most vulnerable groups. Additional safeguards for children were first implemented in many (...)
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  10.  35
    Children in Medical Research: Balancing Protection and Access: Has the Pendulum Swung Too Far?Lainie Friedman Ross - 2004 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (4):519-536.
  11.  19
    Health Care Decisionmaking by Children Is It in Their Best Interest?Lainie Friedman Ross - 1997 - Hastings Center Report 27 (6):41-46.
  12.  38
    Do Genetic Relationships Create Moral Obligations in Organ Transplantation?Walter Glannon & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11 (2):153-159.
    In 1999, a case was described on national television in which a woman had enlisted onto an international bone marrow registry with the altruistic desire to offer her bone marrow to some unidentified individual in need of a transplant. The potential donor then was notified that she was a compatible match with someone dying from leukemia and gladly donated her marrow, which cured the recipient of the disease. Years later, though, the recipient developed end-stage renal disease, a consequence of the (...)
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  13.  15
    Genetic Exceptionalism Vs. Paradigm Shift: Lessons From HIV.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2001 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 29 (2):141-148.
    The term “exceptionalism” was introduced into health care in 1991 when Bayer described “HIV exceptionalism” as the policy of treating the human immunodeficiency virus different from other infectious diseases, particularly other sexually transmitted diseases. It was reflected in the following practices: pre- and post-HIV test counseling, the development of specific separate consent forms for HIV testing, and stringent requirements for confidentiality of HIV test results. The justification for these practices was the belief that testing was essential for prevention and that (...)
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  14.  29
    Informed Consent in Pediatric Research.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2004 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (4):346-358.
    The first principle of the Nuremberg Code requires the informed consent of the subject. Proxy consent was not addressed until the Declaration of Helsinki. U.S. policies regarding consent for the participation of children in research would not be finalized for almost two more decades in subpart D of the federal regulations that govern the participation of subjects in research. In October 2000, the Children's Health Act was passed. Title X required the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (...)
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  15.  6
    Genetic Exceptionalism Vs. Paradigm Shift: Lessons From HIV.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2001 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 29 (2):141-148.
    The term “exceptionalism” was introduced into health care in 1991 when Bayer described “HIV exceptionalism” as the policy of treating the human immunodeficiency virus different from other infectious diseases, particularly other sexually transmitted diseases. It was reflected in the following practices: pre- and post-HIV test counseling, the development of specific separate consent forms for HIV testing, and stringent requirements for confidentiality of HIV test results. The justification for these practices was the belief that testing was essential for prevention and that (...)
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  16. Transplantation Ethics (Review).Lainie Friedman Ross - 2001 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 44 (4):623-628.
  17.  7
    Pediatric Decision Making Requires Both Guidance and Intervention Principles.Erin Talati Paquette & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):44-46.
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  18.  20
    Religious Exemptions to the Immunization Statutes: Balancing Public Health and Religious Freedom.Lainie Friedman Ross & Timothy J. Aspinwall - 1997 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (2-3):202-209.
    In February 1997, the Committee on Bioethics of the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its position on religious exemptions to medical care. In its earlier statement, the committee noted that forty-four states have religious exemptions to the child abuse and neglect statutes, and they argued for the repeal of these exemptions. The committee did not indude in its statement a position on religious exemptions to childhood immunization requirements that exist in forty-eight states, although this issue was discussed in committee meetings. (...)
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  19.  22
    The Best Interest Standard: Same Name but Different Roles in Pediatric Bioethics and Child Rights Frameworks.Lainie Friedman Ross & Alissa Hurwitz Swota - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (2):186-197.
    The "best interest of the child" standard is central to both pediatric bioethics and the child rights community. In pediatric bioethics in the United States, the best interest of the child standard is cited as the guidance principle for parental decision-making.1 Likewise, in the child rights community, the best interest of the child standard is "of paramount consideration" ). Both approaches also recognize parental rights and responsibilities and support a role for the maturing child in the decision-making process. Why, then, (...)
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  20.  16
    Solid Organ Donation Between Strangers.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (3):440-445.
    In August 2000, Arthur Matas and his colleagues de scribed a protocol in which their institution began to accept as potential donors, individuals who came to the University of Minnesota hospital offering to donate a kidney to any patient on the waiting list. Matas and his colleagues refer to these donors as nondirected donors by which is meant that the donors are altruistic and that they give their organs to an unspecified pool of recipients with whom they have no emotional (...)
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  21.  6
    Solid Organ Donation Between Strangers.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (3):440-445.
    In August 2000, Arthur Matas and his colleagues de scribed a protocol in which their institution began to accept as potential donors, individuals who came to the University of Minnesota hospital offering to donate a kidney to any patient on the waiting list. Matas and his colleagues refer to these donors as nondirected donors by which is meant that the donors are altruistic and that they give their organs to an unspecified pool of recipients with whom they have no emotional (...)
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  22. Arguments Against Health Care Autonomy for Minors.Lainie Friedman Ross - 1995 - Bioethics Forum 11 (4):22-6.
     
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  23.  17
    Religious Exemptions to the Immunization Statutes: Balancing Public Health and Religious Freedom.Lainie Friedman Ross & Timothy J. Aspinwall - 1997 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (2-3):202-209.
    In February 1997, the Committee on Bioethics of the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its position on religious exemptions to medical care. In its earlier statement, the committee noted that forty-four states have religious exemptions to the child abuse and neglect statutes, and they argued for the repeal of these exemptions. The committee did not indude in its statement a position on religious exemptions to childhood immunization requirements that exist in forty-eight states, although this issue was discussed in committee meetings. (...)
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  24.  17
    Genetic Exceptionalism Vs. Paradigm Shift: Lessons From HIV.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2001 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 29 (1):141-148.
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  25.  11
    Consent Is the Cornerstone of Ethically Valid Research: Ethical Issues in Recontacting Subjects Who Enrolled in Research as a Minor.Erin Talati Paquette & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):61-63.
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  26.  38
    Relational Autonomy as the Key to Effective Behavioral Change.Jennifer K. Walter & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2013 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (2):169-177.
    The Common Health problems that plague Americans today are often the result of people’s choices and behaviors: obesity, cigarette smoking, accidental pediatric head trauma owing to failure to properly restrain children, and failure to adhere to medication regimens. For each problem, there is a well-studied effective behavioral intervention: a healthy diet and exercise for obesity, smoking cessation programs to overcome cigarette addiction, appropriate car restraints to prevent accidental head trauma, and direct observation of treatment and simplification of medical regimens to (...)
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  27.  45
    Response to “Intrafamilial Organ Donation Is Often an Altruistic Act” by Aaron Spital and “Donor Benefit Is the Key to Justified Living Organ Donation,” by Aaron Spital : Motivation, Risk, and Benefit in Living Organ Donation: A Reply to Aaron Spital. [REVIEW]Walter Glannon & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (2):191-194.
    In a recent article in this journal, we argued that living organ donation from a parent to a child should be described as a beneficent rather than an altruistic act. Emotional relationships can generate an obligation of beneficence to help those with whom we have these relationships. This may involve an obligation for a parent to donate an organ to a child, even though it entails some risk to the parent. The parent's donation is not altruistic because altruistic acts are (...)
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  28.  9
    Disclosing Misattributed Paternity.Lainie Friedman Ross - 1996 - Bioethics 10 (2):114-130.
    ABSTRACTIn 1994, the Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks of the Institute of Medicine published their recommendations regarding the ethical issues raised by advances in genetics. One of the Committee's recommendation was to inform women when test results revealed misattributed paternity, but not to disclose this information to the women's partners. The Committee's reason for withholding such information was that “'genetic testing should not be used in ways that disrupt families”. In this paper, I argue that the Committee's conclusion in favour (...)
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  29.  39
    The Ethical Limits in Expanding Living Donor Transplantation.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2006 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (2):151-172.
    : The past decade has witnessed the emergence of novel methods to increase the number of living donors. Although such programs are not likely to yield high volumes of organs, some transplant centers have gone to great lengths to establish one or more of them. I discuss some of the ethical and policy issues raised by five such programs: (1) living-paired and cascade exchanges; (2) unbalanced living-paired exchanges; (3) list-paired exchanges; (4) nondirected donors; and (5) nondirected donors catalyzing cascade exchanges. (...)
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  30.  24
    Predictive Genetic Testing of Children and the Role of the Best Interest Standard: Currents in Contemporary Bioethics.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):899-906.
    The “best interest standard” is the guidance principle for pediatric healthcare in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK). In the UK, the best interest standard may also be used as an intervention principle when parents make good but non-ideal decisions whereas intervention in the US requires a determination of abuse or neglect. I examine whether and how the different uses of the best interest standard influence predictive genetic testing of children.
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  31.  29
    Convening a 407 Panel for Research Not Otherwise Approvable: "Precursors to Diabetes in Japanese American Youth" as a Case Study.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2004 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (2):165-186.
    : Subpart D of 45 CFR 46 focuses on research involving children. Section 46.407 addresses research that is not otherwise approvable. The research is not otherwise approvable because either (1) it seeks to enroll healthy children, but offers no prospect of direct benefit and entails more than minimal risk; or (2) it seeks to enroll children with a disorder or condition, but offers no prospect of direct benefit and entails more than a minor increase over minimal risk. According to 46.407, (...)
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  32.  13
    What Is Wrong with the Physician Charter on Professionalism.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (4):17-19.
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  33.  66
    Against the Tide: Arguments Against Respecting a Minor's Refusal of Efficacious Life-Saving Treatment.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (3):302.
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  34.  18
    Attitudes of African-American Parents About Biobank Participation and Return of Results for Themselves and Their Children.Colin M. E. Halverson & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (9):561-566.
    Introduction Biobank-based research is growing in importance. A major controversy exists about the return of aggregate and individual research results. Methods The authors used a mixed-method approach in order to study parents' attitudes towards the return of research results regarding themselves and their children. Participants attended four 2-h, deliberative-engagement sessions held on two consecutive Saturdays. Each session consisted of an educational presentation followed by focus-group discussions with structured questions and prompts. This manuscript examines discussions from the second Saturday which focused (...)
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  35.  22
    Moral Grounding for the Participation of Children as Organ Donors.Lainie Friedman Ross - 1993 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 21 (2):251-257.
    More than 24,000 patients await organ transplants and the number is increasing yearly. Living donors are an important source of transplant organs. In this paper, I argue that we can morally justify allowing children to serve as donors. Yet, I also argue that their participation must be restricted in order to prevent their exploitation.The paper is divided into six sections. In the first section, I show why the traditional principles of personal autonomy and beneficence are not adequate morally to justify (...)
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  36.  43
    Arguments Against Respecting a Minor's Refusal of Efficacious Life-Saving Treatment Redux, Part II.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (4):432.
    This CQ department is dedicated to bringing noted bioethicsts together in order to debate some of the most perplexing contemporary bioethics issues. You are encouraged to contact department editor, D. Micah Hester, UAMS/Humanities, 4301 W. Markham St. #646, Little Rock, AR 72205, with any suggestions for debate topics and interlocutors you would like to see published herein.
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  37.  4
    Predictive Genetic Testing of Children and the Role of the Best Interest Standard: Currents in Contemporary Bioethics.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):899-906.
    The genetic testing and screening of children has been fraught with controversy since Robert Guthrie developed the bacterial inhibition assay to test for phenylketonuria and advocated for rapid uptake of universal newborn screening in the early 1960s. Today with fast and affordable mass screening of the whole genome on the horizon, the debate about when and in what scenarios children should undergo genetic testing and screening has gained renewed attention. United States professional guidelines — both the American College of Medical (...)
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  38.  72
    The Moral Status of the Newborn and its Implications for Medical Decision Making.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (5):349-355.
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  39.  14
    A Descriptive and Moral Evaluation of Providing Informal Medical Care to One's Own Children.Jennifer K. Walter, Elizabeth Pappano & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2009 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 20 (4):353.
  40.  16
    A Compounding of Errors: The Case of Bone Marrow Donation Between Non-Intimate Siblings.Lainie Friedman Ross & Walter Glannon - 2006 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 17 (3):220.
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  41.  46
    The Ethics of Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Research.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (2):177-197.
    There are approximately one million cases oftype 1 diabetes in the US, and the incidenceis increasing worldwide. Given that two-thirdsof cases present in childhood, it is criticalthat prediction and prevention research involvechildren. In this article, I examine whethercurrent research methodologies conform to theethical guidelines enumerated by the NationalCommission for the Protection of Human Subjectsof Biomedical and Behavioral Research, andadopted into the federal regulations thatprotect research subjects. I then offer twopolicy recommendations to help researchersdesign studies that conform to these ethicalrequirements.
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  42.  7
    Heterozygote Carrier Testing in High Schools Abroad: What Are the Lessons for the U.S.?Lainie Friedman Ross - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):753-764.
    To promote informed reproductive decisions, prenatal carrier testing is offered to women and couples to provide information about the risk of having a child with one or more genetic conditions. Tay Sachs Disease was one of the first conditions for which prenatal carrier testing was developed. Today, many additional conditions can be tested for, depending on prospective parental interest, family history, or ethnicity. Interestingly, most individuals and couples do not request prenatal carrier information prior to conception, and carrier testing early (...)
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  43.  14
    In Defense of the Hopkins Lead Abatement Studies.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):50-57.
    In August 2001, the Maryland Court of Appeals harshly criticized the Kennedy Krieger Institute of Johns Hopkins University for knowingly exposing poor children to lead-based paint. The court’s decision made national news, and is worth examining because it raises several very important issues for research ethics.The research conducted by the Institute was an attempt to understand how successful different lead abatement programs were in reducing continued lead exposure to children. Previously, Julian Chisolm and Mark Farfel, of John Hopkins University, had (...)
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  44.  7
    Motivation, Risk, and Benefit in Living Organ Donation: A Reply to Aaron Spital.Walter Glannon & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (2):191.
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  45.  5
    Heterozygote Carrier Testing in High Schools Abroad: What Are the Lessons for the U.S.?Lainie Friedman Ross - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):753-764.
    The main value of carrier detection in the general population is to determine reproductive risks. In this manuscript I examine the practice of providing carrier screening programs in the school setting. While the data show that high school screening programs can achieve high uptake, I argue that this may reflect a lack of full understanding about risks, benefits, and alternatives, and the right not to know. It may also reflect the inherent coercion in group testing, particularly for adolescents who are (...)
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  46.  12
    All Donations Should Not Be Treated Equally: A Response to Jeffrey Kahn's Commentary.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (3):448-451.
    Jeffrey Kahn and I agree that organ donation by altruistic strangers is acceptable, and that the organ procured this way ought to be allocated equitably. Our agreement in principle, however, is challenged in the details of its application. Specifically, I want to focus on three issues raised by Kahn that merit further discussion: whether relationships matter; how kidneys should be allocated; and the ethical acceptability of the expanded donor pool.
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  47.  12
    In Defense of the Hopkins Lead Abatement Studies.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):50-57.
    In August 2001, the Maryland Court of Appeals harshly criticized the Kennedy Krieger Institute of Johns Hopkins University for knowingly exposing poor children to lead-based paint. The court’s decision made national news, and is worth examining because it raises several very important issues for research ethics.The research conducted by the Institute was an attempt to understand how successful different lead abatement programs were in reducing continued lead exposure to children. Previously, Julian Chisolm and Mark Farfel, of John Hopkins University, had (...)
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  48.  1
    Health Care Surrogacy Laws Do Not Adequately Address the Needs of Minors.Rupali Gandhi, Erin Talati Paquette, Lainie Friedman Ross & Erin Flanagan - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (2):16-18.
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  49.  36
    Patient Confidentiality and the Surrogate's Right to Know.Lynn A. Jansen & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (2):137-143.
    Physicians treating newly incapacitated patients often must navigate surrogate decision-makers through a difficult course of treatment decisions. Such a process can be complex. Physicians must not only explain the medical facts and prognosis to the surrogate, but also attempt to ensure that the surrogate arrives at decisions that are consistent with the patient's own values and wishes. Where these values and wishes are unknown, physicians must help surrogates make decisions that reflect the patient's best interests.
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  50.  10
    Patient Confidentiality and the Surrogate's Right to Know.Lynn A. Jansen & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (2):137-143.
    Physicians treating newly incapacitated patients often must navigate surrogate decision-makers through a difficult course of treatment decisions. Such a process can be complex. Physicians must not only explain the medical facts and prognosis to the surrogate, but also attempt to ensure that the surrogate arrives at decisions that are consistent with the patient's own values and wishes. Where these values and wishes are unknown, physicians must help surrogates make decisions that reflect the patient's best interests.
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