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Laura E. Schulz [15]Laura Schulz [11]
  1.  51
    A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets.Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, David M. Sobel, Laura E. Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & David Danks - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (1):3-32.
    We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate “causal map” of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or “Bayes nets”. Children’s causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children (...)
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  2.  58
    Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation.Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Understanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and (...)
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  3.  15
    The Double-Edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery.Elizabeth Bonawitz, Patrick Shafto, Hyowon Gweon, Noah D. Goodman, Elizabeth Spelke & Laura Schulz - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):322-330.
  4.  22
    The Naïve Utility Calculus: Computational Principles Underlying Commonsense Psychology.Julian Jara-Ettinger, Hyowon Gweon, Laura E. Schulz & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (8):589-604.
  5.  1
    Children’s Understanding of the Costs and Rewards Underlying Rational Action.Julian Jara-Ettinger, Hyowon Gweon, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Laura E. Schulz - 2015 - Cognition 140:14-23.
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  6.  9
    Going Beyond the Evidence: Abstract Laws and Preschoolers’ Responses to Anomalous Data.Laura E. Schulz, Noah D. Goodman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Adrianna C. Jenkins - 2008 - Cognition 109 (2):211-223.
  7.  11
    Causal Learning Mechanisms in Very Young Children: Two-, Three-, and Four-Year-Olds Infer Causal Relations From Patterns of Variation and Covariation.Clark Glymour, Alison Gopnik, David M. Sobel & Laura E. Schulz - unknown
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  8.  12
    Just Do It? Investigating the Gap Between Prediction and Action in Toddlers’ Causal Inferences.Elizabeth Baraff Bonawitz, Darlene Ferranti, Rebecca Saxe, Alison Gopnik, Andrew N. Meltzoff, James Woodward & Laura E. Schulz - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):104-117.
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  9.  52
    The Origins of Inquiry: Inductive Inference and Exploration in Early Childhood.Laura Schulz - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (7):382-389.
  10.  4
    Where Science Starts: Spontaneous Experiments in Preschoolers’ Exploratory Play.Claire Cook, Noah D. Goodman & Laura E. Schulz - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):341-349.
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  11.  1
    The Relation Between Essentialist Beliefs and Evolutionary Reasoning.Andrew Shtulman & Laura Schulz - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (6):1049-1062.
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  12.  14
    Inferring Hidden Causal Structure.Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Chris Lucas & Laura Schulz - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (1):148-160.
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  13.  5
    Sins of Omission: Children Selectively Explore When Teachers Are Under-Informative.Hyowon Gweon, Hannah Pelton, Jaclyn A. Konopka & Laura E. Schulz - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):335-341.
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  14. Data-Mining Probabilists or Experimental Determinists.Thomas Richardson, Laura Schulz & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 208--230.
  15. Learning From Doing: Intervention and Causal Inference.Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 67--85.
     
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  16. Toddlers Infer Unobserved Causes for Spontaneous Events.Paul Muentener & Laura Schulz - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  17.  3
    Sensitivity to the Sampling Process Emerges From the Principle of Efficiency.Julian Jara‐Ettinger, Felix Sun, Laura Schulz & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):270-286.
    Humans can seamlessly infer other people's preferences, based on what they do. Broadly, two types of accounts have been proposed to explain different aspects of this ability. The first account focuses on spatial information: Agents' efficient navigation in space reveals what they like. The second account focuses on statistical information: Uncommon choices reveal stronger preferences. Together, these two lines of research suggest that we have two distinct capacities for inferring preferences. Here we propose that this is not the case, and (...)
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  18.  4
    Rational Inference of Beliefs and Desires From Emotional Expressions.Yang Wu, Chris L. Baker, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Laura E. Schulz - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):850-884.
    We investigated people's ability to infer others’ mental states from their emotional reactions, manipulating whether agents wanted, expected, and caused an outcome. Participants recovered agents’ desires throughout. When the agent observed, but did not cause the outcome, participants’ ability to recover the agent's beliefs depended on the evidence they got. When the agent caused the event, participants’ judgments also depended on the probability of the action ; when actions were improbable given the mental states, people failed to recover the agent's (...)
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  19.  1
    The Naïve Utility Calculus: Computational Principles Underlying Commonsense Psychology.Julian Jara-Ettinger, Hyowon Gweon, Laura E. Schulz & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (10):785.
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  20.  16
    Is It Me or the World? 16-Month-Olds Distinguish Competing Hypotheses About the Cause of Failed Interventions.Hyowon Gweon & Laura E. Schulz - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 2846--2851.
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  21.  1
    Children Understand That Agents Maximize Expected Utilities.Julian Jara-Ettinger, Sammy Floyd, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Laura E. Schulz - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146 (11):1574-1585.
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  22.  7
    The Invisible Hand: Toddlers Connect Probabilistic Events With Agentive Causes.Yang Wu, Paul Muentener & Laura E. Schulz - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (8):1854-1876.
    Children posit unobserved causes when events appear to occur spontaneously. What about when events appear to occur probabilistically? Here toddlers saw arbitrary causal relationships in a fixed, alternating order. The relationships were then changed in one of two ways. In the Deterministic condition, the event order changed ; in the Probabilistic condition, the causal relationships changed. As intended, toddlers looked equally long at both changes. We then introduced a previously unseen candidate cause. Toddlers looked longer at the appearance of a (...)
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  23.  8
    Questions for Future Research.Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (8):371-377.
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