Ouija board sessions are illustrious examples of how subjective feelings of control – the Sense of Agency - can be manipulated in real life settings. We present findings from a field experiment at a paranormal conference, where Ouija enthusiasts were equipped with eye trackers while using the Ouija board. Our results show that participants have a significantly lower probability at visually predicting letters in a Ouija board session compared to a condition in which they are instructed to deliberately spell out (...) words with the Ouija board planchette. Our results also show that Ouija board believers report lower SoA compared to sceptic participants. These results support previous research which claim that low sense of agency is caused by a combination of retrospective inference and an inhibition of predictive processes. Our results show that users in Ouija board sessions become increasingly better at predicting letters as responses unfold over time, and that meaningful responses from the Ouija board can only be accounted for when considering interactions that goes on at the participant pair level. These results suggest that meaningful responses from the Ouija board may be an emergent property of interacting and predicting minds that increasingly impose structure on initially random events in Ouija sessions. (shrink)
In this article, we explore the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and earnings management (EM). Our CSR index, using KLD data, incorporates information from the following issue areas: the community, corporate governance, diversity, the product, employee relations, the environment, and human rights. Results show that more socially responsible firms have higher quality accruals and less activity-based EM, both of which impact financial reporting quality.
My comment makes a point out ofRousseau's original insight: that education forsocial participation ought to start within thestudent's lifeworld, and not, as in our days, with the immediatedemands of modern, time-ridden consumerculture. When time is turned into a commodityand place is turned into a transit point forpeople constantly on the move, presence in acommon lifeworld is lost. I take issue with thedominant thinking of education in terms of timeand efficiency, and suggest that we startthinking of education more in terms of (...) placeand presence. I propose that modern thinkers ofeducation â of which I mention a few here âcontributed significantly to the pedagogy ofplace or presence. I don't see time as a stringmade up of past-present-future, but rather asan expanding mental and pragmatic universe ofhere-and-nows. The term kairos catchesthis presence as the capacity for doing theright thing at the right moment, that is, themoment when the past has prepared the ground sothat the future can come as a gift. Thisconception is, I think, an important ground forthe idea of an education for citizenship. (shrink)
The discovery of Skrugard in 2011 was a significant milestone for hydrocarbon exploration in the Barents Sea. The result was a positive confirmation of the play model, prospect evaluation, and the seismic hydrocarbon indicators in the area. In addition, the well result was encouraging for the CSEM interpretation and analysis that had been performed. Prior to drilling the 7220/8-1 well, EM resistivity images of the subsurface across the prospect had been obtained along with estimates of hydrocarbon saturation at the well (...) position. The resistivity distribution was derived from extensive analysis of the multiclient CSEM data from 2008. The analysis was based on joint interpretation of seismic structures and optimal resistivity models from the CSEM data. The seismic structure was furthermore used to constrain the resistivity anomaly to the Skrugard reservoir. Scenario testing was then done to assess potential alternative models that could explain the CSEM data in addition to extract the most likely reservoir resistivity. Estimates of hydrocarbon saturation followed from using petrophysical parameters from nearby wells and knowledge of the area, combined with the most likely resistivity model from CSEM. Our results from the prewell study were compared to the postwell resistivity logs, for horizontal and vertical resistivity. We found a very good match between the estimated CSEM resistivities at the well location and the corresponding well resistivities. Thus, our results confirmed the ability of CSEM to predict hydrocarbon saturation. In addition, the work demonstrated limitations in the CSEM data analysis tools as well as sensitivity to acquisition parameters and measurement accuracy. The work has led to more CSEM data acquisition in the area and continued effort in development of our tools for data acquisition and analysis. (shrink)
This article presents results from a multidisciplinary research project on the integration and transfer of language knowledge into robots as an empirical paradigm for the study of language development in both humans and humanoid robots. Within the framework of human linguistic and cognitive development, we focus on how three central types of learning interact and co-develop: individual learning about one's own embodiment and the environment, social learning (learning from others), and learning of linguistic capability. Our primary concern is how these (...) capabilities can scaffold each other's development in a continuous feedback cycle as their interactions yield increasingly sophisticated competencies in the agent's capacity to interact with others and manipulate its world. Experimental results are summarized in relation to milestones in human linguistic and cognitive development and show that the mutual scaffolding of social learning, individual learning, and linguistic capabilities creates the context, conditions, and requisites for learning in each domain. Challenges and insights identified as a result of this research program are discussed with regard to possible and actual contributions to cognitive science and language ontogeny. In conclusion, directions for future work are suggested that continue to develop this approach toward an integrated framework for understanding these mutually scaffolding processes as a basis for language development in humans and robots. (shrink)
In this exploratory paper, we investigate the extension of Haidt’s :814–834, 2001, The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion, 2012) Moral foundations theory, operationalized as the MFQ30 questionnaire, from a sample of the general public across many countries to a sample of business students. MFT posits that people rely on five major concerns, or foundations, when making moral judgments. The five concerns are care/harm, fairness/cheating, loyalty/betrayal, respect/authority, and purity/degradation. In addition, Haidt suggests that intuition, rather (...) than reasoning, leads to moral judgment. We replicate Haidt’s measurement model and find that the measurement model based on our sample is consistent. This indicates support for MFT. Further, we find structural differences in the measurement model between the genders and between areas of study. Our findings suggest that all students in the sample focus substantially on the fairness foundation. Ethics education and research may seek to expand the number of moral foundations individuals consider when discerning whether something is right or wrong. (shrink)
This article reviews the development of feminist studies during the latter quarter of the twentieth century, identifying initial themes in feminist theory and highlighting three major themes framing feminist scholarship today: the relationship between structure and agency; the intersection of race, class, and gender; and emerging studies of the political economy of sexuality. The article emphasizes the significance of understanding structured inequality, including new studies of sexuality and their relationship to race/class/gender stratification.
BackgroundDecision-making in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should ideally include clinical and ethical factors. Little is known about the extent of ethical considerations and their influence on prehospital resuscitation. We aimed to determine the transparency in medical records regarding decision-making in prehospital resuscitation with a specific focus on ethically relevant information and consideration in resuscitation providers’ documentation.MethodsThis was a Danish nationwide retrospective observational study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from 2016 through 2018. After an initial screening using broadly defined inclusion criteria, two experienced (...) philosophers performed a qualitative content analysis of the included medical records according to a preliminary codebook. We identified ethically relevant content in free-text fields and categorised the information according to Beauchamp and Childress’ four basic bioethical principles: autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. ResultsOf 16,495 medical records, we identified 759 with potentially relevant information; 710 records contained ethically relevant information, whereas 49 did not. In general, the documentation was vague and unclear. We identified four kinds of ethically relevant information: patients’ wishes and perspectives on life; relatives’ wishes and perspectives on patients’ life; healthcare professionals’ opinions and perspectives on resuscitation; and do-not-resuscitate orders. We identified some “best practice” examples that included all perspectives of decision-making. ConclusionsThere is sparse and unclear evidence on ethically relevant information in the medical records documenting resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. However, the “best practice” examples show that providing sufficient documentation of decision-making is, in fact, feasible. To ensure transparency surrounding prehospital decisions in cardiac arrests, we believe that it is necessary to ensure more systematic documentation of decision-making in prehospital resuscitation. (shrink)
This essay broaches pedagogical key themes in Rousseau’s writings, primarily sourced from Émile, a book that 250 years after its first publication offers up a strikingly relevant critique of the current neo-liberal politics of schooling in the Western world. Rousseau was a keen observer of human folly, a sharp critic of Enlightenment culture, and an imaginative author with an acute sense of the vagaries of mind and feeling. I recount how he treats feelings, particularly the inner voice of conscience, as (...) a core element in education. His idea of “negative pedagogy” is a lasting contribution to educational thinking in general and highly relevant for our discussion today about self-regulation and discipline in education. Rousseau’s idea about authenticity leads directly to the question of individual character and the relation between self-love and amour-propre. Here we are presented to a positive pedagogy, which is to foster the first and to foil the second. After having touched the conflict between theory and practice in Rousseau’s own life, I observe that the woman in Émile’s life, Sophie, comes forth as naturally healthy person, fit to face society’s temptations, while Émile in comparison must be protected from its harms by his well-meaning tutor until he turns 15. In a longer section I present the pedagogical paradox, which says that you cannot force a child to be independent. Rousseau interestingly disregards the paradox, which seems to cast doubt on his reputation as a radical reformer of modern pedagogy. (shrink)
This article presents an overview ofregulations, guidelines and societal debates ineight member states of the EC about a)embryonic and fetal tissue transplantation(EFTT), and b) the use of human embryonic stemcells (hES cells) for research into celltherapy, including `therapeutic' cloning. Thereappears to be a broad acceptance of EFTT inthese countries. In most countries guidance hasbeen developed. There is a `strong' consensusabout some of the central conditions for `goodclinical practice' regarding EFTT.International differences concern, amongstothers, some of the informed consent issuesinvolved, and the (...) questions whether anintermediary organisation is necessary, whetherthe methods of abortion may be influenced bythe possible use of EFT, and whether EFTTshould only be used for the experimentaltreatment of rare disorders. The potential useof hES cells for research into cell therapy hasgiven a new impetus to the debate about (human)embryo research. The therapeutic prospects withregard to the retrieval and research use of hEScells appear to function as a catalyst for theintroduction of less restrictive regulationsconcerning research with spare embryos, atleast in some European countries. It remains tobe seen whether the prospect of treatingpatients suffering from serious disorders withtransplants produced by therapeutic cloningwill decrease the societal and moral resistanceto allowing the generation of embryos for`instrumental' use. (shrink)
The growing recognition by cognitive neuroscientists that areas of vertebrate brains may be reused for multiple purposes either functionally during development or during evolution echoes a similar realization made by neuroscientists working on invertebrates. Because of these animals' relatively more accessible nervous systems, neuronal reuse can be examined at the level of individual identified neurons and fully characterized neural circuits.
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