Extracting the regularities of our environment is one of our core cognitive abilities. To study the fine-grained dynamics of the extraction of embedded regularities, a method combining the advantages of the artificial language paradigm and the serial response time task was used with a group of Guinea baboons in a new automatic experimental device. After a series of random trials, monkeys were exposed to language-like patterns. We found that the extraction of embedded patterns positioned at the end of larger patterns (...) was faster than the extraction of initial embedded patterns. This result suggests that there is a learning advantage for the final element of a sequence that benefits from the contextual information provided by previous elements. (shrink)
I sin udmærkede kommentar til vores artikel «En etisk diskussion af screening for kræftsygdomme» beskriver Geir Hoff den udtalte mangel på evidens vedrørende nytteværdien af screeningsprogrammer for kræftsygdomme baseret på randomiserede studier. Ydermere fremhæver Geir Hoff misforholdet mellem den manglende evidens ved screening og de strenge krav, der er til evidensen i den farmaceutiske industri. Dette er en velkommen kritik, pga. en udtalt ukritisk og uvidenskabelig tilgang til anvendelse af screening for denne eller hin sygdom eller risikofaktor.
This article proposes to retrace the path of trust that Paul Ricœur has drawn across his works. If the concept of trust is never themed as such, nevertheless it unfolds in subtle ways in fields as diverse as ethics, morality, politics, and religion. We will argue that trust is a solid but fragile foundation for Ricœur’s recognition theory. Rooted in man’s structural disproportion, trust is a perpetual tension between the finitude of existence and the infinitude of mutual recognition, between the (...) ability and fallibility of the human being -it is thus a continuous search, always disappointing but always renewed, of a mediation between the self and the other, the hope of happiness and the reality of evil. The analysis of various forms of trust, including interpersonal and institutional forms, will then be coupled with a study of trust in practical terms, based on Ricœur’s approach to healthcare relationships, or the perception of foreigners. (shrink)
This article provides a historical contextualization of Corporate Social Responsibility and its political role. CSR, we propose, is one form of business–society interactions reflecting a unique ideological framing. To make that argument, we compare contemporary CSR with two historical ideal-types. We explore in turn paternalism in nineteenth century Europe and managerial trusteeship in early twentieth century US. We outline how the political responsibilities of business were constructed, negotiated, and practiced in both cases. This historical contextualization shows that the frontier between (...) economy and polity has always been blurry and shifting and that firms have played a political role for a very long time. It also allows us to show how the nature, extent, and impact of that political role changed through history and co-evolved in particular with shifts in dominant ideologies. Globalization, in that context, is not the driver of the political role of the firm but a moderating phenomenon contributing significantly to the dynamics of this shift. The comparison between paternalism, trusteeship, and contemporary CSR points to what can be seen as functional equivalents—alternative patterns of business–society interactions that each correspond, historically, to unique and distinct ideological frames. We conclude by drawing implications for future theorizing on CSR and stakeholder democracy. (shrink)
This article investigates account episodes in Italian family dinner conversations and illustrates how sequential patterns and participation are organized in terms of preferences indexical of moral ideology and moral order. Accounts have been mostly examined as speech acts abstracted from embedding sequential environment; this article shows that different design features of the priming move in account episodes retrospectively define different aspects of a situation as problematic and prospectively activate the relevance for distinctive remedial moves. On an ideological level, narrative elicitations (...) as priming moves and accounts as remedial moves index a moral perspective that promotes moral reasoning and thus the negotiation of norms. In addition, such moves realize a practice of morality that tends to be inquisitory vs condemnatory, offering the benefit of the doubt prior to guilt allocation. In conclusion, the discursive mechanics of accountability constitutes a medium for reproduction of, and innovation in, the moral order. (shrink)
This article presents the results of a survey designed to test, with economically sophisticated participants, Ellsberg’s ambiguity aversion hypothesis, and Smithson’s conflict aversion hypothesis. Based on an original sample of 78 professional actuaries (all members of the French Institute of Actuaries), this article provides empirical evidence that ambiguity (i.e. uncertainty about the probability) affect insurers’ decision on pricing insurance. It first reveals that premiums are significantly higher for risks when there is ambiguity regarding the probability of the loss. Second, it (...) shows that insurers are sensitive to sources of ambiguity. The participants indeed, charged a higher premium when ambiguity came from conflict and disagreement regarding the probability of the loss than when ambiguity came from imprecision (imprecise forecast about the probability of the loss). This research thus documents the presence of both ambiguity aversion and conflict aversion in the field of insurance, and discuses economic and psychological rationales for the observed behaviours. (shrink)
Is there a link between how a firm manages its internal and external stakeholders? More specifically, are firms that give employees stock ownership and more say in running the enterprise more likely to engage with external stakeholders? This study seeks to answer these questions by elaborating on mechanisms that link employees to external stakeholders, such as the community, suppliers, and the environment. It tests these relationships using a sample of 347 private, mostly small-to-medium size firms, which completed a stakeholder impact (...) assessment organized by the non-profit B Lab. The results support the hypotheses that both employee ownership and employee involvement are positively associated with external stakeholder engagement. Further, we found that certification plays a role, as employee ownership contributes to external stakeholder engagement only in certified B Corporations, and not in firms that merely completed the B Lab Impact assessment. Our findings have import for stakeholder engagement frameworks, as we show that there is interplay between internal employee stakeholders and external stakeholders that may be important to overall firm–stakeholder management. (shrink)
Plus de vingt-cinq ans ont passé depuis l’adoption du protocole au traité sur l’Antarctique relatif à la protection de l’environnement qui consacre l’interdiction des activités relatives aux ressources minérales, sauf à des fins scientifiques. L’enjeu de la raréfaction des sources d’énergie fossile accentue les convoitises de ceux qui souhaiteraient exploiter des ressources antarctiques. Dans la mesure où le protocole de Madrid prévoit la possibilité d’amender ses dispositions et en raison de malentendus parmi le grand public et les médias sur les (...) conditions d’une levée de l’interdiction des activités minières, les États ont choisi de réaffirmer, en 2016, l’interdiction des activités relatives aux ressources minérales en Antarctique autres que la recherche scientifique.Twenty-five years have passed since the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, which designates Antarctica as a “natural reserve, devoted to peace and science”, thus setting up a comprehensive system for the protection of the Antarctic environment and its dependent and associated ecosystems. Contrary to the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities which has not entered into force, the Madrid Protocol prohibits all activities relating to Antarctic mineral resources, except for scientific research. The issue of limited fossil fuels intensifies the appetites of those who wish to exploit mineral resources in Antarctica. It is often rumoured that protection afforded by the Madrid Protocol would expire in 2048 as it provides for the possibility to amend its provisions. The Protocol does indeed offer a possible lifting of the ban on mineral resource activities fifty years after its entry into force in 1998. Nevertheless, its requirements need to be spelled out as the conditions they pose are far more restrictive than appears. The conditions laid down include decision-making and the entry into force of the measures selected. There is widespread misconception and misunderstanding regarding an expiry date of the prohibition on mining activity in Antarctica. For this reason, the prohibition of Antarctic mineral resources activities was reaffirmed in 2016 within the Antarctic Treaty System. (shrink)
L’évolution du statut et de la libération des femmes dans la société espagnole contemporaine est ici étudiée à travers leur participation progressive dans une fête de Maures et Chrétiens du pays valencien. Leur trajectoire, liée aux contextes politiques et sociaux successifs, est marquée, dès le début du XXe siècle, par leur appropriation de rôles festifs jusque là réservés aux hommes. Mais ce n’est qu’à partir des années 1960 qu’elles commencent à revendiquer leur identité propre, et cette émancipation se traduit par (...) l’adoption de costumes masculins. Grâce à cette phase de marginalisation, caractérisée par le travestissement, les femmes, représentées par les « Negras », vont peu à peu reconquérir leur « féminité ». (shrink)
This study discusses how social movements can influence economic systems. Employing a political-cultural approach to markets, it purports that 'compromise movements' can help change existing institutions by proposing new ones. This study argues in favor of the role of social movements in reforming economic institutions. More precisely, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) movements can help bring SRI concerns into financial institutions. A study of how the French SRI movement has been able to change entrenched institutional logics of the French asset management (...) sector provides wide-ranging support for these arguments. Empirical findings are drawn from a longitudinal case study (1997-2009), based on participative observation, interviews and documentary evidence. Implications for research on social movements, institutional change and SRI are outlined. Lastly, the study provides practitioners with some theoretical keys to understand the pros and cons of 'SRI labels'. (shrink)
Résumé de la thèse de doctorat de Laure Garrabé qui a été soutenue le 7 décembre 2010 à l'Université de Paris 8 Ce travail propose une contribution à une anthropologie esthétique où l'esthétique est interrogée entre sa compétence socialisante et sa compétence individuante. Dans une perspective interdisciplinaire et une épistémologie de la complémentarité, il s'appuie en particulier sur les appareils théoriques et méthodologiques de - Anthropologie – Nouvel article.
« Ma Chérie, ceci n'est pas censé être un journal, et il se peut même que ça ne te parvienne jamais, mais j'aime penser à toi en train de le lire, page après page, un jour dans les années à venir, après que je serai partie. J'aimerais t'entendre rire en regardant ces photos de moi. Je suis seule dans ma cabane ce soir et fatiguée ». Avertissement ou défi, ceci est la première lettre écrite par Calamity Jane à sa fille (...) le 25 septembre 1877. Une vingtaine d'autres lettres suivront, de fa.. (shrink)
Despite decades of development, Actor-Network Theory continues to be characterized by a good deal of ambiguities and internal tensions. This situation has led to a suggestion that instead of one ANT it may be meaningful to speak of ‘the ANT multiple’. Following this line of reasoning, this article aims to create a map of the variety of positions riding under the ANT banner. Based on an in-depth reading of ANT literature, seven different interpretations of ANT are identified and subjected to (...) critical analysis; it also accommodates for the concerns of ANT proponents about the way ANT has been previously criticized. The results of the analysis serve to increase the reflexivity of both sides of the debate about their underlying assumptions, and provide suggestions how ANT could be employed, developed and criticized more productively in the future. (shrink)
Dans le cadre d’une approche pragmatique, centrée sur l’usage en contexte des formes linguistiques, nous opérons une disjonction fondamentale entre fonction d’exclamation et formes d’exclamation. Le corpus choisi illustre la grande diversité des formes d’exclamation en anglais, qui ne se réduisent pas aux exclamatives en what et how. En nous appuyant sur divers travaux pragmatiques, nous montrons que la fonction d’exclamation est éminemment complexe, liée à l’expression de la subjectivité du locuteur mais également à des paramètres intersubjectifs : elle exprime (...) prototypiquement un décalage cognitif entre un état de fait et des représentations, ou entre deux états de fait, mais elle peut aussi être motivée par des conventions sociales, ou participer d’un positionnement expressif particulier d’un locuteur vis-à-vis de son interlocuteur. (shrink)
Despite decades of development, Actor-Network Theory continues to be characterized by a good deal of ambiguities and internal tensions. This situation has led to a suggestion that instead of one ANT it may be meaningful to speak of ‘the ANT multiple’. Following this line of reasoning, this article aims to create a map of the variety of positions riding under the ANT banner. Based on an in-depth reading of ANT literature, seven different interpretations of ANT are identified and subjected to (...) critical analysis while accommodating for the concerns of ANT proponents about the way ANT has been previously criticized. The results of the analysis serve to increase the reflexivity of both sides of the debate about their underlying assumptions, and provide suggestions how ANT could be employed, developed and criticized more productively in the future. (shrink)
This article proposes a theoretical re-conceptualization of power dynamics and their legitimation in contemporary business–society relations using the prism and metaphor of parentalism. The paper develops a typology of forms of parentalism along two structuring dimensions: care and control. Specifically, four ideal-types of parentalism are introduced with their associated practices and power-legitimation mechanisms. As we consider current private governance and authority through this analytical framework, we are able to provide a new perspective on the nature of the moral legitimation of (...) power dynamics in contemporary business–society relations. And we weave the threads between this conceptual frame and historical antecedents, suggesting that business ethicists need to revive old debates on paternalism in light of the current pervasive trend of modernized and subtler forms of parentalism. Implications for business ethics and political CSR are discussed. (shrink)
Biographie de Simone Weil, philosophe, ouvrière, militante et résistante. De la guerre d'Espagne à l'usine, de l'exil à l'engagement au service de la France libre, un itinéraire ardent et insoumis. L'auteure a choisi de nous raconter cette destinée à rebours en commençant par la mort de la philosophe en 1943 à Londres. Contient une vingtaine de photographies en partie inédites.