This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective (...) autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research. (shrink)
Research has indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs), a special class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), can perform important roles in different biological and pathological processes. miRNAs’ functions are realized by regulating their respective target genes (targets). It is thus critical to identify and analyze miRNA-target interactions for a better understanding and delineation of miRNAs’ functions. However, conventional knowledge discovery and acquisition methods have many limitations. Fortunately, semantic technologies that are based on domain ontologies can render great assistance in this regard. In our (...) previous investigations, we developed a miRNA domain-specific application ontology, Ontology for MIcroRNA Target (OMIT), to provide the community with common data elements and data exchange standards in the miRNA research. This paper describes (1) our continuing efforts in the OMIT ontology development and (2) the application of the OMIT to enable a semantic approach for knowledge capture of miRNA-target interactions. (shrink)
Are verbal reports of disgust in moral situations specific indicators of the concept of disgust, or are they used metaphorically to refer to anger? In this experiment, participants read scenarios describing a violation of a norm either about the use of the body (bodily moral) or about harm and rights (socio-moral). They then expressed disgust and anger on verbal scales, and through facial expression endorsement measures. The use of disgust words in the socio-moral condition was largely predicted by anger words (...) and only secondarily by disgust faces, whereas in the bodily moral condition the use of disgust words was predicted to a similar extent by disgust faces and anger words. Angry faces, however, never predicted disgust words independently of anger words. These results support a middle-ground position in which disgust words concerning socio-moral violations are not entirely a metaphor for anger, but bear some relationship to other representations of disgust. In the case of socio-moral violations, however, the use of disgust language is more strongly related to anger language, and less strongly to facial representations of disgust than in the case of bodily moral violations. (shrink)
Management of different types of partnerships plays a decisive role in company performance. Complex business ventures, such as those created to serve low-income populations, usually include both cross- and same-sector partnerships. However, the initial diversity featured in these alliance portfolios diminishes as companies take their ventures up to scale. This article develops theoretical propositions about the evolution and configuration patterns of portfolios that include both cross- and same-sector partnerships. Two longitudinal case studies serve to illustrate the theoretical framework developed for (...) alliance portfolios that include both types of partnerships. Companies that create such portfolios adopt partnership strategies that follow paths also identified in the evolution of portfolios only made up of partnerships with other private firms: i.e., an evolution from adapting to shaping and exploiting strategies. (shrink)
Argumentamos que el tipo de contextualismo que defendemos, el contextualismo integrativo, ofrece una manera de ordenar e integrar algunos de los distintos conceptos de justificación en pugna. Mostraremos de qué modo, puesto que cada uno de estos conceptos implica distintas intuiciones y estándares de justificación de una creencia, es posible distinguir diferentes contextos de atribución de justificación igualmente válidos entre sí. En particular, sostendremos que el contextualismo integrativo muestra que las disputas entre dos teorías de la justificación, a saber, el (...) externismo y el internismo, se establecen sobre el supuesto erróneo de que existe un único concepto válido de justificación.We shall argue that the kind of contextualism we defend, viz., the integrative contextualism, offers a way to coordinate and integrate some of the various competing concepts of justification. We shall show how, since each of these concepts involves different intuitions and standards of justification of beliefs, it is possible to distinguish different contexts of justification attribution, each of them, equally valid. In particular, the integrative contextualism, we defend, shows that disputes between two theories of justification, namely the externalist and internalist theories of justification, are established on the erroneous assumption thatthere is only one valid concept of justification. (shrink)
Feminist theorist and educator, bell hooks, asserts that to seek true liberation one must choose marginality. One must choose to occupy the space outside the binary between colonizer-colonized, hegemonic center-periphery, and us-them in order to create a location of possibility. This essay will reveal the practice of social justice as the navigation of the space that difference makes and argue that choosing marginality provides a framework for health humanities work towards social justice in health care. The space of the launderette (...) that is depicted in Hanif Kureishi’s 1986 film, My Beautiful Laundrette, provides an example of choosing marginality and illustrates how difference structures both real and imagined spaces, which influences how individuals ultimately perceive one another. We will draw from the work of bell hooks; political geographer, Edward Soja; and Marxist philosopher, Henri Lefebvre, to demonstrate the importance of the health humanities’ position at the margin to traditional health care education. -/- . (shrink)
A partir del análisis e interpretación de diversos textos fundacionales sobre el grupo de discusión y su concepción en el ámbito español y latinoamericano, se critica la idea reduccionista de entender esta técnica como una forma más abierta y menos directiva del genérico focusgroup anglosajón. Dicha confusión es analizada con el fin de establecer las relaciones existentes entre ambas técnicas y las posibles diferencias que las distingue y opone entre sí. El resultado del análisis lleva a concebir al grupo de (...) discusión cómo una técnica necesitada del focusgoup y, a la vez, establecer en dicha necesidad un motivo para indagar en la parte sustantiva de la dinámica grupal que caracteriza a esta técnica.This articleanalyses the tendency to understand the technique of discussiongroup asa less directivefocus group. This simplifying idea is confusing and is criticized with the objective to know the motives that hold together both techniques. The analysis established the dependent relationship between discussiongroup and focus group, as well as finding in this dependence the reason to understand the discussiongroup as a group dynamics totally different to the focus group. (shrink)
This paper offers a comparison between the aristocratic radicalism of Nietzsche and that of the Colombian philosopher, Nicolás Gómez Dávila, in order to point out their points of contact and their differences. This leads to the analysis of the uneven reception of their ideas, which at the same time ..
The foundations of Statistical Mechanics can be recovered almost in their entirety from the principle of maximum entropy. In this work we show that its non-equilibrium generalization, the principle of maximum caliber (Jaynes, Phys Rev 106:620–630, 1957), when applied to the unknown trajectory followed by a particle, leads to Newton’s second law under two quite intuitive assumptions (both the expected square displacement in one step and the spatial probability distribution of the particle are known at all times). Our derivation explicitly (...) highlights the role of mass as an emergent measure of the fluctuations in velocity (inertia) and the origin of potential energy as a manifestation of spatial correlations. According to our findings, the application of Newton’s equations is not limited to mechanical systems, and therefore could be used in modelling ecological, financial and biological systems, among others. (shrink)
We review and discuss A. H. Louie’s book “More than Life Itself: A Reflexion on Formal Systems and Biology” from an interdisciplinary viewpoint, involving both biology and mathematics, taking into account new developments and related theories.
Dentro de toda la obra de Vico subyace -a pesar de su tensión con Descartes y de sus pretensiones jurídicas y filológicas- una vigorosa preocupación por lo humano. Esta preocupación recorre desde la tesis del conocer por causas de la ciencia hasta la afirmación de la comprensión como forma específica del conocimiento histórico.In the whole work of Vico can be found -despite his tension with Descartes and his juridical and philological intentions- a strong concern for humanity. This concern is visible (...) from the thesis of scientific knowledge by causes to the statement of comprehension as the specific method of historical knowledge. (shrink)
Resumen: El presente artículo tiene por objetivo la reconstrucción del argumento dominador atribuido a Diodoro Crono y su revisión filosófica a la luz de la crítica aristotélica al actualismo extremo de la Escuela de Mégara en Metafísica IX, 3. Desde esta perspectiva, el trabajo aspira a situar el proyecto teórico de Diodoro en el marco de su disputa filosófica con la metafísica aristotélica y su concepto de δύναµις, con el fin de traducir esta querella dialéctica en lo que, a nuestro (...) juicio, constituye una disputa teórica de importantes consecuencias prácticas: la disyunción excluyente entre el azar y el destino como paradigmas de interpretación conceptual y de acción moral.: This paper aims to reconstruct and analyze the Master Argument attributed to Diodorus Chronus under the perspective of Aristotle's criticism of extreme actualism in Metaphysics IX. 3. From this point of view, the paper locates Diodorus' theoretical project within the framework of his philosophical dispute with Aristotle's metaphysics and the Aristotelian concept of δύναµις, trying to show that what really lies behind this dialectical confrontation is a theoretical problem of important practical consequences: the excluding disjunction between chance and destiny as paradigms of conceptual interpretation and moral action. (shrink)
Ya la ironía socrática dijo que la filosofía no progresaba porque se ocupaba siempre de los mismos asuntos; el saber filosófico, asediado por la cuestión de su legitimidad, muestra su capacidad regenerativa volviendo siempre sobre sus fundamentos histórico-conceptuales. De ahí que quien intente defi..
La figura del payaso ha pasado por diferentes momentos y lecturas históricas, lo que permite considerarla como una figura arquetípica. Su papel en la sociedad históricamente fue el del ridículo, objeto de risas, pero el payaso no sólo es un ser congruente, auténtico y valiente, sino que también pued..
As Freud convincingly shows, civilised political life is a source of constant uneasiness. Desire propels the subject towards an end that remains unfulfilled and pleasure is reduced to a transition from one moment of displeasure to another. Freud conceives pleasure as suppression of an absence, as the result of a process. Marcuse in his turn showed that excessive pleasure works as a counterbalance for displeasure, the repression of sexual impulse and the hypertrophy of the genitalia producing intense pleasure. A post-Freudian (...) theory of pleasure would complement Marcuse’s materialist critique of psychoanalysis by learning to conceive pure pleasure (with Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics) in a non-metaphysical way, segregated from the notion of superfluity. (shrink)
There are important cases where properties not referred to by expressions from the languages of physics are enabled in certain times and circumstances to get causal control over some kinds of physical events. I will argue that in those cases we would have to transfer to those properties the causal sufficiency to bring about these events. This would offer a principle of causal inheritance in sharp contrast with the inheritance principle for the causal sufficiency of second order properties defended by (...) Jaegwon Kim in his recent discussion of the causal exclusion problem concerning mental properties. The two principles would be very different. Their domains of application would be distinct. Kim's principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "concrete" physical properties able to realize mental properties understood as second order properties. Our principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "general" properties able to cause the relevant physical effects in the times and circumstances in question. That way, it would be possible to give a quite simple answer to the problem of causal exclusion posed by Kim in relation to mental properties. Our approach also would have very important consequences in relation to ordinary macrophysical causation. (shrink)
La música puede afectar al individuo en todos sus niveles –físico, mental y espiritual–. El presente artículo se centra en el papel que ésta desempeña en el desarrollo de la vida espiritual y trascendental. Para ello, realizaremos un repaso histórico de su evolución estética y social, abordaremos dicho fenómeno a nivel fisiológico y presentaremos sus aplicaciones clínicas y sociales. Seguidamente y a modo de ejemplo de las concepciones de pensamiento occidental y oriental, trataremos la forma en que el cristianismo y (...) el budismo conciben la música dentro de su doctrina. Finalizaremos con algunas reflexiones sobre el tema. (shrink)
By simply watching news channels, visiting the internet, even watching diverse films, my observations led me to conclude that in today’s globalized world, different forms of subjective violence – or a kind of violence that has a clear and identifiable agent – are what commonly occupies our attention. However, it is crucial to note that in every form subjective violence, there is an objective background that invisibly sustains and overdetermines it. This objective frame, often imperceptible, contains a systemic and more (...) perilous violence, for it is, in fact, a violence that prolongs and generates the very subjective violence that we are fighting and responding against. Accordingly, I would argue that a reinvention of how we view a truly ethical act should necessitate itself in today’s globalized world. My claim is that the challenge for a truly globalized ethics is that it is not enough to simply respond to these different forms of subjective violence. Instead, what is more gripping to consider is to shamelessly question the objective violence upon which these different forms of subjective violence are inherent, reacting against, and being sustained in the first place – i.e. the inherent violence produced by the predominance of global capitalism. (shrink)
Se analiza en este estudio, las implicaciones que para el campo de la ética filosófica comporta el desarrollo de algunas de las investigaciones científicas en el campo de las neurociencias. El organismo humano nunca disocia de manera tajante la razón práctica de la teórica y, por tanto, las dimensio..