Results for 'Large-scale irrigation scheme'

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  1.  25
    Linking Research and Public Engagement: Weaving an Alternative Narrative of Moroccan Family Farmers' Collective Action. [REVIEW]Nicolas Faysse, Mostafa Errahj, Catherine Dumora, Hassan Kemmoun & Marcel Kuper - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):413-426.
    Rural development policies are often inspired by narratives that are difficult to challenge because they are based on an apparently obvious and coherent reading of reality. Research may confront such narratives and trigger debates outside the academic community, but this can have a feedback effect and lead to a simplistic or biased posture in research. This article analyzes a research-based initiative that questioned a commonly held narrative in large-scale irrigation schemes in Morocco concerning the structural weaknesses of farmer-led (...)
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  2. Why Build a Virtual Brain? Large-Scale Neural Simulations as Jump Start for Cognitive Computing.Matteo Colombo - 2016 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence.
    Despite the impressive amount of financial resources recently invested in carrying out large-scale brain simulations, it is controversial what the pay-offs are of pursuing this project. One idea is that from designing, building, and running a large-scale neural simulation, scientists acquire knowledge about the computational performance of the simulating system, rather than about the neurobiological system represented in the simulation. It has been claimed that this knowledge may usher in a new era of neuromorphic, cognitive computing systems. This (...)
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  3.  58
    Individual Homogenization in Large-Scale Systems: On the Politics of Computer and Social Architectures.Jens Bürger & Andres Laguna-Tapia - 2020 - Palgrave Communications 6 (47).
    One determining characteristic of contemporary sociopolitical systems is their power over increasingly large and diverse populations. This raises questions about power relations between heterogeneous individuals and increasingly dominant and homogenizing system objectives. This article crosses epistemic boundaries by integrating computer engineering and a historicalphilosophical approach making the general organization of individuals within large-scale systems and corresponding individual homogenization intelligible. From a versatile archeological-genealogical perspective, an analysis of computer and social architectures is conducted that reinterprets Foucault’s disciplines and political anatomy (...)
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  4.  35
    The Potential of Standards and Codes of Conduct in Governing Large-Scale Land Acquisition in Developing Countries Towards Sustainability.Lieske Voget-Kleschin & Setareh Stephan - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1157-1179.
    Commercial interest in land (large-scale land acquisition, LaSLA) in developing countries is a hot topic for debate and its potential consequences are contentious: proponents conceive of it as much needed investment into the formerly neglected agricultural sector while opponents point to severe social and environmental effects. This contribution discusses, if and how sustainability standards and codes of conduct can contribute towards governing LaSLA. Based on the WCED-definition we develop a conception of sustainability that allows framing potential negative effects as (...)
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  5.  28
    Large-Scale Land Acquisition: Evaluating its Environmental Aspects Against the Background of Strong Sustainability. [REVIEW]Lieske Voget-Kleschin - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1105-1126.
    Large-scale land acquisition (LaSLA) in developing countries is discussed controversially in both the media as well as academia: Opponents point to negative social and environmental consequences. By contrast, proponents conceive of LaSLA as much needed investment into the formerly neglected agricultural sector. This contribution aims at analyzing LaSLA’s environmental dimension against the background of strong sustainability. To this end, I will first introduce sustainable development as a normative concept based on claims for intra- and intergenerational justice. Subsequently, I will (...)
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  6.  58
    Why Build a Virtual Brain? Large-Scale Neural Simulations as Test-Bed for Artificial Computing Systems.Matteo Colombo - 2015 - In D. C. Noelle, R. Dale, A. S. Warlaumont, J. Yoshimi, T. Matlock, C. D. Jennings & P. P. Maglio (eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 429-434.
    Despite the impressive amount of financial resources invested in carrying out large-scale brain simulations, it is controversial what the payoffs are of pursuing this project. The present paper argues that in some cases, from designing, building, and running a large-scale neural simulation, scientists acquire useful knowledge about the computational performance of the simulating system, rather than about the neurobiological system represented in the simulation. What this means, why it is not a trivial lesson, and how it advances the (...)
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  7.  13
    Sequence Encoders Enable Large‐Scale Lexical Modeling: Reply to Bowers and Davis (2009).Daragh E. Sibley, Christopher T. Kello, David C. Plaut & Jeffrey L. Elman - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (7):1187-1191.
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  8.  71
    Toward a Quantitative Description of Large-Scale Neocortical Dynamic Function and EEG.Paul L. Nunez - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):371-398.
    A general conceptual framework for large-scale neocortical dynamics based on data from many laboratories is applied to a variety of experimental designs, spatial scales, and brain states. Partly distinct, but interacting local processes (e.g., neural networks) arise from functional segregation. Global processes arise from functional integration and can facilitate (top down) synchronous activity in remote cell groups that function simultaneously at several different spatial scales. Simultaneous local processes may help drive (bottom up) macroscopic global dynamics observed with electroencephalography (EEG) (...)
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  9. The Sum of the Parts: Large-Scale Modeling in Systems Biology.Fridolin Gross & Sara Green - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (10).
    Systems biologists often distance themselves from reductionist approaches and formulate their aim as understanding living systems “as a whole.” Yet, it is often unclear what kind of reductionism they have in mind, and in what sense their methodologies would offer a superior approach. To address these questions, we distinguish between two types of reductionism which we call “modular reductionism” and “bottom-up reductionism.” Much knowledge in molecular biology has been gained by decomposing living systems into functional modules or through detailed studies (...)
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  10.  18
    Advancing Polylogical Analysis of Large-Scale Argumentation: Disagreement Management in the Fracking Controversy.Mark Aakhus & Marcin Lewiński - 2017 - Argumentation 31 (1):179-207.
    This paper offers a new way to make sense of disagreement expansion from a polylogical perspective by incorporating various places in addition to players and positions into the analysis. The concepts build on prior implicit ideas about disagreement space by suggesting how to more fully account for argumentative context, and its construction, in large-scale complex controversies. As a basis for our polylogical analysis, we use a New York Times news story reporting on an oil train explosion—a significant point in (...)
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  11.  22
    Extending SME to Handle Large‐Scale Cognitive Modeling.Kenneth D. Forbus, Ronald W. Ferguson, Andrew Lovett & Dedre Gentner - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (5):1152-1201.
    Analogy and similarity are central phenomena in human cognition, involved in processes ranging from visual perception to conceptual change. To capture this centrality requires that a model of comparison must be able to integrate with other processes and handle the size and complexity of the representations required by the tasks being modeled. This paper describes extensions to Structure-Mapping Engine since its inception in 1986 that have increased its scope of operation. We first review the basic SME algorithm, describe psychological evidence (...)
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  12. Punishment Sustains Large-Scale Cooperation in Prestate Warfare.Robert Boyd & Simon A. Levin - unknown
    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial (...)
     
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  13.  11
    Identifying Emotional Specificity in Complex Large-Scale Brain Networks.Stefan Koelsch - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):217-218.
    The target article is well in accordance with recent theoretical advances considering the complex large-scale brain network organization underlying emotions. Given current limitations of the methods in brain science, however, research is faced with the difficult question as to how it will be possible to elucidate the complex nonlinear interactions, the neurotransmitters involved, and the excitatory or inhibitory nature of neural processes underlying human emotion in such networks. Moreover, while investigating the network properties of neural processes underlying emotions, it (...)
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  14.  16
    Large-Scale Brain Simulation and Disorders of Consciousness. Mapping Technical and Conceptual Issues.Michele Farisco, Jeanette H. Kotaleski & Kathinka Evers - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness, (...)
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  15.  64
    Children as Means and Ends in Large-Scale Medical Research.Garrath Williams - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (8):422-430.
    This paper considers the often-expressed fear that medical research may use children merely as means, and not respect them as ends in themselves – especially insofar as they are deemed less able to consent than adults. The main focus is on large-scale genetic, socio-medical and epidemiological research. The theoretical starting point of the paper is that to be treated as an end in oneself is to be regarded as – and to act as – a participant in cooperative endeavours. (...)
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  16.  7
    What Happens After Technology Adoption? Gendered Aspects of Small-Scale Irrigation Technologies in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania.Sophie Theis, Nicole Lefore, Ruth Meinzen-Dick & Elizabeth Bryan - 2018 - Agriculture and Human Values 35 (3):671-684.
    Diverse agricultural technologies are promoted to increase yields and incomes, save time, improve food and nutritional security, and even empower women. Yet a gender gap in technology adoption remains for many agricultural technologies, even for those that are promoted for women. This paper complements the literature on gender and technology adoption, which largely focuses on reasons for low rates of female technology adoption, by shifting attention to what happens within a household after it adopts a technology. Understanding the expected benefits (...)
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  17. Connecting the Dots Between Boundary Change and Large-Scale Assimilation with Zolbergian Clues.Richard Alba - 2010 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 77 (1):163-180.
    Taking Aristide Zolberg and Long Litt Woon's now classic article, "Why Islam is Like Spanish," as its point of departure, this paper elaborates on the social boundary concepts introduced there and argues that these ideas offer new insight into the processes leading to fundamental ethno-racial change. The boundary concepts allow us to move beyond the static, one-directional concept of assimilation inherited from a previous era. They also help us to understand the conditions under which a majority group may tolerate the (...)
     
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  18.  33
    Tackling Epistemological Naivety: Large-Scale Information Systems and the Complexities of the Common Good.Kjetil Rommetveit - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (4):584-595.
    We have arrived at a situation in which policymakers and ethicists are considering abandoning informed consent in the governance of certain new technologies, many of which are related to large-scale information systems. A paradigm case is the problem with using individuals’ informed consent to regulate biobanks. As sometimes suggested, there is a need for “new ethical frameworks.”.
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  19.  41
    The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method.Peter Kosso - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (1):33-42.
    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of scientific method can reveal the global interconnectedness of scientific knowledge that is an essential part of what makes science scientific. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  20.  23
    Strategies for Consulting with the Community: The Cases of Four Large-Scale Genetic Databases.B. Godard, J. Marshall, C. Laberge & B. M. Knoppers - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):457-477.
    Large-scale genetic databases are being developed in several countries around the world. However, these databases depend on public participation and acquiescence. In the past, information campaigns have been waged and little attention has been paid to dialogue. Nowadays, it is important to include the public in the development of scientific research and to encourage a free, open and useful dialogue among those involved. This paper is a review of community consultation strategies as part of four proposed large-scale genetic (...)
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  21.  15
    On the Spot Ethical Decision-Making in CBRN Response: Approaches to on the Spot Ethical Decision-Making for First Responders to Large-Scale Chemical Incidents.Andrew P. Rebera & Chaim Rafalowski - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (3):735-752.
    First responders to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear events face decisions having significant human consequences. Some operational decisions are supported by standard operating procedures, yet these may not suffice for ethical decisions. Responders will be forced to weigh their options, factoring-in contextual peculiarities; they will require guidance on how they can approach novel ethical problems: they need strategies for “on the spot” ethical decision making. The primary aim of this paper is to examine how first responders should approach on the (...)
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  22.  82
    Bioethics and Large-Scale Biobanking: Individualistic Ethics and Collective Projects.Garrath Williams - 2005 - Genomics, Society and Policy 1 (2):50-66.
    Like most bioethical discussion, examination of human biobanks has been largely framed in terms of research subjects’ rights, principally informed consent, with some gestures toward public benefits. However, informed consent is for the competent, rights-bearing individual: focussing on the individual, it thus neglects social, economic and even political matters; focussing on the competent rights-bearer, it does not serve situations where consent is plainly inappropriate (eg, the young child) or where coercion can obviously be justified (the criminal). Using the British experience (...)
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  23.  16
    On the Epistemological Basis of Large-Scale Population Studies and Their Educational Use.Paul Smeyers - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (s1):63-86.
    This paper attempts to take seriously the claim that we can look for causes in order to understand the reality we live (in), and focuses therefore primarily on 'the natural world'. It will be argued that even if we were to fully endorse the programme of looking for antecedents, a dominant driver for many educational researchers, this would still not solve the problems they commonly set out to address. It will illustrate the problem of contextualisation in using an example of (...)
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  24.  15
    Academic Misconduct in Portugal: Results From a Large Scale Survey to University Economics/Business Students.Aurora A. C. Teixeira & Maria de Fátima Oliveira Rocha - 2010 - Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (1):21-41.
    The phenomenon of cheating in higher education is of overwhelming importance in that the students engaging in these acts are unlikely to have the skills necessary for their future professional life. Despite its relevance, the empirical evaluation of cheating in universities has been almost exclusively focused on the US context. Little is known about cheating at the European level, let alone in Portugal. Even less is explored at the regional level. In this paper we present evidence on the perception of (...)
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  25.  2
    The PISA Calendar: Temporal Governance and International Large-Scale Assessments.Joakim Landahl - 2020 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 52 (6):625-639.
    This article analyses international large-scale assessments in education from a temporal perspective. The article discusses and compares the different conceptions of time in the early inter...
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  26. Large-Scale Optimization of Neuron Arbors.Christopher Cherniak - unknown
    At the global as well as local scales, some of the geometry of types of neuron arbors—both dendrites and axons—appears to be self-organizing: Their morphogenesis behaves like flowing water, that is, fluid dynamically; waterflow in branching networks in turn acts like a tree composed of cords under tension, that is, vector mechanically. Branch diameters and angles and junction sites conform significantly to this model. The result is that such neuron tree samples globally minimize their total volume—rather than, for example, surface (...)
     
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  27.  35
    Academic Misconduct in Portugal: Results From a Large Scale Survey to University Economics/Business Students. [REVIEW]Aurora A. C. Teixeira & Maria Fátima Oliveira Rochdea - 2010 - Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (1):21-41.
    The phenomenon of cheating in higher education is of overwhelming importance in that the students engaging in these acts are unlikely to have the skills necessary for their future professional life. Despite its relevance, the empirical evaluation of cheating in universities has been almost exclusively focused on the US context. Little is known about cheating at the European level, let alone in Portugal. Even less is explored at the regional level. In this paper we present evidence on the perception of (...)
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  28.  51
    John Rawls’s Theory of Justice and Large-Scale Land Acquisitions: A Law and Economics Analysis of Institutional Background Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa. [REVIEW]Luis Tomás Montilla Fernández & Johannes Schwarze - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1223-1240.
    During the 2007–2008 global food crisis, the prices of primary foods, in particular, peaked. Subsequently, governments concerned about food security and investors keen to capitalize on profit-maximizing opportunities undertook large-scale land acquisitions (LASLA) in, predominantly, least developed countries (LDCs). Economically speaking, this market reaction is highly welcome, as it should (1) improve food security and lower prices through more efficient food production while (2) host countries benefit from development opportunities. However, our assessment of the debate on the issues indicates (...)
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  29.  77
    Populist Politics, Communications Media and Large Scale Societal Integration.Craig Calhoun - 1988 - Sociological Theory 6 (2):219-241.
    Faced with a minimally participatory democracy, a variety of populists have sought to revitalize popular political participation by strengthening local community mobilizations. Others have called for reliance on frequent referenda. Assessing the limits of these proposals requires theoretical attention to two key issues. The first is the growing importance of very large scale patterns of societal integration which depend on indirect social relationships achieved through communications media, markets and bureaucracies. This split of system world from lifeworld, in Habermas's terms, poses (...)
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  30.  62
    Large Scale Surveys for Policy Formation and Research–a Study in Inconsistency.Søren Holm & Lisa Bortolotti - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):205-220.
    In this paper we analyse the degree to which a distinction between social science and public health research and other non-research activities can account for differences between a number of large scale social surveys performed at the national and European level. The differences we will focus on are differences in how participation is elicited and how data are used for government, research and other purposes. We will argue that the research / non-research distinction does not account for the identified differences (...)
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  31.  22
    Ethical Decision Making in Technology Development: A Case Study of Participation in a Large-Scale Information Systems Development Project. [REVIEW]Larry Stapleton - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (3):405-429.
    Advanced systems engineering has traditionally paid little attention to ethical concerns relative to other technical and non-technical issues. This is particularly evident in systems analysis, design, and development methodologies. This paper asks if it is possible that the lack of emphasis upon ethical considerations in development methodologies can result in the failure of advanced technology development projects? In order to explore this contention, the paper sets out the findings of a case study of a large-scale advanced technology project in (...)
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  32.  58
    Explaining Large-Scale Historical Change.Daniel Little - 2000 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (1):89-112.
    A prominent historiographic theme in the past decade has been a movement away from causal explanation of large-scale processes and outcomes and toward narrative interpretation of singular historical processes. This article argues for the continued vitality of large-scale historical inquiry and surveys the historiographic issues that arise in large-scale historical explanation. The article proceeds through an examination of several important recent examples of large-scale history: comparative history of Europe and China, the history of alternative forms of (...)
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  33.  23
    Are Land Deals Unethical? The Ethics of Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Developing Countries.Kristian Høyer Toft - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1181-1198.
    Proponents of large-scale land acquisitions (LaSLA) argue that poor countries could benefit from foreign direct investment in land (World Bank 2011), while opponents argue that LaSLA is nothing more than neo-colonial theft of poor peasants’ livelihoods, i.e., land grabbing (Borras and Franco in Yale Hum Rights Dev L J, 13: 507–523, 2010a). To ensure responsible agricultural investments (RAI), a voluntary “code of conduct” for land acquisitions has been proposed by the World Bank (2011) and the FAO (2012). A critical (...)
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  34.  16
    How Problematic is the Near-Euclidean Spatial Geometry of the Large-Scale Universe?M. Holman - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (11):1617-1647.
    Modern observations based on general relativity indicate that the spatial geometry of the expanding, large-scale Universe is very nearly Euclidean. This basic empirical fact is at the core of the so-called “flatness problem”, which is widely perceived to be a major outstanding problem of modern cosmology and as such forms one of the prime motivations behind inflationary models. An inspection of the literature and some further critical reflection however quickly reveals that the typical formulation of this putative problem is (...)
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  35.  33
    Rationality, Scientific Growth, and Large-Scale Systems of Belief.Andrew Lugg - 1983 - der 16. Weltkongress Für Philosophie 2:822-829.
    The argument of this paper is that Kuhn's account of rational theory choice is too permissive and that an account that recognizes the large-scale nature of the system of scientific beliefs is more plausible and has more practical force.
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  36.  50
    Response to Large-Scale Atrocities: Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect.Saulius Katuoka & Agnė Čepinskytė - 2010 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 121 (3):157-175.
    The United Nations has shown recurrent inability to respond to international threats caused by severe human rights violations and thus failed to perform one of its main function—preservation of international peace and security in the world. This evidenced gaps in the United Nations, caused mainly by the veto right in the voting system within the Security Council and limited powers of the General Assembly. The international community gave a twofold answer to this problem: radical humanitarian intervention and the recent concept (...)
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  37.  17
    Farmers’ Perceptions of Coexistence Between Agriculture and a Large Scale Coal Seam Gas Development.Neil I. Huth, Brett Cocks, Neal Dalgliesh, Perry L. Poulton, Oswald Marinoni & Javier Navarro Garcia - 2018 - Agriculture and Human Values 35 (1):99-115.
    The Coal Seam Gas extraction industry is developing rapidly within the Surat Basin in southern Queensland, Australia, with licenses already approved for tenements covering more than 24,000 km2. Much of this land is used for a broad range of agricultural purposes and the need for coexistence between the farm and gas industries has been the source of much conflict. Whilst much research has been undertaken into the environmental and economic impacts of CSG, little research has looked into the issues of (...)
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  38.  27
    Customary Rights and Societal Stakes of Large-Scale Tobacco Cultivation in Malawi.Alois Mandondo & Laura German - 2015 - Agriculture and Human Values 32 (1):31-46.
    The recent surge in land-based investments in the global South has been seen as both an opportunity for rural economic development and as a trend that poses significant social and environmental risks. This study sheds light on this debate through a look at the tobacco industry in Malawi. We employ a case study approach to investigate how rights, property, and authority associated with land and forest resources have shifted in the context of expanded investments in tobacco, and the stakes for (...)
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  39.  35
    Large Scale Integrated Photonics for Twenty-First Century Information Technologies: A “Moore’s Law” for Optics.Raymond G. Beausoleil - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (8):856-872.
    In this paper, we will review research done by the Large-Scale Integrated Photonics group at HP Laboratories, and in particular we will discuss applications of optical resonances in dielectric microstructures and nanostructures to future classical and quantum information technologies. Our goal is to scale photonic technologies over the next decade in much the same way as electronics over the past five, thereby establishing a Moore’s Law for optics.
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  40.  13
    Large-Scale Biological Entities and the Evolutionary Process.Niles Eldredge - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:551-566.
    In the Modern Synthesis, the ontology of species is context-dependent: species are seen as "individuals" at any instant in geological time; through time, species-lineages are class-like entities regularly transforming themselves into other, descendant species. Moreover, at any one instant in time, species are predominantly construed as reproductive communities; through time, they are seen as economic entities, bound together by the joint possession of anatomical similarities among constituent organisms. It is argued that a more complete picture sees species as spatiotemporally bounded (...)
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  41.  33
    Achieving Online Consent to Participation in Large-Scale Gene-Environment Studies: A Tangible Destination.F. Wood, J. Kowalczuk, G. Elwyn, C. Mitchell & J. Gallacher - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):487-492.
    Background Population based genetics studies are dependent on large numbers of individuals in the pursuit of small effect sizes. Recruiting and consenting a large number of participants is both costly and time consuming. We explored whether an online consent process for large-scale genetics studies is acceptable for prospective participants using an example online genetics study. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 members of the public stratified by age group, gender and newspaper readership (a measure of social status). Respondents (...)
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  42.  8
    Moral Dilemmas in Perinatal Medicine and the Quest for Large Scale Embryo Research: A Discussion of Recent Guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany.Hans-Martin Sass - 1987 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (3):279-290.
    This paper reports on recent regulations and guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany bearing on perinatal medical ethics, embryo research and trophoblast biopsy. Some of the regulations are defensive responses to new moral opportunities. In contrast, this paper calls for a more aggressive moral cost-benefit assessment of high technology medicine, which would include large-scale research on embryos prior to the fiftieth day post-menstruation. Keywords: abortion, embryo research, moral triage, prenatal diagnosis, withholding treatment CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
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  43.  16
    Land-Use Changes by Large-Scale Plantations and Their Effects on Soil Organic Carbon, Micronutrients and Bulk Density: Empirical Evidence From Ethiopia.Maru Shete, Marcel Rutten, George C. Schoneveld & Eylachew Zewude - 2016 - Agriculture and Human Values 33 (3):689-704.
    This article examines land-use changes by large-scale plantations in Ethiopia and evaluates the impacts thereof on soil organic carbon, micronutrients and bulk density. Remote sensing analysis and field research activities were undertaken at four large-scale plantation projects in Benshanguel Gumuz, Gambella, and Oromia regional states. Results show that the projects largely involved the conversion of both closed and open to closed forests and grasslands, which in turn reduced soil carbon stock and micronutrient levels and increased soil compaction. We (...)
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  44.  15
    Large-Scale Simulations of Brain Mechanisms: Beyond the Synthetic Method.Edoardo Datteri & Federico Laudisa - unknown
    In recent years, a number of research projects have been proposed whose goal is to build large-scale simulations of brain mechanisms at unprecedented levels of biological accuracy. Here it is argued that the roles these simulations are expected to play in neuroscientific research go beyond the “synthetic method” extensively adopted in Artificial Intelligence and biorobotics. In addition we show that, over and above the common goal of simulating brain mechanisms, these projects pursue various modelling ambitions that can be sharply (...)
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  45.  33
    Strong Reciprocity and the Emergence of Large-Scale Societies.Benoît Dubreuil - 2008 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (2):192-210.
    The paper defends the idea that strong reciprocity, although it accounts for the existence of deep cooperation among humans, has difficulty explaining why humans lived for most of their history in band-size groups and why the emergence of larger societies was accompanied by increased social differentiation and political centralization. The paper argues that the costs of incurring an altruistic punishment rise in large groups and that the emergence of large-scale societies depends on the creation of institutions that render control (...)
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  46.  11
    Living Multiples: How Large-Scale Scientific Data-Mining Pursues Identity and Differences.Adrian Mackenzie & Ruth McNally - 2013 - Theory, Culture and Society 30 (4):72-91.
    This article responds to two problems confronting social and human sciences: how to relate to digital data, inasmuch as it challenges established social science methods; and how to relate to life sciences, insofar as they produce knowledge that impinges on our own ways of knowing. In a case study of proteomics, we explore how digital devices grapple with large-scale multiples – of molecules, databases, machines and people. We analyse one particular visual device, a cluster-heatmap, produced by scientists by mining (...)
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  47. Collective Responsibility: A Pragmatic Approach to Large-Scale Moral Problems.Paul H. Arthur - 1998 - Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder
    There are many cases of conduct for which responsibility can plausibly be ascribed to a group, in addition to any responsibility ascribable to the group's constituent members. It is important to be able to make such ascriptions because without them we are unable to assign responsibilities for many sorts of humanly-caused harms for which responsibility cannot reasonably be ascribed to individuals alone. Two recent theories of collective responsibility advance our understanding of why it is important to be able to hold (...)
     
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  48.  6
    Training Effectiveness Measurement for Large Scale Programs - Demystified: A 4-Tier Practical Model for Technical Training Managers.Raman K. Attri - 2018 - Singapore: Speed To Proficiency Research: S2Pro©.
    This book addresses the challenges typical technical training managers, and other technical managers face in justifying the return on investment of their programs, particularly for large-scale, investment-intensive programs. This book describes a very intuitive and practical model for the measurement of the effectiveness of technical training programs. The book is based on a 4-tier Return on Effectiveness (ROE) model developed through years of research, observation, and experience. The ROE model uses four simple indices: training reaction index, improvement index, effectiveness (...)
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  49. Biological accuracy in large-scale brain simulations.Edoardo Datteri - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (1):1-22.
    The advancement of computing technology makes it possible to build extremely accurate digital reconstructions of brain circuits. Are such unprecedented levels of biological accuracy essential for brain simulations to play the roles they are expected to play in neuroscientific research? The main goal of this paper is to clarify this question by distinguishing between various roles played by large-scale simulations in contemporary neuroscience, and by reflecting about what makes a simulation biologically accurate. It is argued that large-scale simulations (...)
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  50. Large-Scale Simulations of the Brain: Is There a “Right” Level of Detail?Edoardo Datteri - 2019 - In Matteo Vincenzo D'Alfonso & Don Berkich (eds.), On the Cognitive, Ethical, and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence. Springer Verlag.
    A number of research projects have recently taken up the challenge of formulating large-scale models of brain mechanisms at unprecedented levels of detail. These research enterprises have raised lively debates in the press and in the scientific and philosophical literature, some of them revolving around the question whether the incorporation of so many details in a theoretical model and in a computer simulations of it is really needed for the model to be explanatory. Is there a “right” level of (...)
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